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Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 43 articles

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Review
A Working Definition of Fake News
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 632-645; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010043 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Current literature on fake news is rather abundant and mainly focused on history, variety, and types, rather than processes. This review draws on current literature to build a working definition of fake news focused on its present relevance to journalism and political communication [...] Read more.
Current literature on fake news is rather abundant and mainly focused on history, variety, and types, rather than processes. This review draws on current literature to build a working definition of fake news focused on its present relevance to journalism and political communication contemporary debate, distinguishing it from non-pertinent conceptual varieties and contributing to a much-needed clarification on the subject. We performed a qualitative analysis of the literature published between 2016 and 2020. Data were extracted from Web of Science and Scopus. We define fake news as a type of online disinformation with misleading and/or false statements that may or may not be associated with real events, intentionally designed to mislead and/or manipulate a specific or imagined public through the appearance of a news format with an opportunistic structure (title, image, content) to attract the reader’s attention in order to obtain more clicks and shares and, therefore, greater advertising revenue and/or ideological gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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Entry
Two-Lane Highways: Indispensable Rural Mobility
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 625-631; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010042 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 602
Definition
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at [...] Read more.
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at those locations. In this entry, two-lane highways strictly refer to roads in rural areas meeting the previous definition and do not include urban and suburban streets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
On-Chip Liquid Chromatography
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 617-624; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010041 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 558
Definition
On-chip liquid chromatography (LC) refers to LC technology that is miniaturized to fit on a microchip to enable fast, high-throughput analysis, with small sample volumes and low reagent consumption. Four different on-chip LC approaches have been developed to date: use of open-tubular, packed-particle, [...] Read more.
On-chip liquid chromatography (LC) refers to LC technology that is miniaturized to fit on a microchip to enable fast, high-throughput analysis, with small sample volumes and low reagent consumption. Four different on-chip LC approaches have been developed to date: use of open-tubular, packed-particle, monolithic, and pillar array columns. These methods have been applied to proteomics as well as the analysis of small molecules and drugs in various biological samples. Recent advances in on-chip LC are summarized herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Entry
Trust in Science and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 602-616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010040 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 748
Definition
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of [...] Read more.
In this entry, trust in science is defined as the reliance, confidence, and dependence on science to understand scientific information. With the outbreak of, and the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, turning towards science and trusting the specialized knowledge of experts is of particular importance during this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Smoke Hazards of Tall Timber Buildings with New Products
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 593-601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010039 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 741
Definition
Timber buildings can now stand very tall using new products. As timber materials are expected to be easily ignitable, the fire hazard of timber is a concern. Charring of the timber surface would maintain structural stability, but would also be accompanied by smoke. [...] Read more.
Timber buildings can now stand very tall using new products. As timber materials are expected to be easily ignitable, the fire hazard of timber is a concern. Charring of the timber surface would maintain structural stability, but would also be accompanied by smoke. Although treating timber products with fire retardants would delay the ignition time under low radiative heat flux, toxic combustion products and unburnt fuel would be emitted immediately upon burning. More smoke and higher toxic gas concentrations such as carbon monoxide would be given off upon burning some fire retardants under high flashover heat fluxes. Due to the fast upward movement of smoke under stack effect, spreading of toxic smoke in tall timber buildings would lead to a hazardous environment. Engineered timber consists of derivative timber products. New engineered timber products are manufactured with advanced technology and design, including cross-laminated-timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glue-laminated timber (Glulam). The fire behaviour of timber products has been studied for several decades. However, the smoke hazards of using new timber products in building construction should be monitored. The objective of this study is to inspire stakeholders in fire safety of timber buildings, inter alia smoke hazards, to use new timber products to build tall buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
Entry
Wooden Additional Floor in Finland
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 578-592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010038 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Definition
One of the most effective ways to cover real estate development and renovation processes by improving functionality and energy efficiency is wooden additional floor construction. This entry maps out, organizes, and collates scattered information on the current state of the art and the [...] Read more.
One of the most effective ways to cover real estate development and renovation processes by improving functionality and energy efficiency is wooden additional floor construction. This entry maps out, organizes, and collates scattered information on the current state of the art and the benefits of this practice including its different stages, focusing on the case of Finland. The entry presents this topic in an accessible and understandable discourse for non-technical readers. By highlighting the benefits and opportunities of this sustainable application, the entry will contribute to increasing the awareness of wooden additional floor construction, which has many advantages, and therefore to gain more widespread use in Finland and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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Entry
Marine Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 559-577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010037 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1031
Definition
Marine fungi play a crucial role in energy flow and nutrient recycling, mediating the cycling of dissolved organic matter in marine environments. However, despite being a prolific group of organisms, marine fungi have been largely neglected for a long time. Besides their importance [...] Read more.
Marine fungi play a crucial role in energy flow and nutrient recycling, mediating the cycling of dissolved organic matter in marine environments. However, despite being a prolific group of organisms, marine fungi have been largely neglected for a long time. Besides their importance in the marine food web, marine fungi represent an active source of natural products. Over the last years, researchers have focused on studying marine organisms to discover new metabolites with antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Moreover, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and mass spectrometry techniques, genomic and metabolomic approaches have revealed to be of paramount importance in natural products discovery. The marine mycobiome includes many organisms still to be identified, and the ones already known are still underutilized in biotechnological applications. For this reason, it is undeniable that exploring the marine mycobiome including new habitats and substrates, even those of remote access, is fundamental for describing the true magnitude of the Earth’s mycobiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Entry
CRISPR towards a Sustainable Agriculture
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 538-558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010036 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 900
Definition
Climate change and the need to feed an increasing population undermines food production and safety, representing the reasons behind the development of a new agriculture that is much more sustainable, productive and accessible worldwide. Genome editing and, in particular, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic [...] Read more.
Climate change and the need to feed an increasing population undermines food production and safety, representing the reasons behind the development of a new agriculture that is much more sustainable, productive and accessible worldwide. Genome editing and, in particular, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) tools will play a major role in plant breeding to address these concerns. CRISPR/Cas includes a series of genome editing tools relying on the recognition and cleavage of target DNA/RNA sequences to introduce specific mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Buddhism in Addiction Recovery
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 530-537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010035 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 751
Definition
Buddhism was established by Guatama Buddha as a practice to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Mindfulness-Based interventions (MBIs) are Western psychologists’ adaptation of mindfulness/Vipassana to treat mental illnesses. In addition to mindfulness, Buddhist recovery peer-support programs also adopt the Four Noble Truths, the [...] Read more.
Buddhism was established by Guatama Buddha as a practice to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Mindfulness-Based interventions (MBIs) are Western psychologists’ adaptation of mindfulness/Vipassana to treat mental illnesses. In addition to mindfulness, Buddhist recovery peer-support programs also adopt the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Five Precepts, which are the Buddha’s prescription to cease suffering and to discipline one’s ethical conduct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
Entry
Ladislaus II Jagiełło (1386–1434)
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 514-529; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010034 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 648
Definition
Ladislaus II Jagiełło (1386–1434). Ladislaus II Jagiełło is the founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty that had ruled over Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1572), Bohemia (1471–1526) and Hungary (1440–1444, 1490–1526). A Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1377, and from 1386 [...] Read more.
Ladislaus II Jagiełło (1386–1434). Ladislaus II Jagiełło is the founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty that had ruled over Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1572), Bohemia (1471–1526) and Hungary (1440–1444, 1490–1526). A Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1377, and from 1386 a king of Poland and lord of Lithuania, which he ruled jointly with his cousin Witold (Vytautas), the son of Kęstutis. Five medieval portraits of Jagiełło survive, four of which date from the period of his reign in the Polish–Lithuanian state and one was executed posthumously. The earliest image, on Jagiełło’s Great Seal, was made in connection with his coronation as king of Poland (1386). Two portraits in the Holy Trinity Chapel at the Castle of Lublin (1418) are part of a wall paintings scheme commissioned by the monarch and executed by a team of painters brought from Ruthenia. Furthermore, the sumptuous tomb (before 1430) in Cracow was commissioned by the king. Its top slab bears an effigy of Jagiełło with his suggestively rendered countenance, which undoubtedly reflects the actual facial features of the elderly monarch. An image of the king represented as one of the Three Magi in a panel of an altarpiece in the tomb chapel of Casimir IV Jagiellonian, Jagiełło’s son and his successor on the Polish throne, dates from 1470. The chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross, erected at Cracow Cathedral, was in all likelihood commissioned by Casimir himself and his consort Elizabeth of Austria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Encyclopedia in 2021
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 511-513; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010033 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Entry
Data Quality—Concepts and Problems
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 498-510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010032 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Definition
Data Quality is, in essence, understood as the degree to which the data of interest satisfies the requirements, is free of flaws, and is suited for the intended purpose. Data Quality is usually measured utilizing several criteria, which may differ in terms of [...] Read more.
Data Quality is, in essence, understood as the degree to which the data of interest satisfies the requirements, is free of flaws, and is suited for the intended purpose. Data Quality is usually measured utilizing several criteria, which may differ in terms of assigned importance, depending on, e.g., the data at hand, stakeholders, or the intended use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematics & Computer Science)
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Entry
Metaverse
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 486-497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010031 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 28053
Definition
The Metaverse is the post-reality universe, a perpetual and persistent multiuser environment merging physical reality with digital virtuality. It is based on the convergence of technologies that enable multisensory interactions with virtual environments, digital objects and people such as virtual reality (VR) and [...] Read more.
The Metaverse is the post-reality universe, a perpetual and persistent multiuser environment merging physical reality with digital virtuality. It is based on the convergence of technologies that enable multisensory interactions with virtual environments, digital objects and people such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). Hence, the Metaverse is an interconnected web of social, networked immersive environments in persistent multiuser platforms. It enables seamless embodied user communication in real-time and dynamic interactions with digital artifacts. Its first iteration was a web of virtual worlds where avatars were able to teleport among them. The contemporary iteration of the Metaverse features social, immersive VR platforms compatible with massive multiplayer online video games, open game worlds and AR collaborative spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematics & Computer Science)
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Entry
Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 473-485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010030 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 578
Definition
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past [...] Read more.
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past earthquakes. In fact, during a seismic event, most victims are caused by the collapse of buildings or due to nonstructural elements. The damage caused by an earthquake on nonstructural elements, i.e., those not belonging to the actual structural body of the building, is important for the purposes of a more general description of the effects and, of course, for economic estimates. In fact, after an earthquake, albeit of a low entity, it is very frequent to find even widespread damages of nonstructural elements causing major inconveniences even if the primary structure has reported minor damages. In recent years, many territories have been hit worldwide by strong seismic sequences, which caused widespread damages to the nonstructural elements and in particular to the masonry internal partitions and the masonry infill panels of the buildings in reinforced concrete, with damage to the floor and out-of-plane expulsions/collapses of single layers. Unfortunately, these critical issues have arisen not only in historic, but also in recent buildings with reinforced concrete, in many cases exhibiting inadequate seismic behavior, only partly attributable to the intrinsic vulnerability of the masonry panels against seismic actions. Such problems are due to the following aspects: lack of attention to construction details in the realization of the construction, use of poor-quality materials, and above all lack of design tools for the infill masonry walls. In 2018, regarding the design of nonstructural elements, the formulation of floor spectra has been recently introduced in Italy. This entry article wants to focus on all these aspects, describing the state of the art, the literature studies and the design problems to be solved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Degrowth Perspective for Sustainability in Built Environments
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 466-472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010029 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Definition
Degrowth, as a social movement, a political project, and an academic paradigm, aims to find ways that can lead to harmonious co-existence between humanity and nature, between humans and non-humans, and within humanity, including oneself. Seen through the lens of degrowth, everything becomes [...] Read more.
Degrowth, as a social movement, a political project, and an academic paradigm, aims to find ways that can lead to harmonious co-existence between humanity and nature, between humans and non-humans, and within humanity, including oneself. Seen through the lens of degrowth, everything becomes subject to reflection, critique, re-evaluation, and re-imagining. This concerns environments created by humans in a long process of interaction with nature, i.e., built environments. Built environments are always in becoming. This entry contemplates the implications of degrowth for intentionally directing this becoming towards genuine sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
Entry
Adverse Events Profile of COVID-19 Preventative Strategies
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 457-465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010028 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 966
Definition
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and has affected most people across the world, either directly or indirectly. Many preventative and therapeutic strategies have been employed since the beginning of the pandemic. With the development of the mRNA vaccine within a year of the start of the pandemic, we are entering a new era of vaccinology, and the adverse event profile of the COVID-19 vaccine is also becoming more apparent with time. While the benefits of the vaccines and other preventative strategies certainly outweigh the risk of adverse events, prospective clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether specific populations, including those with a personal or family history of autoimmune disease, are at higher risk of developing certain adverse events, in order to minimize risk further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Domestic Violence against Women and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 441-456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010027 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 874
Definition
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, [...] Read more.
Domestic violence against women is defined as harmful behavior that occurs within a home and it involves aggressive and violent conduct towards women. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and following the restrictions imposed to combat the pandemic (lockdowns, staying at home, isolation), domestic violence against women has increased worldwide. The current entry presents existing knowledge and discusses issues important for public awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Substance Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 428-440; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010026 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Definition
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application [...] Read more.
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application of a magnetic field, pH or ionic strength changes in the solution or bacteria-mediated processes. This technology can be used for the targeted release of drugs, and for the development of self-healing materials and new generation pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Secondary Education and COVID-19
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 409-427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025 - 02 Feb 2022
Viewed by 690
Definition
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes [...] Read more.
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education and traditionally begins after primary school, usually about age 11 to 13. The COVID-19 pandemic caused immeasurable changes to the educational system which inevitably greatly impacted secondary education. The current entry describes the changes in secondary education imposed by the pandemic and explores the accompanying challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
COVID-19 and Psychological Impact
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 400-408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010024 - 02 Feb 2022
Viewed by 835
Definition
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic [...] Read more.
The worldwide mental health burden associated to COVID-19. The psychological symptoms associated to COVID-19 can originate from three different sources: lockdowns, pandemic life and virus infection (both COVID-19 and post COVID-19 condition). Within the psychological symptoms it can be found: anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, fatigue and cognitive impairment (i.e., ’brain fog’, mental slowness, deficits in attention, executive functioning, working memory, learning, articulation, and/or psychomotor coordination). Plus, two psychological conditions associated to the COVID-19 pandemic have been coined so far by the World Health Organization: pandemic fatigue and post COVID-19 condition. The increase of psychological symptoms both in the general population and in frontline workers (especially health-care workers) generates an unprecedented number of psychological patients and it challenges national mental health systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
Entry
Tsunami Alert Efficiency
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 383-399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010023 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 703
Definition
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness [...] Read more.
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness and preparedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Systematic Review
Dental Patients’ Perspective on COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 365-382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010022 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 773
Abstract
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 epidemic has changed patients’ approach to dental treatments. While dentists worldwide have shown an excellent level of adaptability to face the new challenges presented by the unprecedented situation due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, dental patients have witnessed a sudden suspension of elective treatments and a slow resumption of dental care activities after several national lockdowns. In addition, the general climate of anxiety and fear due to the high COVID-19 risk and the high level of mortality has influenced the perception and attitudes of people towards dental activity, inducing many dental patients to avoid appointments to the dentist if not highly urgent. We present an overview of the current state of knowledge about dental patients’ perception, perspective, attitude, and expectations towards a full resumption of regular dental treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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Entry
Biotechnology and Cytotherapeutics: The Swiss Progenitor-Cell Transplantation Program
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 336-364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010021 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 703
Definition
Historically, primary human progenitor cells (e.g., WI-38 and MRC-5 diploid-cell sources) have been industrially applied in research and in manufacturing processes for vaccines and for biologicals. Furthermore, tissue-specific primary progenitor-cell banks have recently been developed and exploited for the provision of safe, consistent, [...] Read more.
Historically, primary human progenitor cells (e.g., WI-38 and MRC-5 diploid-cell sources) have been industrially applied in research and in manufacturing processes for vaccines and for biologicals. Furthermore, tissue-specific primary progenitor-cell banks have recently been developed and exploited for the provision of safe, consistent, and effective cellular active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in homologous allogeneic regenerative medicine applications. Notably, the modern legal and regulatory frameworks for novel therapeutic products and for progenitor-cell therapy development have been iteratively optimized to guarantee utmost product safety, quality, and efficacy. Over 50 years of global technical hindsight around progenitor-cell biotechnological substrates and over 30 years of in-house clinical experience around the therapeutic uses of standardized progenitor-cell sources in Switzerland have demonstrated the importance of such biological materials for public health. The aim of this entry work was to summarize the evolution of the industrial applications of selected primary progenitor-cell sources, ranging from the use as robust biotechnological substrates to standardized cellular API manufacture and their clinical uses in highly specialized regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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Entry
Painful Legs and Moving Toes
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 325-335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010020 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 839
Definition
Painful Legs and Moving Toes syndrome (PLMT) is a rare neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary and irregular movements of one or more toes, often together, with moderate to severe diffuse pain at the foot and leg. It can appear on one or [...] Read more.
Painful Legs and Moving Toes syndrome (PLMT) is a rare neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary and irregular movements of one or more toes, often together, with moderate to severe diffuse pain at the foot and leg. It can appear on one or both sides and in the upper limbs as well as lower limbs. The etiology of PLMT is still unclear; therefore, the main symptoms of PLMT, including pain in limbs as well as involuntary movements of toes, can be treated only symptomatically, and the outcomes are often unsatisfactory. Central or peripheral nerve injuries have been assumed to be the possible causes of irregular involuntary movements, often accompanied by chronic pain; however, its etiology is unknown in most cases. The management of PLMT is very difficult because of its rare prevalence and obscure pathogenesis, and there have been no clear guidelines for the treatment of PLMT. Oral medications (e.g., GABAergic agents, benzodiazepines, antiepileptics, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, cannabis, calcitonin, and analgesics) and several therapeutic interventions (e.g., local botulinum neurotoxin-A injection, spinal cord stimulation, anesthetic, and surgical interventions) have been recommended, based on individual experiences from several cases. Its etiology, pathogenesis, and effective treatments should be further discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Entry
Energy Storage Flywheel Rotors—Mechanical Design
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 301-324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010019 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 890
Definition
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high [...] Read more.
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high centripetal forces requiring careful design, analysis, and fabrication to ensure the safe operation of the storage device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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Entry
Entropy
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 264-300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010018 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Definition
The concept of entropy constitutes, together with energy, a cornerstone of contemporary physics and related areas. It was originally introduced by Clausius in 1865 along abstract lines focusing on thermodynamical irreversibility of macroscopic physical processes. In the next decade, Boltzmann made the genius [...] Read more.
The concept of entropy constitutes, together with energy, a cornerstone of contemporary physics and related areas. It was originally introduced by Clausius in 1865 along abstract lines focusing on thermodynamical irreversibility of macroscopic physical processes. In the next decade, Boltzmann made the genius connection—further developed by Gibbs—of the entropy with the microscopic world, which led to the formulation of a new and impressively successful physical theory, thereafter named statistical mechanics. The extension to quantum mechanical systems was formalized by von Neumann in 1927, and the connections with the theory of communications and, more widely, with the theory of information were respectively introduced by Shannon in 1948 and Jaynes in 1957. Since then, over fifty new entropic functionals emerged in the scientific and technological literature. The most popular among them are the additive Renyi one introduced in 1961, and the nonadditive one introduced in 1988 as a basis for the generalization of the Boltzmann–Gibbs and related equilibrium and nonequilibrium theories, focusing on natural, artificial and social complex systems. Along such lines, theoretical, experimental, observational and computational efforts, and their connections to nonlinear dynamical systems and the theory of probabilities, are currently under progress. Illustrative applications, in physics and elsewhere, of these recent developments are briefly described in the present synopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
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Challenges in Ramularia collo-cygni Control
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 256-263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010017 - 27 Jan 2022
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Definition
Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, has recently become widespread in Europe. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) and demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides are mainly applied for disease control on barley fields, but pathogen isolates with a reduced sensitivity can [...] Read more.
Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, has recently become widespread in Europe. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) and demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides are mainly applied for disease control on barley fields, but pathogen isolates with a reduced sensitivity can cause difficulties. There is an urgent need for new spring barley cultivars that are more resistant to RLS development and can inhibit R. collo-cygni epidemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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Mucormycosis—Emerging Fungal Threats
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 247-255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010016 - 24 Jan 2022
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Definition
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection due to organisms of the Zygomycetes class and the order of Mucorales that can cause various types of infections. In recent years, an increasing phenomenon has been observed—invasive fungal infections especially in the healthcare setting. Among immucompromised [...] Read more.
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection due to organisms of the Zygomycetes class and the order of Mucorales that can cause various types of infections. In recent years, an increasing phenomenon has been observed—invasive fungal infections especially in the healthcare setting. Among immucompromised patients, an important clinical emergency could be represented by mucormycosis. The epidemiology of mucormycosis has shown an alarming trend and its incidence is rising globally. Four elements are fundamental for a successful treatment: rapid diagnosis, reduction of predisposing factors (if possible), surgical debridement of infected tissues, and appropriate antifungal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
Entry
Henry II of Trastámara (1366–1367, 1369–1379)
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 237-246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010015 - 24 Jan 2022
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Definition
Henry II of Castile, also known as Henry of Trastámara, from the Latin “Tras Tamaris” (or beyond the Tambre River), King of Castile and León (1366–1367, 1369–1379) was the first king of the Trastámara Dynasty. In summary, it was a minor branch of [...] Read more.
Henry II of Castile, also known as Henry of Trastámara, from the Latin “Tras Tamaris” (or beyond the Tambre River), King of Castile and León (1366–1367, 1369–1379) was the first king of the Trastámara Dynasty. In summary, it was a minor branch of the house of Burgundy (or an “Iberian extension” of it), with presence in the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Naples. Most notably, it began playing an essential role in the kingdom of Castile, but after the Compromise of Caspe, its power extended decisively to the kingdom of Aragon (1412). Henry II was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI and his lover Leonor de Guzmán. He waged a civil war against his stepbrother, Peter I, legitimate heir to the throne, as the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, Queen of Castile. Henry’s determination to be recognized as king led him to employ the arts in a campaign to discredit his stepbrother and tarnish his image, portraying himself as a defender of the faith with the right to rule. He built the Royal Chapel (1371) in the main church of Córdoba (today’s Mosque/Cathedral) for the burial of his father and grandfather, Ferdinand IV, in order to underscore his connection to the royal line, and refurbished the Puerta del Perdón (Gate of Forgiveness) in 1377, the main entrance to the church, for use as a dramatic stage for public events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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Role of Happiness When Evaluating Society
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 230-236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/encyclopedia2010014 - 21 Jan 2022
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Definition
Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net [...] Read more.
Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net impact of positive and negative feelings. It follows that a key issue is to explain what these feelings are about. The present situation and options for improving the score of happiness are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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