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Computational Chemistry to Repurposing Drugs for the Control of COVID-19
Review

Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Antiviral Drugs in the Extended Use against COVID-19: What We Know So Far

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Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51 Siddeswari Road, Ramna, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore 7408, Bangladesh
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Bangladesh Reference Institute for Chemical Measurements, Dr. Qudrat-e-Khuda Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
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Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong 4381, Bangladesh
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Vasso Apostolopoulos and Majid Hassanzadeganroudsari
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Drugs and Vaccines)
Human beings around the globe have been suffering from a devastating novel pandemic and public health emergency, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), for more than one and a half years due to the deadly and highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection worldwide. Notably, no effective treatment strategy has been approved for the complete recovery of COVID-19 patients, though several vaccines have been rolled out around the world upon emergency use authorization. After the emergence of the COVID-19 outbreak globally, plenty of clinical investigations commenced to screen the safety and efficacy of several previously approved drugs to be repurposed against the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen. This concise review aims at exploring the current status of the clinical efficacy and safety profile of several antiviral medications for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and other respiratory complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The paper covers all kinds of human studies (January 2020 to June 2021) except case reports/series to highlight the clear conclusion based on the current clinical evidence. Among the promising repositioned antivirals, remdesivir has been recommended in critical conditions to mitigate the fatality rate and improve clinical conditions. In addition, boosting the immune system is believed to be beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients, so interferon type I might exert immunomodulation through its antiviral effects by stimulating interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). However, more extensive clinical studies covering all ethnic groups globally are warranted based on current data to better understand the clinical efficacy of the currently proposed repurposed drugs against COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); repurposing strategy; repurposed drugs; remdesivir; interferon type I; clinical trials coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); repurposing strategy; repurposed drugs; remdesivir; interferon type I; clinical trials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hossain, M.J.; Jannat, T.; Brishty, S.R.; Roy, U.; Mitra, S.; Rafi, M.O.; Islam, M.R.; Nesa, M.L.; Islam, M.A.; Emran, T.B. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Antiviral Drugs in the Extended Use against COVID-19: What We Know So Far. Biologics 2021, 1, 252-284. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020016

AMA Style

Hossain MJ, Jannat T, Brishty SR, Roy U, Mitra S, Rafi MO, Islam MR, Nesa ML, Islam MA, Emran TB. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Antiviral Drugs in the Extended Use against COVID-19: What We Know So Far. Biologics. 2021; 1(2):252-284. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hossain, Md. J., Tabassum Jannat, Shejuti R. Brishty, Urmi Roy, Saikat Mitra, Md. O. Rafi, Md. R. Islam, Mst. L. Nesa, Md. A. Islam, and Talha B. Emran 2021. "Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Antiviral Drugs in the Extended Use against COVID-19: What We Know So Far" Biologics 1, no. 2: 252-284. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020016

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