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Open AccessArticle

Train Fast While Reducing False Positives: Improving Animal Classification Performance Using Convolutional Neural Networks

by 1,2,3,*, 1,3 and 2
1
Department of Applied Geomatics, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
2
Computer Research Institute of Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
3
Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science (QCBS), Stewart Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1B1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
The combination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with deep learning models has the capacity to replace manned aircrafts for wildlife surveys. However, the scarcity of animals in the wild often leads to highly unbalanced, large datasets for which even a good detection method can return a large amount of false detections. Our objectives in this paper were to design a training method that would reduce training time, decrease the number of false positives and alleviate the fine-tuning effort of an image classifier in a context of animal surveys. We acquired two highly unbalanced datasets of deer images with a UAV and trained a Resnet-18 classifier using hard-negative mining and a series of recent techniques. Our method achieved sub-decimal false positive rates on two test sets (1 false positive per 19,162 and 213,312 negatives respectively), while training on small but relevant fractions of the data. The resulting training times were therefore significantly shorter than they would have been using the whole datasets. This high level of efficiency was achieved with little tuning effort and using simple techniques. We believe this parsimonious approach to dealing with highly unbalanced, large datasets could be particularly useful to projects with either limited resources or extremely large datasets. View Full-Text
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; convolutional neural network; wildlife survey; remote sensing; deep learning; conservation; hard-negative mining unmanned aerial vehicles; convolutional neural network; wildlife survey; remote sensing; deep learning; conservation; hard-negative mining
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreni, M.; Theau, J.; Foucher, S. Train Fast While Reducing False Positives: Improving Animal Classification Performance Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Geomatics 2021, 1, 34-49. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1010004

AMA Style

Moreni M, Theau J, Foucher S. Train Fast While Reducing False Positives: Improving Animal Classification Performance Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Geomatics. 2021; 1(1):34-49. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreni, Mael; Theau, Jerome; Foucher, Samuel. 2021. "Train Fast While Reducing False Positives: Improving Animal Classification Performance Using Convolutional Neural Networks" Geomatics 1, no. 1: 34-49. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1010004

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