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Article

Electrospun Fe3O4-PVDF Nanofiber Composite Mats for Cryogenic Magnetic Sensor Applications

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76207, USA
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Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76207, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Raul Fangueiro and Luciano Tarricone
Received: 22 May 2021 / Revised: 17 June 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Magnetically responsive, mechanically stable and highly flexible iron (III) oxide-polyvinylidene fluoride (Fe3O4-PVDF) piezoelectric composite fiber mats were fabricated via one step electrospinning method for magnetic sensing at cryogenic temperature. The properties of Fe3O4-PVDF composite fiber mats were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, d33 and magnetization test. The fiber diameter decreased as the concentration of Fe3O4 increased. The DSC results suggested a decrease in the crystallinity of the composite fiber mats after adding Fe3O4, and the XRD curves identified that the decrease in crystallinity took place in the β crystalline phases of the fibers. FT-IR results further confirmed the reduction of β phases of the composite fiber mats which dropped the piezoelectric response of the fiber mats by 38% for 5% Fe3O4-PVDF than PVDF fiber but still 400% higher than PVDF pellets. The magnetization test advocated a superparamagnetic state of the fiber at room temperature but a ferromagnetic behavior at a lower temperature. The coercivity values of the mats suggested a homogeneous dispersion of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the PVDF matrix. Young’s modulus (E) of the fibers remained the same before and after the magnetization test, indicating the mechanical stability of the fiber in the range of 5 K to 300 K. Its mechanical stability, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and ferromagnetic at low temperature could open up its application in spintronic devices at cryogenic temperature and cryogenic power electronic devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic sensor; piezoelectric; cryogenic; PVDF; Fe3O4; hysteresis magnetic sensor; piezoelectric; cryogenic; PVDF; Fe3O4; hysteresis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chowdhury, T.; D’Souza, N.; Berman, D. Electrospun Fe3O4-PVDF Nanofiber Composite Mats for Cryogenic Magnetic Sensor Applications. Textiles 2021, 1, 227-238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020011

AMA Style

Chowdhury T, D’Souza N, Berman D. Electrospun Fe3O4-PVDF Nanofiber Composite Mats for Cryogenic Magnetic Sensor Applications. Textiles. 2021; 1(2):227-238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chowdhury, Tonoy, Nandika D’Souza, and Diana Berman. 2021. "Electrospun Fe3O4-PVDF Nanofiber Composite Mats for Cryogenic Magnetic Sensor Applications" Textiles 1, no. 2: 227-238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020011

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