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Geomatics, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 6 articles

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Article
Measuring Similarity of Deforestation Patterns in Time and Space across Differences in Resolution
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 464-495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040027 - 29 Nov 2021
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Abstract
This article demonstrated an easily applicable method for measuring the similarity between a pair of point patterns, which applies to spatial or temporal data sets. Such a measurement was performed using similarity-based pattern analysis as an alternative to conventional approaches, which typically utilize [...] Read more.
This article demonstrated an easily applicable method for measuring the similarity between a pair of point patterns, which applies to spatial or temporal data sets. Such a measurement was performed using similarity-based pattern analysis as an alternative to conventional approaches, which typically utilize straightforward point-to-point matching. Using our approach, in each point data set, two geometric features (i.e., the distance and angle from the centroid) were calculated and represented as probability density functions (PDFs). The PDF similarity of each geometric feature was measured using nine metrics, with values ranging from zero (very contrasting) to one (exactly the same). The overall similarity was defined as the average of the distance and angle similarities. In terms of sensibility, the method was shown to be capable of measuring, at a human visual sensing level, two pairs of hypothetical patterns, presenting reasonable results. Meanwhile, in terms of the method′s sensitivity to both spatial and temporal displacements from the hypothetical origin, the method is also capable of consistently measuring the similarity of spatial and temporal patterns. The application of the method to assess both spatial and temporal pattern similarities between two deforestation data sets with different resolutions was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Data Analysis and Modeling in Remote Sensing)
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Article
Self-AdaptIve LOcal Relief Enhancer (SAILORE): A New Filter to Improve Local Relief Model Performances According to Local Topography
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 450-463; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040026 - 18 Nov 2021
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Abstract
The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is becoming more and more common in different landscape exploration domains such as archaeology or geomorphology. In order to allow the detection of features of interest, visualization filters have to be applied to the raw [...] Read more.
The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is becoming more and more common in different landscape exploration domains such as archaeology or geomorphology. In order to allow the detection of features of interest, visualization filters have to be applied to the raw Digital Elevation Model (DEM), to enhance small relief variations. Several filters have been proposed for this purpose, such as Sky View Factor, Slope, negative and positive Openness, or Local Relief Model (LRM). The efficiency of each of these methods is strongly dependent on the input parameters chosen in regard of the topography of the investigated area. The LRM has proved to be one of the most efficient, but it has to be parameterized in order to be adapted to the natural slopes characterizing the investigated area. Generally, this setting has a single value, chosen as the best compromise between optimal values for each relief configuration. As LiDAR is mainly used in wide areas, a large distribution of natural slopes is often encountered. The aim of this paper is to propose a Self AdaptIve LOcal Relief Enhancer (SAILORE) based on the Local Relief Model approach. The filtering effect is adapted to the local slope, allowing the detection at the same time of low-frequency relief variation on flat areas, as well as the identification of high-frequency relief variation in the presence of steep slopes. First, the interest of this self-adaptive approach is presented, and the principle of the method, compared to the classical LRM method, is described. This new tool is then applied to a LiDAR dataset characterized by various terrain configurations in order to test its performance and compare it with the classical LRM. The results of this test show that SAILORE significantly increases the detection capability while simplifying it. Full article
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Article
Validating Hourly Satellite Based and Reanalysis Based Global Horizontal Irradiance Datasets over South Africa
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 429-449; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040025 - 05 Nov 2021
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Abstract
This study validates the hourly satellite based and reanalysis based global horizontal irradiance (GHI) for sites in South Africa. Hourly GHI satellite based namely: SOLCAST, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), and Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF SARAH) and two reanalysis based, [...] Read more.
This study validates the hourly satellite based and reanalysis based global horizontal irradiance (GHI) for sites in South Africa. Hourly GHI satellite based namely: SOLCAST, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), and Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF SARAH) and two reanalysis based, namely, fifth generation European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2) were assessed by comparing in situ measured data from 13 South African Weather Service radiometric stations, located in the country’s six macro climatological regions, for the period 2013–2019. The in situ data were first quality controlled using the Baseline Surface Radiation Network methodology. Data visualization and statistical metrics relative mean bias error (rMBE), relative root mean square error (rRMSE), relative mean absolute error (rMAE), and the coefficient of determination (R2) were used to evaluate the performance of the datasets. There was very good correlation against in situ GHI for the satellite based GHI, all with R2 above 0.95. The R2 correlations for the reanalysis based GHI were less than 0.95 (0.931 for ERA5 and 0.888 for MERRA2). The satellite and reanalysis based GHI showed a positive rMBE (SOLCAST 0.81%, CAMS 2.14%, CMSAF 2.13%, ERA5 1.7%, and MERRA2 11%), suggesting consistent overestimation over the country. SOLCAST satellite based GHI showed the best rRMSE (14%) and rMAE (9%) combinations. MERRA2 reanalysis based GHI showed the weakest rRMSE (37%) and rMAE (22%) combinations. SOLCAST satellite based GHI showed the best overall performance. When considering only the freely available datasets, CAMS and CMSAF performed better with the same overall rMBE (2%), however, CAMS showed slightly better rRMSE (16%), rMAE (10%), and R2 (0.98) combinations than CMSAF rRMSE (17%), rMAE (11%), and R2 (0.97). CAMS and CMSAF are viable freely available data sources for South African locations. Full article
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Technical Note
Precipitation Data Retrieval and Quality Assurance from Different Data Sources for the Namoi Catchment in Australia
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 417-428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040024 - 28 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Within the Horizon 2020 Project WaterSENSE a modular approach was developed to provide different stakeholders with the required precipitation information. An operational high-quality rainfall grid was set up for the Namoi catchment in Australia based on rain gauge adjusted radar data. Data availability [...] Read more.
Within the Horizon 2020 Project WaterSENSE a modular approach was developed to provide different stakeholders with the required precipitation information. An operational high-quality rainfall grid was set up for the Namoi catchment in Australia based on rain gauge adjusted radar data. Data availability and processing considerations make it necessary to explore alternative precipitation approaches. The gauge adjusted radar data will serve as a benchmark for the alternative precipitation data. The two well established satellite-based precipitation datasets IMERG and GSMaP will be analyzed with the temporal and spatial requirements of the applications envisioned in WaterSENSE in mind. While first results appear promising, these datasets will need further refinements to meet the criteria of WaterSENSE, especially with respect to the spatial resolution. Inferring information from soil moisture-derived from EO observations to increase the spatial detail of the existing satellite-based datasets is a promising approach that will be investigated along with other alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Precipitation Retrievals)
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Article
Entropy-Based Hybrid Integration of Random Forest and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Analysis
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 399-416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040023 - 26 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Landslide susceptibility mapping is a crucial step in comprehensive landslide risk management. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the landslide susceptibility of Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India, based on optimum feature selection and hybrid integration of the Shannon entropy (SE) [...] Read more.
Landslide susceptibility mapping is a crucial step in comprehensive landslide risk management. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the landslide susceptibility of Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India, based on optimum feature selection and hybrid integration of the Shannon entropy (SE) model with random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) models. An inventory of 1723 rainfall-induced landslides was generated and randomly selected for training (1199; 70%) and validation (524; 30%) purposes. A set of 14 relevant factors was selected and checked for multicollinearity. These factors were first ranked using Information Gain and Chi-square feature ranking algorithms. Furthermore, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and One-Sample T-Test were applied to check their statistical significance. An optimum subset of 11 landslide causative factors was then used for generating landslide susceptibility maps (LSM) using hybrid SE-RF and SE-SVM models. These LSM’s were validated and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and performance matrices. The SE-RF performed better with training and validation accuracies of 96.93% and 88.94%, respectively, compared with the SE-SVM model with training and validation accuracies of 94.05% and 82.4%, respectively. The prediction matrices also confirmed that the SE-RF model is better and is recommended for the landslide susceptibility analysis of similar mountainous regions worldwide. Full article
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Article
Modelling Physical Accessibility to Public Green Spaces in Switzerland to Support the SDG11
Geomatics 2021, 1(4), 383-398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geomatics1040022 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Urban sprawl has a strong impact on the provision and use of green spaces and, consequently, on the benefits that society can derive from these natural ecosystems, especially in terms of public health. In looking at the Sustainable Development Goals and other regional [...] Read more.
Urban sprawl has a strong impact on the provision and use of green spaces and, consequently, on the benefits that society can derive from these natural ecosystems, especially in terms of public health. In looking at the Sustainable Development Goals and other regional policy frameworks, there is a strong need for quantifying access to green spaces. This study presents and applies a methodology to model the physical accessibility at national and sub-national scales to public green spaces (i.e., urban green spaces and forests) in Switzerland, using AccessMod and ArcGIS travel time functions. We found that approximately 75% and 36% of the Swiss population can access the nearest urban green space within 5 min and 15 min, respectively, using motorized transport. For motorized access to the nearest forest patch, 72% and 52% of the population are within 5 min and 15 min, respectively. When considering only the main urban areas, approximately 55% of the population can walk to the nearest urban green space within 5 min. However, a high heterogeneity in access exists at cantonal and municipal levels, depending on road density, green space density, and population distribution. Despite some possible challenges in correctly delineating public green spaces, our methodology offers a replicable approach offering not only insights into sustainable urban development, but also the facilitation of comparison with other European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observations for Sustainable Development Goals)
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