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Conservation, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 8 articles

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Article
Indigenous Freshwater Ichthyofauna in the Dhanu River and Surrounding Wetlands of Bangladesh: Species Diversity, Availability, and Conservation Perspectives
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 241-257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030019 (registering DOI) - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
A checklist of the native fishes of the Dhanu River and adjacent waters at Mithamain Upazila under the Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh is prepared with details on their availability, conservation status, habitat preferences, population trends, and threats. Data were collected monthly by field [...] Read more.
A checklist of the native fishes of the Dhanu River and adjacent waters at Mithamain Upazila under the Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh is prepared with details on their availability, conservation status, habitat preferences, population trends, and threats. Data were collected monthly by field survey, focus group discussions, and personal interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a pictorial check list of fish species. A total of 91 indigenous fish species of 59 genera belonging to 29 families under 11 orders were documented where 17.6%, 27.5%, 31.9%, and 23.1% species were abundantly available, commonly available, moderately available, and rarely available, respectively. Among those, 24 fish species (26.4%) were under the threatened category (3 critically endangered, 11 endangered, and 10 vulnerable) according to the IUCN Bangladesh. Notably, the globally threatened Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa orientalis, and Wallago attu were available in the study area. Fish population trends of 24.2% and 59.3% of the entire fish species were found in decreasing trends at the global and national level, respectively. The leading threats to the fish diversity were indiscriminate overfishing followed by fishing by dewatering of wetlands, the katha fishing method, the use of deprecated fishing gears, etc. Minimizing anthropogenic impacts, enacting fishing laws, installing and managing fish sanctuaries, and raising public awareness can be effective for the conservation of existing fisheries resources. Full article
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Article
DNA Barcoding for Scorpion Species from New Valley Governorate in Egypt Reveals Different Degrees of Cryptic Speciation and Species Misnaming
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 228-240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030018 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
(1) Background: Scorpions (Arthropoda: Arachnida) represent a diverse group of invertebrates, accounting for a significant proportion of earth’s predators and ecosystems’ modulators. Surviving mostly in hardly reachable nests, and representing key hazards to human health, they attracted major interest for characterizing their eco-, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Scorpions (Arthropoda: Arachnida) represent a diverse group of invertebrates, accounting for a significant proportion of earth’s predators and ecosystems’ modulators. Surviving mostly in hardly reachable nests, and representing key hazards to human health, they attracted major interest for characterizing their eco-, morpho-, and genotypes. (2) Methods: Four scorpion species were collected from the New Valley governorate in Upper Egypt, where a high level of scorpionism and related neurological symptoms are found, that were Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus amoreuxi, Orthochirus innesi, Buthacus leptochelys. They were DNA barcoded, genetically and phylogenetically analyzed through PCR amplification and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene hypervariable 5′ region. (3) Results: New, morphologically authenticated scorpion barcodes could be added to the barcoding databases. However, several discrepancies and barcode database inadequacies could be revealed. Moreover, taxon-specific patterns for nitrogenous bases’ distribution could be identified, resulting in a significantly high percentage of COI barcode guanine in scorpionids, in comparison to araneids and opilions. (4) Conclusions: For a group of animals where both cryptic speciation and a high risk of human envenomation are evident, the findings of the current study strongly recommend continuous and comprehensive research efforts dealing with morphogenetic authentication for different species of scorpions. Full article
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Article
Urbanization and Vulnerability of Architectural Heritage: The Case of Dar es Salaam CBD
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 216-227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030017 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The architectural heritage present in Dar es Salaam Central Business District (CBD) spans across Arab, German, British, and post-colonial eras. The city is rich in buildings with combined architectural styles. Over the past few decades, Dar es Salaam has been experiencing considerable pressure [...] Read more.
The architectural heritage present in Dar es Salaam Central Business District (CBD) spans across Arab, German, British, and post-colonial eras. The city is rich in buildings with combined architectural styles. Over the past few decades, Dar es Salaam has been experiencing considerable pressure from urbanization. This has resulted in a boom of contemporary construction approaches, yet little concern has been given to the existing old buildings and historical fabric in general. Although urbanization is an unstoppable reality due to the forces it carries with it, it is necessary to find ways to strike a balance between urbanization and its impact on the original urban setting which is less explored in Dar es Salaam. This study investigated the relationship between urbanization and architectural heritage with the intention to balance the two, and set to answer questions about how the two can co-exist. Through a case study approach, changes such as physical transformation, elimination, and replacement of architectural heritage buildings were investigated and analyzed through maps, graphs, and charts. The results have indicated that the driving forces of urbanization such as population, policies, and economy have been influencing each other in physical transformation and demolition of architectural heritage buildings throughout the period between 1967 and 2020. The study suggests that activities such as ecotourism which will enhance social economic benefits should be promoted to support both the urbanization process and architectural heritage conservation. Full article
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Article
Predicting People’s Motivation to Engage in Urban Possum Control
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 196-215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030016 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Initiatives such as education, incentives, and regulations are used to change people’s behaviour and thereby achieve policy objectives. Understanding and predicting the willingness of people to change their behaviour in response to an initiative is critical in assessing its likely effectiveness. We present [...] Read more.
Initiatives such as education, incentives, and regulations are used to change people’s behaviour and thereby achieve policy objectives. Understanding and predicting the willingness of people to change their behaviour in response to an initiative is critical in assessing its likely effectiveness. We present a framework proposed by Kaine et al. (2010) for understanding and predicting the motivation of people to change their behaviour in response to a policy initiative. The framework draws on the marketing concept of ‘involvement’, a measure of motivation. Through application to a predator control case study, we show how the framework may be used to predict people’s responses to a policy initiative and how these predictions might help agencies develop strategies to promote behaviour change. Full article
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Article
Sustainability of Wetlands in the Eyes of the New Generation of Environmental Engineering Students
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 182-195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030015 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
This research paper investigates the general understanding and skills of young third-year environmental engineering students concerning the criteria for monitoring wetlands. Students were asked to describe approaches, data, and final solutions to identify and/or eliminate wetland odor. Over half of the students (55%) [...] Read more.
This research paper investigates the general understanding and skills of young third-year environmental engineering students concerning the criteria for monitoring wetlands. Students were asked to describe approaches, data, and final solutions to identify and/or eliminate wetland odor. Over half of the students (55%) did not consider the “identification” strategy by which to determine the source of unexpected odors. The rest gave answers focused on “restoration” (24%) and “prevention” (15%) strategies, while 6% of the answers were unrelated. In fact, without knowing the causes and without thinking about the necessity/importance of visiting/surveying the site, students came up with a priori solutions. In their mind, the immediate cause of the odor could be a disturbed or unbalanced distribution/composition of ions, salts, or microbes in the water. Indeed, most data types (71%) were those related to “water”. As the final solution, 50% of responses considered “physical” followed by “legal and planning” solutions (32%). Each factor, including “Chemical” and “Biological”, constituted 9% of the answers. This research highlights engineering students’ communication skills, critical thinking and problem-solving abilities by contemplating class activities that simulate real-world situations. The research presumes that these engineering student cohorts represent typical student communities worldwide. Such findings contribute to policymaking in the engineering education system on a larger scale. Full article
Article
Effects of Land-Related Policies on Deforestation in a Protected Area: The Case Study of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 168-181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030014 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
In protected areas (PAs) in Bangladesh, as policies shift from net deforestation, conservation initiatives and various management plans have been implemented to reduce deforestation and include public participation at multiple levels. However, the interactive effect of land-related policies on deforestation in PAs is [...] Read more.
In protected areas (PAs) in Bangladesh, as policies shift from net deforestation, conservation initiatives and various management plans have been implemented to reduce deforestation and include public participation at multiple levels. However, the interactive effect of land-related policies on deforestation in PAs is poorly understood. In this study, land-use change analysis using geographic information system data was performed to investigate how policies affected land use and land cover change in Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS), particularly the National Forest Policy (1979~), National Land Policy (2001~), and Agricultural Land Policy (1999~), using a series of Landsat images captured at different times. Our analyses showed that the total forest area increased in the 1994–2005 period when a plantation program was implemented, and also that many forest areas were replaced with noncommercial agricultural land areas in the 2005–2013 and 2013–2018 periods, when land zoning and co-management programs were implemented under different land-related policies. Commercial and non-commercial agricultural land expansions were the main drivers of deforestation, suggesting that several programs under the different land-related policies could have had synergetic effects on deforestation even in PAs. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering the undesirable effects of land-related policies in Pas, and the need to support the community for forest conservation. Full article
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Article
Anaerobic Mineralization of Recirculating Aquaculture Drum Screen Effluent for Use as a Naturally-Derived Nutrient Solution in Hydroponic Cropping Systems
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 151-167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030013 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Operation and effluent treatment costs are limiting factors for the success of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in meeting seafood demand in the United States. Adopting a capture-and-reuse waste management model similar to terrestrial agriculture farmers would allow RAS farmers to monetize effluent and [...] Read more.
Operation and effluent treatment costs are limiting factors for the success of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in meeting seafood demand in the United States. Adopting a capture-and-reuse waste management model similar to terrestrial agriculture farmers would allow RAS farmers to monetize effluent and offset production costs. The moisture content and nutrient profile of RAS effluent makes it a potential option for use as a hydroponic fertilizer. Treatment of RAS waste is needed to mineralize particulate-bound nutrients before becoming a viable hydroponic nutrient solution. Anaerobic treatment (AT), a method used by municipal and agricultural waste treatment facilities to reduce total solids, has been shown to successfully mineralize particulate-bound nutrients from RAS effluent. Continuously mixed anaerobic batch bioreactors were used to evaluate the degree to which AT may mineralize particulate-bound nutrients in solid RAS waste. Concentrations of twelve different macro- and micro-nutrients were analyzed in the waste before and after treatment. Effluent samples were analyzed to determine the fraction of each nutrient in the solid and aqueous forms. This study showed that AT is an effective method to mineralize particulate-bound nutrients in RAS effluent and the mineralization rate data may be used to design a pilot-scaled flow-through RAS effluent treatment system. Full article
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Article
Deposition of Potentially Toxic Metals in the Soil from Surrounding Cement Plants in a Karst Area of Southeastern Brazil
Conservation 2021, 1(3), 137-150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/conservation1030012 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Cement factories are the main sources of environmental pollutants among the different industrial activities, including soil contamination by potentially toxic metals. The karst region of Southeastern Brazil is known for the implementation of large cement producing facilities. This study aims to evaluate whether [...] Read more.
Cement factories are the main sources of environmental pollutants among the different industrial activities, including soil contamination by potentially toxic metals. The karst region of Southeastern Brazil is known for the implementation of large cement producing facilities. This study aims to evaluate whether there is an increase in the concentration of PTM in the soil surrounding the cement plants and to estimate their harmfulness to both local human population and environment. In total, 18 soil samples were collected from the surroundings of three cement plants as well as four soil samples from areas outside the influence of cement plants and concentration of the following potentially toxic metals (PTM) were estimated: Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The results revealed that all PTM concentrations from cement plant surroundings were significantly higher than PTM concentrations from control areas and no PTM concentrations from CPS or CA soil samples exceeded national and global contamination thresholds. However, Igeo Index indicated low level soil contamination by Pb, Cu, and Cr, as well as high levels for Co. We could not verify significant non-carcinogenic risk to health for any soil sample, but carcinogenic risk analysis revealed different levels of carcinogenic risk among the sampled locations, for both adults and children. Our results indicate that exclusively evaluating the concentration of potentially toxic metals is not enough to verify the potential harmful effects of cement production for the surrounding population. Here we evidence that additional indices, based on both contamination indices and health risk assessments, should be considered for better evaluation of the impacts of cement production activity. Full article
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