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Thermo, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2021) – 2 articles

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Article
Thermal Properties and Behaviour of Am-Bearing Fuel in European Space Radioisotope Power Systems
Thermo 2021, 1(3), 297-331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1030020 - 15 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The European Space Agency is funding the research and development of 241Am-bearing oxide-fuelled radioisotope power systems (RPSs) including radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and European Large Heat Sources (ELHSs). The RPSs’ requirements include that the fuel’s maximum temperature, Tmax, must remain [...] Read more.
The European Space Agency is funding the research and development of 241Am-bearing oxide-fuelled radioisotope power systems (RPSs) including radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and European Large Heat Sources (ELHSs). The RPSs’ requirements include that the fuel’s maximum temperature, Tmax, must remain below its melting temperature. The current prospected fuel is (Am0.80U0.12Np0.06Pu0.02)O1.8. The fuel’s experimental heat capacity, Cp, is determined between 20 K and 1786 K based on direct low temperature heat capacity measurements and high temperature drop calorimetry measurements. The recommended high temperature equation is Cp(T/K) = 55.1189 + 3.46216 × 102 T − 4.58312 × 105 T−2 (valid up to 1786 K). The RTG/ELHS Tmax is estimated as a function of the fuel thermal conductivity, k, and the clad’s inner surface temperature, Ti cl, using a new analytical thermal model. Estimated bounds, based on conduction-only and radiation-only conditions between the fuel and clad, are established. Estimates for k (80–100% T.D.) are made using Cp, and estimates of thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion estimates of americium/uranium oxides. The lowest melting temperature of americium/uranium oxides is assumed. The lowest k estimates are assumed (80% T.D.). The highest estimated Tmax for a ‘standard operating’ RTG is 1120 K. A hypothetical scenario is investigated: an ELHS Ti cl = 1973K-the RPSs’ requirements’ maximum permitted temperature. Fuel melting will not occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics and Nuclear Materials)
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Article
Study of Thermodynamic Modeling of Isothermal and Isobaric Binary Mixtures in Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) of Tetrahydrofuran with Benzene (303.15 K) Cyclohexane (333.15 K), Methanol (103 kPa), and Ethanol (100 kPa)
Thermo 2021, 1(3), 286-296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/thermo1030019 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an aprotic solvent with multiple applications in diverse areas of chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries with an important impact in chemical waste liquid with other solvents. In this work, 51 available VLE data, for isothermal binary mixtures of THF(1) + [...] Read more.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an aprotic solvent with multiple applications in diverse areas of chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries with an important impact in chemical waste liquid with other solvents. In this work, 51 available VLE data, for isothermal binary mixtures of THF(1) + Benzene(2) and THF(1) + Cyclohexane(2) at 303.15 and 333.15 K, respectively, and isobaric THF(1) + Methanol(2) at 103 kPa and THF(1) + Ethanol(2) at 100 kPa were used in the development of the activity coefficient models. The quality of experimental data was checked using the Herington test. VLE binary data was correlated with models Wilson, NRTL UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC to obtain binary parameters and activity coefficients. The best thermodynamic consistency when conducting the Herington test for the VLE data was found for the THF(1) +Cyclohexane(2) isothermal system and THF(1) + Ethanol(2) isobaric system. The UNIQUAC model for isothermal systems THF(1) + Benzene(2) and THF(1) + Cyclohexane(2), the NRTL model for the isobaric system THF(1) + Methanol(2), and the UNIQUAC model for THF(1) + Ethanol(2) perform better than the other models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium and Chemical Thermodynamics)
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