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Volume 1, June

Adolescents, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

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Article
Childhood Adversity, Impulsivity, and HIV Knowledge as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in At-Risk Female Youth
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 56-69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010006 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Sexual risk behavior in adolescence can lead to adverse health consequences, particularly for female youth. Most interventions focus on imparting knowledge about the consequences of such behaviors, even though little research has examined whether increasing such knowledge results in desired behavioral changes. Further, [...] Read more.
Sexual risk behavior in adolescence can lead to adverse health consequences, particularly for female youth. Most interventions focus on imparting knowledge about the consequences of such behaviors, even though little research has examined whether increasing such knowledge results in desired behavioral changes. Further, individual factors such as impulsivity and childhood adversity might moderate this relationship. We examined associations between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior and condom use efficacy in a sample of 122 at-risk females, aged 13–18. HIV knowledge was unrelated to sexual risk behavior, but positively related to condom use efficacy. Impulsivity and childhood adversity had direct effects, with no interaction effects. Increasing HIV knowledge may play an important role in promoting proximal predictors of safer sex practices. Full article
Editorial
Adolescents—A New Open Access Journal
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 54-55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010005 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
It is our pleasure to introduce the new open access journal: Adolescents (ISSN 2673-7051) [...] Full article
Article
More Than Meets the Eye: How Black and Minority Ethnic Care-Leavers Construct and Make Sense of Their Identity
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 36-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010004 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Looked-after children are exposed to significant developmental trauma which may impact their identity development. Discourses of vulnerability and maladaptation often surround this group, while care-leavers often self-identify as survivors. The role of culture in identity formation is also well documented, and cultural socialisation [...] Read more.
Looked-after children are exposed to significant developmental trauma which may impact their identity development. Discourses of vulnerability and maladaptation often surround this group, while care-leavers often self-identify as survivors. The role of culture in identity formation is also well documented, and cultural socialisation is linked to psychological adjustment and wellbeing. Despite this, little research has explored identity development in black and minority ethnic (BAME) care-leavers. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is used to analyse eight semi-structured interviews with BAME care-leavers about their experience of identity development. Three superordinate themes were developed: My journey—how I became me; Identity as a process—the processes that support identity development; and who am I—how I see myself now. Participants’ identity development was adaptive in the context of surviving significant disruption and trauma. Findings are discussed with reference to previous research and limitations are considered. Clinical implications include the need to address additional barriers to positive self-identity faced by BAME care leavers, the importance of acknowledging care-leaver identity as adaptive and embodying a trauma-informed approach to working with this group. Further research into how care-leavers experience their cultural identity is needed. Full article
Article
My Health Diary, a School-Based Well-Being Program: A Randomized Controlled Study
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 21-35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010003 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Background: A positive transition to adulthood entails developing the individual and social skills needed to cope with critical situations. The “My Health Diary” program was designed as a school-based and teacher-led intervention focusing on the active engagement of 12- to 13-year-old pre-adolescents. The [...] Read more.
Background: A positive transition to adulthood entails developing the individual and social skills needed to cope with critical situations. The “My Health Diary” program was designed as a school-based and teacher-led intervention focusing on the active engagement of 12- to 13-year-old pre-adolescents. The study analyzes the role of several primary variables (psychological well-being, psychosomatic symptoms, health status), secondary variables (health-risk behaviors, prosocial behavior, academic success, physical and verbal aggression), and mediator variables of emotional and social skills in terms of empathic and social self-efficacy, and satisfaction with school. Methods: Sixty schools were involved, divided into control groups (N = 29) and intervention groups (N = 31). The program was administered only to the intervention group. Of the 2306 students at the baseline, 2078 were still involved at post-intervention 6 months later. Results: The program was not found to have significant effects on the primary outcome variables and most of the secondary variables. For the mediators, however, the association was stronger for the girls in the intervention group, and there was a statistically significant difference in the empathic skills shown by girls, who reported higher levels than boys. Conclusions: The program was found to have encouraging effects on some mediators and in enhancing socio-relational and emotional skills among pre-adolescents. Full article
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Article
Reported Changes in Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning during the COVID-19 Outbreak
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 10-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010002 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
What effect the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had on adolescents’ psychosocial functioning is currently unknown. Using the data of 1767 (50.2% female and 49.8 male) adolescents in Sweden, we discuss adolescents’ thoughts and behaviors around the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as [...] Read more.
What effect the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had on adolescents’ psychosocial functioning is currently unknown. Using the data of 1767 (50.2% female and 49.8 male) adolescents in Sweden, we discuss adolescents’ thoughts and behaviors around the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as reported changes in substance use, everyday life, relations, victimization, and mental health during the outbreak. Results showed that (a) the majority of adolescents have been complying with regulations from the government; (b) although most adolescents did not report changes in their psychosocial functioning, a critical number reported more substance use, conflict with parents, less time spent with peers, and poorer control over their everyday life; and (c) the majority of adolescents have experienced less victimization, yet poorer mental health, during the COVID-19 outbreak. Adolescent girls and adolescents in distance schooling were likely to report negative changes in their psychosocial functioning during the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on these findings, we suggest that society should pay close attention to changes in adolescents’ psychosocial functioning during times of crisis. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adolescents Accessing a General Emergency Medical Department for Mental Disorders
Adolescents 2021, 1(1), 1-9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/adolescents1010001 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Background: Given the paucity of data concerning the care of adolescents attending an emergency department (ED) for mental disorders, we performed an observational study with the aim to describe psychotropic drug use in an Italian ED. Methods: A retrospective chart review of adolescents [...] Read more.
Background: Given the paucity of data concerning the care of adolescents attending an emergency department (ED) for mental disorders, we performed an observational study with the aim to describe psychotropic drug use in an Italian ED. Methods: A retrospective chart review of adolescents (13–17 years) visited in the ED of the San Paolo University Hospital in Milan for mental disorders between January and June 2018 was conducted. Information concerning age, gender, type of disorder, psychotropic drug use in the ED and outcome of the visit were analyzed, using an anonymous patient code. Results: A total of 1298 adolescents, 13–17 years old, were visited in the ED, 56 (4%) of whom had a diagnosis of mental disorder (34 females and 22 males). The most common disorder was anxiety (21 patients), followed by predominant psychomotor disorder (13 patients). In all, 30 adolescents received a psychotropic drug. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly used drugs (73% of the subjects), and delorazepam was administered/prescribed to 17 adolescents, despite the fact that evidence on its safety, efficacy, and its off-label use in the pediatric population is lacking. Conclusions: One out of two adolescents attending the ED for an acute episode of mental disorder received a psychotropic drug prescription, mainly in an off-label manner. More evidence is needed to guide the pharmacological management of acute episodes of mental disorders. Full article
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