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Volume 1, September

Crops, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2021) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Apples cultivated in Norway were investigated in regard to their potential use for cider production. The components investigated were total nitrogen content, amino acid profile, total phenols, polyphenol profile, density, and pH. The growing locations were Ullensvang, in the western region of Norway, where the climate is characterized by mild winters and cool summers, with narrow fiords and steep growing locations and an annual rainfall of approximately 3000 mm, and as in the southeast region of Norway, where the winters are colder and the summers warmer, and the area for cultivation is more open farmland, with an annual rainfall of approximately 750 mm. We found significant differences between the apple cultivars, though we found no effect on growing locations. View this paper
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Review
Reliable Methodologies and Impactful Tools to Control Fruit Tree Viruses
Crops 2021, 1(1), 32-41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1010005 - 19 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Viruses are microbes that have high economic impacts on the ecosystem. Widely spread by humans, plant viruses infect not only crops but also wild species. There is neither a cure nor a treatment against viruses. While chemists have developed further research of inefficient [...] Read more.
Viruses are microbes that have high economic impacts on the ecosystem. Widely spread by humans, plant viruses infect not only crops but also wild species. There is neither a cure nor a treatment against viruses. While chemists have developed further research of inefficient curative products, the relevant concept based on sanitary measures is consistently valuable. In this context, two major strategies remain indisputable. First, there are control measures via diagnostics presently addressing the valuable technologies and tools developed in the last four decades. Second, there is the relevant use of modern biotechnology to improve the competitiveness of fruit-tree growers. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Adaptation and Yield Stability of Cocoa Progenies in Marginal Conditions: Results from an on Farm Cocoa Trial Set up in a Forest–Savannah Transition Area in Cameroon
Crops 2021, 1(1), 20-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1010004 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Cocoa is an important crop in Cameroon, where it is cultivated in different areas, including marginal areas, characterized by a rather low level of annual rainfall and marked dry seasons. In order to release cocoa varieties with a good level of adaptation to [...] Read more.
Cocoa is an important crop in Cameroon, where it is cultivated in different areas, including marginal areas, characterized by a rather low level of annual rainfall and marked dry seasons. In order to release cocoa varieties with a good level of adaptation to these marginal conditions, nine full-sib progenies, already released to farmers in other producing areas of the country, were assessed on twelve on farm cocoa plots, set up in 2006, in Mbam et Inoubou county, which is a forest–savannah transition zone. The traits assessed were mortality rate, yield and yield stability. Mortality rate and yield vary widely among trial plots and among progenies. Four out of the nine assessed progenies present a yield level significantly higher than the five others. The lowest level of yield stability (estimated by the contribution to total ecovalence) was observed in both the highest and the lowest yielding progenies. Recommendation for the large-scale release of these progenies to farmers of the county, and to other cocoa producing forest–savannah transition areas, are made, based on the results obtained from this study. Full article
Article
Chemical Composition of Apples Cultivated in Norway
Crops 2021, 1(1), 8-19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1010003 - 17 May 2021
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Abstract
The composition of apples varies with both cultivar and horticultural practice. Knowledge about the chemical composition of different cultivars in particular sugars, organic acids, nitrogen compounds and polyphenols is essential, since they are directly related to the progress of fermentation monitoring and the [...] Read more.
The composition of apples varies with both cultivar and horticultural practice. Knowledge about the chemical composition of different cultivars in particular sugars, organic acids, nitrogen compounds and polyphenols is essential, since they are directly related to the progress of fermentation monitoring and the organoleptic qualities of produced ciders. Fifteen apple cultivars grown in two locations in Norway were investigated for their chemical composition, including polyphenol profiles. The nitrogen content varied from 43.2 to 171.4 mg N/L between the cultivars, and the sum of free amino acids varied from 42.4 to 924.5 mg/kg. Asparagine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were the dominating amino acids. Flavanols, consisting of catechins and procyanidins, were the dominating polyphenols, followed by hydroxycinnamic acids. The cultivar Bramley Seedling was highest in the sum of polyphenols by HPLC (1838 mg/L) and relatively low in nitrogen content (75 mg N/L). Summerred was lowest in the sum of polyphenols (87 mg/L) and highest in nitrogen (171.4 mg N/L). Sugar content, measured as density in the juice, varied between 1034 and 1060 g/L. Using cider categorization of apples, ’Bramley Seedling’ would be defined as sharp, while the others are sweet cultivars. Full article
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Opinion
Halo Blight of Mungbean in Australia
Crops 2021, 1(1), 3-7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1010002 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Halo blight, one of the major diseases of mungbean, is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola. The pathogen infects the foliar parts of the plant, causing water-soaked spots that eventually develop surrounding yellow margins. The disease is particularly destructive [...] Read more.
Halo blight, one of the major diseases of mungbean, is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola. The pathogen infects the foliar parts of the plant, causing water-soaked spots that eventually develop surrounding yellow margins. The disease is particularly destructive under moderate temperature and high humidity, especially when it occurs during late vegetative through to early reproductive stage. In such conditions, severely infected crops could experience a yield loss up to 70%. Halo blight can be widespread on mungbeans grown in Southern Queensland and Northern New South Wales. However, due to its seedborne and cryptic nature of transmission, the disease is likely to be under-reported. This report addresses major aspects of halo blight symptomology, pathology and epidemiology. Full article
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Editorial
Crops: Bringing Together a Global Community of Crop Scientists
Crops 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1010001 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The science behind plants that are grown as crops is essential for confronting many of humankind’s existential challenges [...] Full article
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