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Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Mechanisms of Retinal Infection and Experimental Models

1
Department of Translational Research, School of Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Disease Sapienza University, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Geoff Hide
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and affects many individuals throughout the world. Infection may occur through congenital or acquired routes. The parasites enter the blood circulation and reach both the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, where they may cause cell damage and cell death. Different routes of access are used by T. gondii to reach the retina through the retinal endothelium: by transmission inside leukocytes, as free parasites through a paracellular route, or after endothelial cell infection. A main feature of OT is the induction of an important inflammatory state, and the course of infection has been shown to be influenced by the host immunogenetics. On the other hand, there is evidence that the T. gondii phenotype also has an impact on the distribution of the pathology in different areas. Although considerable knowledge has been acquired on OT, a deeper knowledge of its mechanisms is necessary to provide new, more targeted treatment strategies. In particular, in addition to in vitro and in vivo experimental models, organotypic, ex vivo retinal explants may be useful in this direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: retina; inflammation; retinal infection; retinal models retina; inflammation; retinal infection; retinal models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez Fernandez, V.; Casini, G.; Bruschi, F. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Mechanisms of Retinal Infection and Experimental Models. Parasitologia 2021, 1, 50-60. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020007

AMA Style

Rodriguez Fernandez V, Casini G, Bruschi F. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Mechanisms of Retinal Infection and Experimental Models. Parasitologia. 2021; 1(2):50-60. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodriguez Fernandez, Veronica, Giovanni Casini, and Fabrizio Bruschi. 2021. "Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Mechanisms of Retinal Infection and Experimental Models" Parasitologia 1, no. 2: 50-60. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020007

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