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Article

Hypergolic Ignition of 1,3-Cyclodienes by Fuming Nitric Acid toward the Fast and Spontaneous Formation of Carbon Nanosheets at Ambient Conditions

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Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Physics Department, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ewa Kowalska
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Microscale Materials Science)
A hypergolic system is a combination of organic fuel and oxidizer that ignites spontaneously upon contact without any external ignition source. Although their main usage pertains to rocket bipropellants, it is only recently that hypergolics have been established from our group as a revolutionary preparative method for the synthesis of different types of carbon nanostructures depending on the organic fuel-oxidizer pair. In an effort to further enrich this concept, the present work describes new hypergolic pairs based on 1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1,3-cyclooctadiene as the organic fuels and fuming nitric acid as the strong oxidizer. Both carbon-rich compounds (ca. 90% C) share a similar chemical structure with unsaturated cyclopentadiene that is also known to react hypergolically with fuming nitric acid. The particular pairs ignite spontaneously upon contact of the reagents at ambient conditions to produce carbon nanosheets in suitable yields and useful energy in the process. The nanosheets appear amorphous with an average thickness of ca. 2 nm and containing O and N heteroatoms in the carbon matrix. Worth noting, the carbon yield reaches the value of 25% for 1,3-cyclooctadiene, i.e., the highest reported so far from our group in this context. As far as the production of useful energy is concerned, the hot flame produced from ignition can be used for the direct thermal decomposition of ammonium dichromate into Cr2O3 (pigment and catalyst) or the expansion of expandable graphite into foam (absorbent and insulator), thus demonstrating a mini flame-pyrolysis burner at the spot. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypergolic reaction; carbon nanosheets; 1,3-cyclohexadiene; 1,3-cyclooctadiene; fuming nitric acid; useful chemical energy hypergolic reaction; carbon nanosheets; 1,3-cyclohexadiene; 1,3-cyclooctadiene; fuming nitric acid; useful chemical energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chalmpes, N.; Moschovas, D.; Bourlinos, A.B.; Spyrou, K.; Vasilopoulos, K.C.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Karakassides, M.A.; Gournis, D. Hypergolic Ignition of 1,3-Cyclodienes by Fuming Nitric Acid toward the Fast and Spontaneous Formation of Carbon Nanosheets at Ambient Conditions. Micro 2021, 1, 15-27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/micro1010003

AMA Style

Chalmpes N, Moschovas D, Bourlinos AB, Spyrou K, Vasilopoulos KC, Avgeropoulos A, Karakassides MA, Gournis D. Hypergolic Ignition of 1,3-Cyclodienes by Fuming Nitric Acid toward the Fast and Spontaneous Formation of Carbon Nanosheets at Ambient Conditions. Micro. 2021; 1(1):15-27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/micro1010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chalmpes, Nikolaos, Dimitrios Moschovas, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Konstantinos Spyrou, Konstantinos C. Vasilopoulos, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Michael A. Karakassides, and Dimitrios Gournis. 2021. "Hypergolic Ignition of 1,3-Cyclodienes by Fuming Nitric Acid toward the Fast and Spontaneous Formation of Carbon Nanosheets at Ambient Conditions" Micro 1, no. 1: 15-27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/micro1010003

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