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Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 25 articles

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Entry
Sustainable Architecture—What’s Next?
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 293-313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010025 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 787
Definition
Sustainable architecture encompasses more than energy efficiency, zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emission or renewable energy use in the built environment. It also needs to alleviate overall impacts on the natural environment or ecosystem that surrounds it. It may be argued that [...] Read more.
Sustainable architecture encompasses more than energy efficiency, zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emission or renewable energy use in the built environment. It also needs to alleviate overall impacts on the natural environment or ecosystem that surrounds it. It may be argued that primitive vernacular architecture (architecture without architects) built and operated using local techniques and resources alone can be considered to be sustainable. Yet later, after the 1992 Rio Conference and its declarations, more specific definitions emerged putting weight on the rational use of land area, materials and energy, preferably local, as well as area efficient planning, economy and recyclability. The advantage of this is to reduce the ecological footprint of buildings and the climate gas emissions from a sector that represents 35–50 percent of global climate gas emissions, depending on how one counts. This paper clarifies concepts, questions cemented truths and points a way forward by asking; what’s next? Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Metal Binding Proteins
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 261-292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010024 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Definition
Metal ions play several major roles in proteins: structural, regulatory, and enzymatic. The binding of some metal ions increase stability of proteins or protein domains. Some metal ions can regulate various cell processes being first, second, or third messengers. Some metal ions, especially [...] Read more.
Metal ions play several major roles in proteins: structural, regulatory, and enzymatic. The binding of some metal ions increase stability of proteins or protein domains. Some metal ions can regulate various cell processes being first, second, or third messengers. Some metal ions, especially transition metal ions, take part in catalysis in many enzymes. From ten to twelve metals are vitally important for activity of living organisms: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, zinc, nickel, vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten. This short review is devoted to structural, physical, chemical, and physiological properties of proteins, which specifically bind these metal cations. Full article
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Exsolution Catalysts—Increasing Metal Efficiency
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 249-260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010023 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 524
Definition
Exsolution catalysts are perovskite oxide-based materials that can exsolve catalytically active dopant elements as nanoparticles covering the surface, while the perovskite backbone can act as a stable support material. Thus, under proper conditions, a highly catalytically active and stable catalyst surface can be [...] Read more.
Exsolution catalysts are perovskite oxide-based materials that can exsolve catalytically active dopant elements as nanoparticles covering the surface, while the perovskite backbone can act as a stable support material. Thus, under proper conditions, a highly catalytically active and stable catalyst surface can be achieved. For many catalytic materials, precious metals or non-abundant elements play a key role in high catalytic activity. As these elements are often expensive or their supply is ecologically and ethically problematic, the replacement, or at the least reduction in the necessary amount used, is a common aim of current research. One strategy to do so is utilizing exsolution catalysts, as the active elements can be very selectively exsolved, and hence only very small doping amounts are sufficient for excellent results. This approach enables catalyst design with very high active metal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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Photobiomodulation for Taste Alteration
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 240-248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010022 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 599
Definition
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths to modulate biological activity. The therapeutic effect of PBM for the treatment or management of several diseases and injuries has gained significant popularity among researchers and clinicians, especially for the management of oral [...] Read more.
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths to modulate biological activity. The therapeutic effect of PBM for the treatment or management of several diseases and injuries has gained significant popularity among researchers and clinicians, especially for the management of oral complications of cancer therapy. This entry focuses on the current evidence on the use of PBM for the management of a frequent oral complication due to cancer therapy—taste alteration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Machine Learning in Healthcare Communication
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 220-239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010021 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1420
Definition
Machine learning (ML) is a study of computer algorithms for automation through experience. ML is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) that develops computer systems, which are able to perform tasks generally having need of human intelligence. While healthcare communication is important in [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML) is a study of computer algorithms for automation through experience. ML is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) that develops computer systems, which are able to perform tasks generally having need of human intelligence. While healthcare communication is important in order to tactfully translate and disseminate information to support and educate patients and public, ML is proven applicable in healthcare with the ability for complex dialogue management and conversational flexibility. In this topical review, we will highlight how the application of ML/AI in healthcare communication is able to benefit humans. This includes chatbots for the COVID-19 health education, cancer therapy, and medical imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Tissue Integrity and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 206-219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010020 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 929
Definition
Tissue integrity depends on biological tissue stiffness. Tissue integrity can protect both against age-related diseases and against severity of COVID-19. The disruption of tight junctions and increase of tissue permeability with advancing age can be related with age-related diseases as well as with [...] Read more.
Tissue integrity depends on biological tissue stiffness. Tissue integrity can protect both against age-related diseases and against severity of COVID-19. The disruption of tight junctions and increase of tissue permeability with advancing age can be related with age-related diseases as well as with age-dependent COVID-19. Release of tightly bound water from collagen fibrils leads to the increase of extracellular matrix stiffness and to the associated with matrix stiffness increased tissue permeability. The link between arterial stiffness and oxidative stress has been reported and is expected to be studied in more detail in the future. Trehalose can be suggested for retardation of tightly bound water release and subsequent extracellular matrix crosslinking by advanced glycation end products. Increase in tissue permeability can be blocked by polyphenols that inhibit ICAM-1 expression and mitigate cytoskeleton reorganization. NF-κB activation as a result of increased stiffness and cytoskeleton reorganization can cause both cardiovascular pathologies and COVID-19. Increased cholesterol content in cell membrane leads to increased virus entry into cell and increase of cholesterol is linked with cardiovascular diseases. Statins and chitosan are known as cholesterol-lowering substances. Nrf2 inhibits NF-κB activation and NF-κB inhibits Nrf2 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Non-Patent Literature
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 198-205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010019 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 587
Definition
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to [...] Read more.
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to be patented, in order to justify its novelty. These documents are considered technically relevant to the patent granting procedure and are cited along with other patents related to the same subject matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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Global Passenger Transport
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 189-197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010018 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 593
Definition
Global passenger transport consists of all passenger travel by private and public road vehicles, rail passenger travel, air travel, and non-motorized travel. The vehicular travel component expanded an estimated 14-fold between 1950 and 2018, so that now it is not only a major [...] Read more.
Global passenger transport consists of all passenger travel by private and public road vehicles, rail passenger travel, air travel, and non-motorized travel. The vehicular travel component expanded an estimated 14-fold between 1950 and 2018, so that now it is not only a major energy user and CO2 emitter, but also the cause of a variety of other negative effects, especially in urban areas. Global transport in future will be increasingly subject to two contradictory forces. On the one hand, the vast present inequality in vehicular mobility between nations should produce steady growth as low-mobility countries raise material living standards. On the other hand, any such vast expansion of the already large global transport task will magnify the negative effects of such travel. The result is a highly uncertain global transport future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Macroalgae
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 177-188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010017 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Definition
What are algae? Algae are organisms that perform photosynthesis; that is, they absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen (therefore they have chlorophyll, a group of green pigments used by photosynthetic organisms that convert sunlight into energy via photosynthesis) and live in water or [...] Read more.
What are algae? Algae are organisms that perform photosynthesis; that is, they absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen (therefore they have chlorophyll, a group of green pigments used by photosynthetic organisms that convert sunlight into energy via photosynthesis) and live in water or in humid places. Algae have great variability and are divided into microalgae, small in size and only visible through a microscope, and macroalgae, which are larger in size, up to more than 50 m (the maximum recorded was 65 m), and have a greater diversity in the oceans. Thus, the term “algae” is commonly used to refer to “marine macroalgae or seaweeds”. It is estimated that 1800 different brown macroalgae, 6200 red macroalgae, and 1800 green macroalgae are found in the marine environment. Although the red algae are more diverse, the brown ones are the largest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Bergamot Oil: Botany, Production, Pharmacology
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 152-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010016 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 947
Definition
Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is the result of the mechanical manipulation (cold pressing) of the exocarp (flavedo) of the hesperidium of Citruslimon (L.) Osbeck Bergamot Group (synonym Citrus × bergamia Risso & Poit.), resulting in the bursting of the oil cavities embedded [...] Read more.
Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is the result of the mechanical manipulation (cold pressing) of the exocarp (flavedo) of the hesperidium of Citruslimon (L.) Osbeck Bergamot Group (synonym Citrus × bergamia Risso & Poit.), resulting in the bursting of the oil cavities embedded in the flavedo and the release of their contents. It is chemically dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (i.e., limonene), but with significant percentages of oxygenated monoterpenes (i.e., linalyl acetate) and of non-volatile oxygen heterocyclic compounds (i.e., bergapten). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Ontologies in Knowledge Organization
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 144-151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010015 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 561
Definition
Within the knowledge organization systems (KOS) set, the term “ontology” is paradigmatic of the terminological ambiguity in different typologies. Contributing to this situation is the indiscriminate association of the term “ontology”, both as a specific type of KOS and as a process of [...] Read more.
Within the knowledge organization systems (KOS) set, the term “ontology” is paradigmatic of the terminological ambiguity in different typologies. Contributing to this situation is the indiscriminate association of the term “ontology”, both as a specific type of KOS and as a process of categorization, due to the interdisciplinary use of the term with different meanings. We present a systematization of the perspectives of different authors of ontologies, as representational artifacts, seeking to contribute to terminological clarification. Focusing the analysis on the intention, semantics and modulation of ontologies, it was possible to notice two broad perspectives regarding ontologies as artifacts that coexist in the knowledge organization systems spectrum. We have ontologies viewed, on the one hand, as an evolution in terms of complexity of traditional conceptual systems, and on the other hand, as a system that organizes ontological rather than epistemological knowledge. The focus of ontological analysis is the item to model and not the intentions that motivate the construction of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
Entry
Catalytic Membrane Ozonation
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 131-143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010014 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 661
Definition
Catalytic membrane ozonation is a hybrid process that combines membrane filtration and catalytic ozonation. The membrane deposited with an appropriate solid material acts as catalyst. As a consequence, the catalytic membrane contactor can act simultaneously as contactor (i.e., improving the transfer/dissolution of gaseous [...] Read more.
Catalytic membrane ozonation is a hybrid process that combines membrane filtration and catalytic ozonation. The membrane deposited with an appropriate solid material acts as catalyst. As a consequence, the catalytic membrane contactor can act simultaneously as contactor (i.e., improving the transfer/dissolution of gaseous ozone into the liquid phase), as well as reactor (i.e., oxidizing the organic compounds). It can be used in water and wastewater treatment limiting the disadvantages of membrane filtration (i.e., lower removal rates of emerging contaminants or fouling occurrence) and ozonation (i.e., selective oxidation, low mineralization rates, or bromate (BrO3) formation). The catalytic membrane ozonation process can enhance the removal of micropollutants and bacteria, inhibit or decrease the BrO3 formation and additionally, restrict the membrane fouling (i.e., the major/common problem of membranes’ use). Nevertheless, the higher operational cost is the main drawback of these processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Electronic Textiles
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 115-130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010013 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Definition
Electronic textiles belong to the broader range of smart (or “intelligent”) textiles. Their “smartness” is enabled by embedded or added electronics and allows the sensing of defined parameters of their environment as well as actuating according to these sensor data. For this purpose, [...] Read more.
Electronic textiles belong to the broader range of smart (or “intelligent”) textiles. Their “smartness” is enabled by embedded or added electronics and allows the sensing of defined parameters of their environment as well as actuating according to these sensor data. For this purpose, different sensors (e.g., temperature, strain, light sensors) and actuators (e.g., LEDs or mechanical actuators) are embedded and connected with a power supply, a data processor, and internal/external communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Entry
Generational Effects of Opioid Exposure
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 99-114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010012 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Definition
The inheritance of substance abuse, including opioid abuse, may be influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors related to the environment, such as stress and socioeconomic status. These non-genetic influences on the heritability of a trait can be attributed to epigenetics. Epigenetic inheritance can [...] Read more.
The inheritance of substance abuse, including opioid abuse, may be influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors related to the environment, such as stress and socioeconomic status. These non-genetic influences on the heritability of a trait can be attributed to epigenetics. Epigenetic inheritance can result from modifications passed down from the mother, father, or both, resulting in either maternal, paternal, or parental epigenetic inheritance, respectively. These epigenetic modifications can be passed to the offspring to result in multigenerational, intergenerational, or transgenerational inheritance. Human and animal models of opioid exposure have shown generational effects that result in molecular, developmental, and behavioral alterations in future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Periodontal Regeneration
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 87-98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010011 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1109
Definition
Periodontal regeneration is a technique that aims to regenerate the damaged tissue around periodontally compromised teeth. The regenerative process aims to use scaffolds, cells, and growth factors to enhance biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Supplements for Smoking-Related Lung Diseases
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 76-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010010 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Definition
Supplements for smoking-related lung diseases are considered as nonfood products and thought to improve health. Multivitamins and antioxidants are the most commonly dietary supplements used by cancer and asthma patients. There are currently no clear regulatory guidelines that include dietary supplements and their [...] Read more.
Supplements for smoking-related lung diseases are considered as nonfood products and thought to improve health. Multivitamins and antioxidants are the most commonly dietary supplements used by cancer and asthma patients. There are currently no clear regulatory guidelines that include dietary supplements and their effect on lung cancer and asthma patients, particularly in smokers. Several countries have taken steps to overcome challenges in regulating dietary supplements in the marketplace. These challenges include inadequate assurance of safety/efficacy, inaccuracy of product labeling, misleading health claims, and lack of analytical techniques for dietary supplements. There is a need to establish standards and regulation of dietary supplement use in patients with lung cancer and asthma. The aim of this entry is to expand knowledge on dietary supplements use and smoking-related lung diseases (lung cancer and asthma). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
Entry
Serum Albumin
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 65-75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010009 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 895
Definition
Being one of the most abundant proteins in human and other mammals, albumin plays a crucial role in transporting various endogenous and exogenous molecules and maintaining of colloid osmotic pressure of the blood. It is not only the passive but also the active [...] Read more.
Being one of the most abundant proteins in human and other mammals, albumin plays a crucial role in transporting various endogenous and exogenous molecules and maintaining of colloid osmotic pressure of the blood. It is not only the passive but also the active participant of the pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic processes possessing a number of enzymatic activities. A free thiol group of the albumin molecule determines the participation of the protein in redox reactions. Its activity is not limited to interaction with other molecules entering the blood: of great physiological importance is its interaction with the cells of blood, blood vessels and also outside the vascular bed. This entry contains data on the enzymatic, inflammatory and antioxidant properties of serum albumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Homeopathy and Psychological Therapies
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 57-64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010008 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 835
Definition
Homeopathy is a popular, although highly debated, medicinal practice based on the administration of remedies in which active substances are so diluted that no detectable trace of them remains in the final product. This hypothesis paper aims to outline a possible reinterpretation of [...] Read more.
Homeopathy is a popular, although highly debated, medicinal practice based on the administration of remedies in which active substances are so diluted that no detectable trace of them remains in the final product. This hypothesis paper aims to outline a possible reinterpretation of homeopathy in the light of psychological therapies in order to improve its clinical safety and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Tourism Destination Marketing: Academic Knowledge
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 42-56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010007 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 853
Definition
A holistic, multi-organization view of marketing or destination management organizations (DMOs) who must muster the best efforts of many partner organizations and individuals (stakeholders) to have the greatest success. Destination marketing is described as “a continuous, sequential process through which a DMO plans, [...] Read more.
A holistic, multi-organization view of marketing or destination management organizations (DMOs) who must muster the best efforts of many partner organizations and individuals (stakeholders) to have the greatest success. Destination marketing is described as “a continuous, sequential process through which a DMO plans, researches, implements, controls and evaluates programs aimed at satisfying tourists’ needs and wants as well as the destination’s and DMO’s visions, goals and objectives”. The effectiveness of marketing activities depends on the efforts and plans of tourism suppliers and other entities. This definition posits that marketing is a managerial function/domain that should be performed in a systematic manner adopting and implementing the appropriate approaches, as well as suitable tools and methods. In doing so, it is believed that a tourism destination (through the organizational structure of a DMO) can attain the expected outputs beneficial to all stakeholders, i.e., the tourism industry, hosting communities/populations, and tourists/visitors. The effective implementation of tourism destination marketing principles and methods constitutes an efficient and smart pillar, a cornerstone to attain a balance/equilibrium between the perceptions and interests, sometimes conflicting, of stakeholders by minimizing the negative impacts and maximizing the benefits resulting from tourism. All the same, it is worth noting that marketing is not a panacea, nor a kind of magic stick. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
Entry
Microchip Electrophoresis
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 30-41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010006 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 696
Definition
Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a miniaturized form of capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a common technique to separate macromolecules such as nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) and proteins. This technique has become a routine method for DNA size fragmenting and separating protein mixtures in most [...] Read more.
Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a miniaturized form of capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a common technique to separate macromolecules such as nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) and proteins. This technique has become a routine method for DNA size fragmenting and separating protein mixtures in most laboratories around the world. The application of higher voltages in MCE achieves faster and efficient electrophoretic separations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Passivhaus
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 20-29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010005 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 714
Definition
Passivhaus or Passive House buildings are low-energy buildings in which the design is driven by quality and comfort, hence achieving acceptable levels of comfort through post-heating or post-cooling of fresh air. Additionally, Passivhaus building design follows the Passivhaus design criteria, as described in [...] Read more.
Passivhaus or Passive House buildings are low-energy buildings in which the design is driven by quality and comfort, hence achieving acceptable levels of comfort through post-heating or post-cooling of fresh air. Additionally, Passivhaus building design follows the Passivhaus design criteria, as described in the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP). This article aims to introduce the Passivhaus background, development, and basic design principles. Finally, it also presents a brief description of the performance of Passivhaus buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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Edu-Escape Rooms
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 12-19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010004 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Definition
Escape Rooms are cooperative games in which players must find clues, solve puzzles, and perform a variety of tasks within a limited time. The goal is usually to escape or leave a room, place, or environment. When the Escape Rooms have a pedagogical [...] Read more.
Escape Rooms are cooperative games in which players must find clues, solve puzzles, and perform a variety of tasks within a limited time. The goal is usually to escape or leave a room, place, or environment. When the Escape Rooms have a pedagogical purpose, they are usually called Edu-Escape Rooms and can be related to gamification and Game-Based Learning. The potential for student engagement and motivation is one of the main advantages of Edu-Escape Rooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
Entry
Brainstem fMRI
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 4-11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010003 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 643
Definition
The human brainstem plays important roles in maintaining basic vital functions. In comparison with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), only a few fMRI studies investigating the brainstem have been reported because of a number of technical challenges. This entry briefly introduces technical [...] Read more.
The human brainstem plays important roles in maintaining basic vital functions. In comparison with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), only a few fMRI studies investigating the brainstem have been reported because of a number of technical challenges. This entry briefly introduces technical difficulties, recent advances, and further directions of brainstem fMRI in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Editorial
Encyclopedia—Open Access MDPI Journal
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010002 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Many international journals have proliferated over the last 20 years regarding very specific themes of research [...] Full article
Editorial
Encyclopedia—A Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Community Project
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia1010001 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
According to Collins Dictionary, an encyclopedia is a book or set of books in which facts about many different subjects, or one particular subject are arranged for reference, usually in alphabetical order [...] Full article
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