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Antibody Response against the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein and Its Subdomains—Identification of Pre-Immunization Status by Human Coronaviruses with Multipanel Nucleocapsid Fragment Immunoblotting

1
Department of Medicine III, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Medical University of Vienna, A1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital Universitario de Canarias-FIISC, Ofra s/n, 38320 La Laguna, Spain
3
Instituto de Tecnologías Biomedicas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Spain
4
Universidad Fernando Pessoa Canarias, 35450 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roger Frutos
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 19 June 2021 / Accepted: 5 July 2021 / Published: 7 July 2021
A novel beta coronavirus that emerged in late December 2019 triggered a global pandemic. Diagnostic methods for rapid identification of infected individuals were established in new biotechnological approaches. Vaccine production and application to individuals and measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies also began. Serum samples from 240 health care workers were collected at three-month intervals over nine months. Indirect SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG ELISA tests were used to identify humoral immune responses. All seropositive individuals and those with borderline ELISA values were tested with a specifically generated multipanel nucleocapsid fragment immunoblot. Of the 240 individuals, 24 showed seroconversion in ELISA after experiencing COVID-19. All of them showed a positive reaction against the full-length nucleocapsid protein in the immunoblot. The highest reactivity was seen either against fragment N(100–300) or in a minority against the posterior part N(200–419). In general, the staining pattern of COVID-19 patients showed four phenotypes. In contrast, three individuals classified as borderline by ELISA reacted exclusively with fragments N(1–220) and N(100–300) containing the octamer amino acid sequence FYYLGTGP, which is identical in human coronaviruses sharing this sequence with SARS-CoV-2. These represent a unique and thus fifth phenotype. This work suggests the existence of distinct phenotypic patterns of IgG production towards N-protein subdomains. View Full-Text
Keywords: nucleocapsid; subdomain; antigenicity; SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid; subdomain; antigenicity; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pajenda, S.; Kapps, S.; Reiter, T.; Freire, R.; Smits, V.A.J.; Wagner, L.; Gerges, D.; Winnicki, W.; Sunder-Plassmann, G.; Schmidt, A. Antibody Response against the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein and Its Subdomains—Identification of Pre-Immunization Status by Human Coronaviruses with Multipanel Nucleocapsid Fragment Immunoblotting. COVID 2021, 1, 105-114. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010009

AMA Style

Pajenda S, Kapps S, Reiter T, Freire R, Smits VAJ, Wagner L, Gerges D, Winnicki W, Sunder-Plassmann G, Schmidt A. Antibody Response against the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein and Its Subdomains—Identification of Pre-Immunization Status by Human Coronaviruses with Multipanel Nucleocapsid Fragment Immunoblotting. COVID. 2021; 1(1):105-114. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pajenda, Sahra, Sebastian Kapps, Thomas Reiter, Raimundo Freire, Veronique A.J. Smits, Ludwig Wagner, Daniela Gerges, Wolfgang Winnicki, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, and Alice Schmidt. 2021. "Antibody Response against the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein and Its Subdomains—Identification of Pre-Immunization Status by Human Coronaviruses with Multipanel Nucleocapsid Fragment Immunoblotting" COVID 1, no. 1: 105-114. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010009

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