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Textiles, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2021) – 9 articles

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Article
Stretchable Textile Yarn Based on UHF RFID Helical Tag
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 547-557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030029 (registering DOI) - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
In the context of wearable technology, several techniques have been used for the fabrication of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags such as 3D printing, inkjet printing, and even embroidery. In contrast to these methods where the tag is attached to the object by [...] Read more.
In the context of wearable technology, several techniques have been used for the fabrication of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags such as 3D printing, inkjet printing, and even embroidery. In contrast to these methods where the tag is attached to the object by using sewing or simple sticking, the E-Thread® technology is a novel assembling method allowing for the integration of the RFID tag into a textile yarn and thus makes it embeddable into the object at the fabrication stage. The current E-Thread® yarn uses a RFID tag in which the antenna is a straight half-wave dipole that makes the solution vulnerable to mechanical strains (i.e., elongation). In this paper, we propose an alternative to the current RFID yarn solution with the use of an antenna having a helical geometry that answers to the mechanical issues and keeps quite similar electrical and radiative properties with respect to the present solution. The RFID helical tag was designed and simulated taking into consideration the constraints of the manufacturing process. The helical RFID tag was then fabricated using the E-Thread® technology and experimental characterization showed that the obtained structure exhibited good performance with 10.6 m of read range in the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID band and 10% of tolerance in terms of elongation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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Article
Manufacturing and Characterization of Customizable Flexible Carbon Nanotube Fabrics for Smart Wearable Applications
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 534-546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030028 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The integration of carbon nanotube fabric into textiles is paving its way into smart materials and wearable applications. Potential novel applications of carbon nanotube hybrid (CNTH) materials and fabric composites span across a range of market levels from high-level PPE appropriate for military [...] Read more.
The integration of carbon nanotube fabric into textiles is paving its way into smart materials and wearable applications. Potential novel applications of carbon nanotube hybrid (CNTH) materials and fabric composites span across a range of market levels from high-level PPE appropriate for military and industrial applications down to consumer products that can be used in everyday scenarios. The high-level performance properties of CNTH materials and their ability to be customized provide new possibilities for constructing fabrics with properties that are made to order. Furthermore, CNTH in combination with advanced textile compositing and construction methods allows the CNTH material to further leverage material customization aspects to meet specific requirements. The unique synthesis process for nanotube fabric allows for modification of the physical properties of the CNTH itself. The CNTH fabric combined with the customizability of standard textile composite materials and with the use of apparel design features allows for the design of materials with new combinations of physical properties. These unique properties offer high potential for developing families of smart wearable garments that can be scaled for industrial production. This article discusses the synthesis of carbon nanotube hybrid fabric, the process of hybrid fabric and textile integration, properties of the hybrid textile, and potential applications. The paper also provides an outlook towards large scale production of the hybrid textile material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
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Review
A Review on Tough Soft Composites at Different Length Scales
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 513-533; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030027 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Soft composites are widely employed in industrial and biomedical fields, which often serve as load-bearing structural materials by virtue of a special combination of high strength, high toughness, and low flexural stiffness. Understanding the toughening mechanism of such composites is crucial for designing [...] Read more.
Soft composites are widely employed in industrial and biomedical fields, which often serve as load-bearing structural materials by virtue of a special combination of high strength, high toughness, and low flexural stiffness. Understanding the toughening mechanism of such composites is crucial for designing the next-generation soft materials. In this review, we give an overview of recent progress in soft composites, focusing on the design strategy, mechanical properties, toughening mechanisms, and relevant applications. Fundamental design strategies for soft composites that dissipate energy at different length scales are firstly described. By subsequently elucidating the synergistic effects of combining soft and hard phases, we show how a resulting composite can achieve unprecedented mechanical performance by optimizing the energy dissipation. Relevant toughening models are discussed to interpret the superior strength and fracture toughness of such soft composites. We also highlight relevant applications of these soft composites by taking advantage of their special mechanical responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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Article
An Alternative Method to Develop Embroidery Textile Strain Sensors
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 504-512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030026 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 174
Abstract
In this paper, a method to develop embroidered textile strain resistive sensors is presented. The method is based on two overlapped zigzag conductive yarn patterns embroidered in an elastic textile. To demonstrate the functionality of the proposed configuration, a textile sensor embroidered with [...] Read more.
In this paper, a method to develop embroidered textile strain resistive sensors is presented. The method is based on two overlapped zigzag conductive yarn patterns embroidered in an elastic textile. To demonstrate the functionality of the proposed configuration, a textile sensor embroidered with a conductor yarn composed of 99% pure silver-plated nylon yarn 140/17 dtex has been experimentally characterised for an elongation range from 0% to 65%. In order to show the sensor applicability, a second test with the sensor embroidered in a knee-pad has been done to evaluate the flexion knee angle from 180° to 300°. The experimental results show the usefulness of the proposed method to develop fabric strain sensors that can help to manufacture commercial applications on the healthcare sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
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Article
Development of a Consumer-Based Quality Scale for Artisan Textiles: A Study with Scarves/Shawls
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 483-503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030025 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Modern textile consumers are increasingly becoming more watchful of the quality of the textiles that they purchase. This has increased the need for textile producers, especially artisan textile makers (e.g., knitters, tailors, dressmakers, seamstresses, and quilters), to improve the quality of their textile [...] Read more.
Modern textile consumers are increasingly becoming more watchful of the quality of the textiles that they purchase. This has increased the need for textile producers, especially artisan textile makers (e.g., knitters, tailors, dressmakers, seamstresses, and quilters), to improve the quality of their textile products. Information on several analytical tools that are commonly used for assessing the quality of textiles is abundant, but consumer-based tools for evaluating the quality of textiles remain limited. A consumer-based artisan textile-quality scale was developed using data collected from two focus groups (Phase 1) and a consumer quantitative study, n = 196 (Phase 2). Ten scarves and shawls were evaluated in the quantitative study and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the mean textile ratings for all the statements. Coefficient alpha (final raw alpha = 0.87) was also used to assess if the statements were consistent in the way they measured the quality of the textiles. Pearson correlation tests were used to validate the six-statement quality scale that included statements such as overall attention to detail, the fabric is durable, and stitching is even and consistent. Artisan textile makers in the USA can use this scale to better meet the functional needs of their customers. Additionally, the process that was employed in the development of the six-statement quality scale can be used by researchers in other countries to understand better the key quality characteristics of artisan as well other textile products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
Review
Textile Branch and Main Breakthroughs of the Czech Republic in the Field of Textile Machinery: An Illustrated Review
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 466-482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030024 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The main aim of this review is to discuss and explain breakthrough solutions and main improvements in the construction of textile machinery originating in Czech Republic and their influence on processing and quality of textile products. Open-end spinning, jet weft insertion and jet [...] Read more.
The main aim of this review is to discuss and explain breakthrough solutions and main improvements in the construction of textile machinery originating in Czech Republic and their influence on processing and quality of textile products. Open-end spinning, jet weft insertion and jet looms, perpendicularly layered nonwovens and needleless electrospinning machines for manufacturing nanofibrous assemblies and corresponding technologies developed in Czech Republic are briefly discussed and pictorially illustrated. This review is also focused on specifying the different factors responsible for the development of technology and products in textile branches. The human and civilization factors influencing textile production and general requirement for advanced textile products are critically discussed. The unique position of the textile industry in society is demonstrated. The future basic needs that influence textile branch development are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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Review
A Review of Recent Developments in Composites Made of Recycled Carbon Fiber Textiles
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 433-465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030023 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Carbon fiber recycling has garnered significant attention in recent years due to the large volume of manufacturing waste and upcoming end-of-life products that will enter the waste stream as the current generation of aircraft is retired from service. Recycled carbon fibers have been [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber recycling has garnered significant attention in recent years due to the large volume of manufacturing waste and upcoming end-of-life products that will enter the waste stream as the current generation of aircraft is retired from service. Recycled carbon fibers have been shown to retain most of their virgin mechanical properties, but their length is generally reduced such that continuous fiber laminates cannot be remade. As such, these fibers are typically used in low-performance applications including injection molding, extrusion/compression molding, and 3D printing that further degrade the fiber length and resulting composite properties. However, recent advances in the processing of long discontinuous fiber textiles have led to medium- to high-performance composites using recycled carbon fibers. This review paper describes the recent advances in recycled carbon fiber textile processing that have made these improvements possible. The techniques used to manufacture high-value polymer composites reinforced with discontinuous recycled carbon fiber are described. The resulting mechanical and multifunctional properties are also discussed to illustrate the advantages of these new textile-based recycled fiber composites over the prior art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
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Article
Development of a Screen-Printable Carbon Paste to Achieve Washable Conductive Textiles
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 419-432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030022 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Conductive tracks are key constituents of wearable electronics and e-textiles, as they form the interconnective links between wearable electrical devices/systems. They are made by coating or printing conductive patterns or tracks on textiles or by weaving, knitting, or embroidering conductive yarns into textiles. [...] Read more.
Conductive tracks are key constituents of wearable electronics and e-textiles, as they form the interconnective links between wearable electrical devices/systems. They are made by coating or printing conductive patterns or tracks on textiles or by weaving, knitting, or embroidering conductive yarns into textiles. Screen printing is a mature and cost-effective fabrication method that is used in the textile industry. It allows a high degree of geometric freedom for the design of conductive patterns or tracks. Current screen-printed conductive textiles have the limitations of low durability when washed or when placed under bending, and they typically require encapsulation layers to protect the printed conductor. This paper presents a printable paste formulation and fabrication process based on screen printing for achieving a flexible and durable conductive polyester-cotton textile using an inexpensive carbon as the conductor. The process does not require an interface, the smoothing of the textile, or an encapsulation layer to protect the conductor on the textile. A resistivity of 4 × 10−2 Ω·m was achieved. The textile remains conductive after 20 standard washes, resulting in the conductor’s resistance increasing by 140%. The conductive textile demonstrated less than ±10% resistance variation after bending for 2000 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
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Article
Innovative High-Visibility Protective Clothing Development
Textiles 2021, 1(3), 405-418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1030021 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Technical clothing with light-responsive features for outdoor sports practiced in environments with low visibility is extremely important for athletes’ safety. Lack of signaling by users and visibility for drivers is one of accidents causes, namely run overs, which can leave serious consequences. The [...] Read more.
Technical clothing with light-responsive features for outdoor sports practiced in environments with low visibility is extremely important for athletes’ safety. Lack of signaling by users and visibility for drivers is one of accidents causes, namely run overs, which can leave serious consequences. The products available on the market lack efficiency and their design is not appealing which makes the development of these new materials a compelling need. Therefore, fluorescent and phosphorescent functional finishings with ability to provide illuminant signalization without compromising the design and/or color of clothing as well as comfort and ergonomics, were developed and applied in the textile structure by knife over roll coating technology. The greatest challenge is to integrate the high visibility materials without compromising the design of the garment and accomplish the European Standard of Protective clothing: Enhanced visibility equipment for medium risk situations and test methods and requirements—EN 17353 (that supersedes EN1150:1999 and allows more freedom in the design of the apparel) published in 2020. Phosphorescent materials were evaluated by luminance decay according to DIN 67510, before and after fastness to wash tests. Results obtained regarding high visibility functional finishings and the integration of the materials developed in the final sports collection will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
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