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Article

Transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Mifi Health District (West Region, Cameroon): Low Endemicity but Still Prevailing Risk

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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, Bambili P.O. Box 39, Cameroon
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Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaounde P.O. Box 5797, Cameroon
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christina Strube
Received: 10 May 2021 / Revised: 20 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
The control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon is focused on large-scale deworming through annual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole or mebendazole to at-risk groups, principally pre-school and school-age children. After a decade of intervention, prevalence and intensity of infection have been significantly lowered, encouraging the paradigm shift from control to elimination. However, STH eggs are extremely resistant to environmental stressors and may survive for years in soils. It therefore appeared important to assess whether the risk of transmission was still prevailing, especially in a context where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths in the human population had almost been interrupted. A retrospective and a prospective cross-sectional surveys were conducted in five Health Areas of the Mifi Health District (West Region, Cameroon) to: (i) assess the trends in infestation rates over three-years (2018–2020) using health facility registers, and (ii) investigate, in 2020, the contamination rates of the environment by dissemination stages of soil-transmitted helminths using the sucrose centrifugal flotation method. The overall soil-transmitted helminth infestation rate was 4.9% (95% CI: 4.3–5.6), significantly lower than the overall soil contamination rate (12.0%; 95% CI: 8.2–17.2). These results are supportive of the low endemicity level of STHs in the Mifi Health District, but environmental pollution by dissemination stages of the parasites outlines that the risk of transmission is still persistent. It therefore appears compulsory to account for the environment when considering policy/recommendations for transmission interruption and stopping MDA, as it is in the case with vector-borne diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil transmitted helminthiasis; transmission; persistence; Mifi Health District; Cameroon soil transmitted helminthiasis; transmission; persistence; Mifi Health District; Cameroon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sumo, L.; Otiobo Atibita, E.N.; Mache, E.; Gangue, T.; Nana-Djeunga, H.C. Transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Mifi Health District (West Region, Cameroon): Low Endemicity but Still Prevailing Risk. Parasitologia 2021, 1, 95-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1030011

AMA Style

Sumo L, Otiobo Atibita EN, Mache E, Gangue T, Nana-Djeunga HC. Transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Mifi Health District (West Region, Cameroon): Low Endemicity but Still Prevailing Risk. Parasitologia. 2021; 1(3):95-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1030011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sumo, Laurentine, Esther N. Otiobo Atibita, Eveline Mache, Tiburce Gangue, and Hugues C. Nana-Djeunga 2021. "Transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Mifi Health District (West Region, Cameroon): Low Endemicity but Still Prevailing Risk" Parasitologia 1, no. 3: 95-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1030011

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