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Volume 1, September

Thermo, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2021) – 8 articles

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Article
Flexible Electricity Dispatch of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle through Thermal Energy Storage and Hydrogen Production
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 106-121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010008 - 08 Jun 2021
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Abstract
In this work, the flexible operation of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant has been optimized considering two different energy storage approaches. The objective of this proposal is to meet variable users’ grid demand for an extended period at the lowest [...] Read more.
In this work, the flexible operation of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant has been optimized considering two different energy storage approaches. The objective of this proposal is to meet variable users’ grid demand for an extended period at the lowest cost of electricity. Medium temperature thermal energy storage (TES) and hydrogen generation configurations have been analyzed from a techno-economic point of view. Results found from annual solar plant performance indicate that molten salts storage solution is preferable based on the lower levelized cost of electricity (0.122 USD/kWh compared to 0.158 USD/kWh from the hydrogen generation case) due to the lower conversion efficiencies of hydrogen plant components. However, the hydrogen plant configuration exceeded, in terms of plant availability and grid demand coverage, as fewer design constraints resulted in a total demand coverage of 2155 h per year. It was also found that grid demand curves from industrial countries limit the deployment of medium-temperature TES systems coupled to ISCC power plants, since their typical demand curves are characterized by lower power demand around solar noon when solar radiation is higher. In such scenarios, the Brayton turbine design is constrained by noon grid demand, which limits the solar field and receiver thermal power design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Energy Modelling for Renewable Energy Applications)
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Article
Techno-Economic Optimization of Medium Temperature Solar-Driven Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 77-105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010007 - 21 May 2021
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Abstract
The present work focuses on the techno-economic assessment and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization of small-scale (40 kWth input), solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems driven by medium-to-high temperature (up to 210 °C) parabolic dish (PDC) and trough (PTC) collectors. The ORCs are [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on the techno-economic assessment and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization of small-scale (40 kWth input), solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems driven by medium-to-high temperature (up to 210 °C) parabolic dish (PDC) and trough (PTC) collectors. The ORCs are designed to maximize their nominal thermal efficiency for several natural hydrocarbon working fluids. The optimization variables are the solar field area and storage tank capacity, with the goal of minimizing the levelized cost of produced electricity (LCoE) and maximizing the annual solar conversion efficiency. The lowest LCOE (0.34 €/kWh) was obtained in Athens for a high solar field area and low storage tank capacity. Meanwhile, the maximum annual solar conversion efficiencies (10.5–11%) were obtained in northern cities (e.g., Brussels) at lower solar field locations. While PTCs and PDCs result in similar efficiencies, the use of PTCs is more cost-effective. Among the working fluids, Cyclopentane and Cyclohexane exhibited the best performance, owing to their high critical temperatures. Notably, the systems could be more profitable at higher system sizes, as indicated by the 6% LCoE decrease of the solar ORC in Athens when the nominal heat input was increased to 80 kWth. Full article
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Review
A Review on Thermal Energy Modelling for Optimal Microgrids Management
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 63-76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010006 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Microgrids have become increasingly popular in recent years due to technological improvements, growing recognition of their benefits, and diminishing costs. By clustering distributed energy resources, microgrids can effectively integrate renewable energy resources in distribution networks and satisfy end-user demands, thus playing a critical [...] Read more.
Microgrids have become increasingly popular in recent years due to technological improvements, growing recognition of their benefits, and diminishing costs. By clustering distributed energy resources, microgrids can effectively integrate renewable energy resources in distribution networks and satisfy end-user demands, thus playing a critical role in transforming the existing power grid to a future smart grid. There are many existing research and review works on microgrids. However, the thermal energy modelling in optimal microgrid management is seldom discussed in the current literature. To address this research gap, this paper presents a detailed review on the thermal energy modelling application on the optimal energy management for microgrids. This review firstly presents microgrid characteristics. Afterwards, the existing thermal energy modeling utilized in microgrids will be discussed, including the application of a combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) and thermal comfort model to form virtual energy storage systems. Current trial programs of thermal energy modelling for microgrid energy management are analyzed and some challenges and future research directions are discussed at the end. This paper serves as a comprehensive review to the most up-to-date thermal energy modelling applications on microgrid energy management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Energy Modelling for Renewable Energy Applications)
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Editorial
A New Research Journal on Thermal Sciences: Thermo
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 61-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010005 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
I am honored to take on the role of Editor-in-Chief of Thermo (ISSN 2673-7264) effective from February 2021 [...] Full article
Review
The Basic Theorem of Temperature-Dependent Processes
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 45-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010004 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The basic theorem of isokinetic relationships is formulated as “if there exists a linear correlation “structure∼properties” at two temperatures, the point of their intersection will be a common point for the same correlation at other temperatures, until the Arrhenius law is violated”. The [...] Read more.
The basic theorem of isokinetic relationships is formulated as “if there exists a linear correlation “structure∼properties” at two temperatures, the point of their intersection will be a common point for the same correlation at other temperatures, until the Arrhenius law is violated”. The theorem is valid in various regions of thermally activated processes, in which only one parameter changes. A detailed examination of the consequences of this theorem showed that it is easy to formulate a number of empirical regularities known as the “kinetic compensation effect”, the well-known formula of the Meyer–Neldel rule, or the so-called concept of “multi-excitation entropy”. In a series of similar processes, we examined the effect of different variable parameters of the process on the free energy of activation, and we discuss possible applications. Full article
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Article
Numerical Integration of Weight Loss Curves for Kinetic Analysis
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 32-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010003 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Research abounds in the literature on kinetic analyses using thermogravimetric (TG) runs. Many of these studies use approximations of integral or derivative forms of the kinetic law and all of them use programmed temperatures. In the present work, a numerical integration procedure was [...] Read more.
Research abounds in the literature on kinetic analyses using thermogravimetric (TG) runs. Many of these studies use approximations of integral or derivative forms of the kinetic law and all of them use programmed temperatures. In the present work, a numerical integration procedure was discussed and applied to different examples. We focused on materials presenting a single decomposition curve as well as other materials with more complex processes. Different examples were explored, and the methodology was applied to a number of wastes such as coffee husks, polystyrene and polyethylene. In all cases, the actual temperature measured by thermocouples close to the sample is used, and several runs are fitted using the same kinetic parameters, giving robustness to the results. Full article
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Article
Thermochemistry, Bond Energies and Internal Rotor Potentials of Acetic Acid Hydrazide, Acetamide, N-Methyl Acetamide (NMA) and Radicals
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 15-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010002 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Structures, thermochemical properties, bond energies, and internal rotation potentials of acetic acid hydrazide (CH3CONHNH2), acetamide (CH3CONH2), and N-methyl acetamide (CH3CONHCH3), and their radicals corresponding to the loss of hydrogen atom, [...] Read more.
Structures, thermochemical properties, bond energies, and internal rotation potentials of acetic acid hydrazide (CH3CONHNH2), acetamide (CH3CONH2), and N-methyl acetamide (CH3CONHCH3), and their radicals corresponding to the loss of hydrogen atom, have been studied. Gas-phase standard enthalpies of formation and bond energies were calculated using the DFT methods B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(2d,2p) and the composite CBS-QB3 methods employing a series of work reactions further to improve the accuracy of the ΔHf°(298 K). Molecular structures, vibration frequencies, and internal rotor potentials were calculated at the DFT level. The parent molecules’ standard formation enthalpies of CH3–C=ONHNH2, CH3–C=ONH2, and CH3–C=ONHCH3 were evaluated as −27.08, −57.40, and −56.48 kcal mol−1, respectively, from the CBS–QB3 calculations. Structures, internal rotor potentials, and C–H and N–H bond dissociation energies are reported. The DFT and the CBS-QB3 enthalpy values show close agreement, and this accord is attributed to the use of isodesmic work reactions for the analysis. The agreement also suggests this combination of the B3LYP/work reaction approach is acceptable for larger molecules. Internal rotor potentials for the amides are high, ranging from 16 to 22 kcal mol−1. Full article
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Article
Interaction of a Low-Power Laser Radiation with Nanoparticles Formed over the Copper Melt in Rarefied Argon Atmosphere
Thermo 2021, 1(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1010001 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Two effects have been recently observed by the authors for the copper sample melted in a rarefied argon atmosphere. The first of these effects is a strong decrease in the normal reflectance of a copper sample with time just after the beginning of [...] Read more.
Two effects have been recently observed by the authors for the copper sample melted in a rarefied argon atmosphere. The first of these effects is a strong decrease in the normal reflectance of a copper sample with time just after the beginning of melting. A partially regular crystal structure was also formed on the surface of the solid sample after the experiment. Both effects were explained by generation of a cloud of levitating nanoparticles. Additional experiments reported in the present paper show that the rate of decrease in reflectance increases with pressure of argon atmosphere and the surface pattern on the solid sample after the experiment depends on the probe laser radiation. It is theoretically shown for the first time that the dependent scattering effects in the cloud of copper nanoparticles are responsible for the abnormal decrease in normal reflectance and also for the observed significant role of light pressure in deposition of nanoparticles on the sample surface. The predicted minimum of normal reflectance is in good agreement with the experimental value. Full article
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