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Solids, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 7 articles

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Article
Heat Capacities of Nanostructured Wurtzite and Rock Salt ZnO: Challenges of ZnO Nano-Phase Diagram
Solids 2021, 2(1), 121-128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010007 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Low-temperature heat capacities (Cp) of nanostructured rock salt (rs-ZnO) and wurtzite (w-ZnO) polymorphs of zinc oxide were measured in the 2–315 K temperature range. No significant influence of nanostructuring on Cp of w-ZnO has been observed. The measured C [...] Read more.
Low-temperature heat capacities (Cp) of nanostructured rock salt (rs-ZnO) and wurtzite (w-ZnO) polymorphs of zinc oxide were measured in the 2–315 K temperature range. No significant influence of nanostructuring on Cp of w-ZnO has been observed. The measured Cp of rock salt ZnO is lower than that of wurtzite ZnO below 100 K and is higher above this temperature. Using available thermodynamic data, we established that the equilibrium pressure between nanocrystalline w-ZnO and rs-ZnO is close to 4.6 GPa at 300 K (half as much as the onset pressure of direct phase transformation) and slightly changes with temperature up to 1000 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Use of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) for Characterizing Interfacial Interactions in Filled Polymers
Solids 2021, 2(1), 108-120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010006 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) provides reliable information about the viscoelastic behavior of neat and filled polymers. The properties of filled polymers are relevant to different industries as protective organic coatings, composites etc. Interfacial interactions in filled polymers play an important role in determining [...] Read more.
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) provides reliable information about the viscoelastic behavior of neat and filled polymers. The properties of filled polymers are relevant to different industries as protective organic coatings, composites etc. Interfacial interactions in filled polymers play an important role in determining their bulk properties and performance during service life. In this brief review article, studies that used DMA to characterize the interfacial interactions in filled polymers have been reviewed. The available open literature provides a mixed opinion about the influence of interfacial interactions on the glass transition temperature of filled polymers. Nevertheless, it appears that in the case of strong interfacial interactions between the filler particles and the polymeric matrix, the peak value of tan δ is reduced in comparison to that of a filled polymer where these interactions are weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Thermal Expansion Behavior in the A2M3O12 Family of Materials
Solids 2021, 2(1), 87-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010005 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
Over the past several decades, research on anomalous thermal expansion materials has been rapidly growing, and increasing numbers of compounds exhibiting negative thermal expansion (NTE) have been reported. In particular, compounds with formula A2M3O12 have attracted considerable attention. [...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, research on anomalous thermal expansion materials has been rapidly growing, and increasing numbers of compounds exhibiting negative thermal expansion (NTE) have been reported. In particular, compounds with formula A2M3O12 have attracted considerable attention. A2M3O12 family materials offer a wide range of possible compositions due to the chemical flexibility of the A and M sites. According to published research, more than half of them possess NTE properties. This paper reviews the range of physical properties displayed by materials in the A2M3O12 family. Research on improving material imperfections and controlling the coefficient of thermal expansion in the A2M3O12 family are systematically summarized. Finally, challenges and questions about the developments of these A2M3O12 NTE compounds in future studies are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
Ce-Doped-MgAl Superhydrophobic Layered Double Hydroxide for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance Properties
Solids 2021, 2(1), 76-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010004 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Double doped layered double hydroxide thin films were developed directly on the aluminum substrate in two steps: Initially cerium-based MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) were synthesized directly on the anodic aluminum surface via the in situ growth method, and were then modified with the [...] Read more.
Double doped layered double hydroxide thin films were developed directly on the aluminum substrate in two steps: Initially cerium-based MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) were synthesized directly on the anodic aluminum surface via the in situ growth method, and were then modified with the stearate anions through an ion-exchange mechanism to achieve compact multifunctional protective thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of the developed LDH films were investigated, and the surface contact angle measurements (CA) and self-cleaning properties were analyzed. The obtained double doped LDH film displayed the superhydrophobic characteristic with a water contact angle of ~155°. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic behavior of LDH on exposure to UV radiation (λ = 310 nm) was examined to evaluate outdoor applications. Long-term Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was performed to understand the corrosion resistance properties. The introduction of double doped LDHs demonstrates significantly higher corrosion resistance properties than only cerium-modified LDHs and has shown superior stability against 0.1 M NaCl solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Solid Dispersions of Anthelmintics and Plant Protection Preparations
Solids 2021, 2(1), 60-75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010003 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Because of the rapid development of nanotechnologies, materials, in particular, solid dispersions (SDs), which are actively introduced into the life of modern man, have been obtained. Special progress in this area is observed in industry and medicine. The use of SDs in agriculture [...] Read more.
Because of the rapid development of nanotechnologies, materials, in particular, solid dispersions (SDs), which are actively introduced into the life of modern man, have been obtained. Special progress in this area is observed in industry and medicine. The use of SDs in agriculture is lagging far behind, despite the growing number of scientific papers on this topic. At the same time, the prospects for the introduction of SDs in the agro-industrial complex are obvious. The review presents the results of research on the development of innovative preparations based on SD to protect plants from diseases and pests of cultivated plants, as well as parasiticides to protect animal health based on modern achievements of nanotechnology. One of these technologies is the methods of mechanochemistry, which improve the properties of poorly soluble biologically active substances by their joint mechanical treatment with water-soluble polymers and auxiliary substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
Towards Recognition of Scale Effects in a Solid Model of Lattices with Tensegrity-Inspired Microstructure
Solids 2021, 2(1), 50-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010002 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
This paper is dedicated to the extended solid (continuum) model of tensegrity structures or lattices. Tensegrity is defined as a pin-joined truss structure with an infinitesimal mechanism stabilized by a set of self-equilibrated normal forces. The proposed model is inspired by the continuum [...] Read more.
This paper is dedicated to the extended solid (continuum) model of tensegrity structures or lattices. Tensegrity is defined as a pin-joined truss structure with an infinitesimal mechanism stabilized by a set of self-equilibrated normal forces. The proposed model is inspired by the continuum model that matches the first gradient theory of elasticity. The extension leads to the second- or higher-order gradient formulation. General description is supplemented with examples in 2D and 3D spaces. A detailed form of material coefficients related to the first and second deformation gradients is presented. Substitute mechanical properties of the lattice are dependent on the cable-to-strut stiffness ratio and self-stress. Scale effect as well as coupling of the first and second gradient terms are identified. The extended solid model can be used for the evaluation of unusual mechanical properties of tensegrity lattices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Composition, Thermal Expansion and Phase Transitions in Framework Silicates: Revisitation and Review of Natural and Synthetic Analogues of Nepheline-, Feldspar- and Leucite-Mineral Groups
Solids 2021, 2(1), 1-49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solids2010001 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Framework silicates form about 70% of the Earth’s crust, mainly feldspars ~50–60% and quartz ~10–15%. Less-abundant feldspathoids include nepheline-, leucite-, and sodalite-group minerals, rich in structurally challenging properties. This review paper deals with anhydrous feldspar-, nepheline-, and leucite/pollucite groups, emphasising the importance of [...] Read more.
Framework silicates form about 70% of the Earth’s crust, mainly feldspars ~50–60% and quartz ~10–15%. Less-abundant feldspathoids include nepheline-, leucite-, and sodalite-group minerals, rich in structurally challenging properties. This review paper deals with anhydrous feldspar-, nepheline-, and leucite/pollucite groups, emphasising the importance of parallel studies on natural and synthetic samples. Four topics are covered. For decades, petrologists have analysed nephelines and recalculated their compositions as endmember molecules but, by not following rules of stuffed-tridymite crystal chemistry, have not estimated reliably the excess SiO2 present in solid solution. Some materials scientists make similar mistakes, and a new approach is described here. Synthesis studies of analogue feldspars, nephelines, and leucite/pollucites led to collaborative studies, mainly using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction methods at room and elevated temperatures, to study thermal expansion and displacive phase transitions. Such work was recently expanded to address the spontaneous strain relations. Topics covered here include work on nepheline/kalsilite analogues in the system SrAl2O4—BaAl2O4; thermal expansion of (K,Na)Al-, RbAl-, RbGa-, and SrAl-feldspars; and thermal expansion and phase transitions in analogue leucites KGaSi2O6 (tetragonal to cubic) and K2MgSi5O12 (monoclinic to orthorhombic). Results are reviewed in the context of research published in mineralogical and more-widely in physical sciences journals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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