Next Article in Journal
Involvement of Probiotics and Postbiotics in the Immune System Modulation
Previous Article in Journal
Can the European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) Be a Sentinel for One Health Concerns?
Review

How to Train Your Phage: The Recent Efforts in Phage Training

1
Center for Microbiology and Phage Therapy, Zewail City of Science and Technology, October Gardens, 6th of October City, Giza 12578, Egypt
2
Center for X-ray and Determination of Structure of Matter, Zewail City of Science and Technology, October Gardens, 6th of October, Giza 12578, Egypt
3
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt
4
Future Food Beacon of Excellence and the School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
5
Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Arish University, Arish 4855, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
Control of pathogenic bacteria by deliberate application of predatory phages has potential as a powerful therapy against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The key advantages of phage biocontrol over antibacterial chemotherapy are: (1) an ability to self-propagate inside host bacteria, (2) targeted predation of specific species or strains of bacteria, (3) adaptive molecular machinery to overcome resistance in target bacteria. However, realizing the potential of phage biocontrol is dependent on harnessing or adapting these responses, as many phage species switch between lytic infection cycles (resulting in lysis) and lysogenic infection cycles (resulting in genomic integration) that increase the likelihood of survival of the phage in response to external stress or host depletion. Similarly, host range will need to be optimized to make phage therapy medically viable whilst avoiding the potential for deleteriously disturbing the commensal microbiota. Phage training is a new approach to produce efficient phages by capitalizing on the evolved response of wild-type phages to bacterial resistance. Here we will review recent studies reporting successful trials of training different strains of phages to switch into lytic replication mode, overcome bacterial resistance, and increase their host range. This review will also highlight the current knowledge of phage training and future implications in phage applications and phage therapy and summarize the recent pipeline of the magistral preparation to produce a customized phage for clinical trials and medical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocontrol; FDA approval; antibiotics; bacterial resistance; phage evolution; Biofilm clearance; phage arbitrium biocontrol; FDA approval; antibiotics; bacterial resistance; phage evolution; Biofilm clearance; phage arbitrium
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abdelsattar, A.S.; Dawooud, A.; Rezk, N.; Makky, S.; Safwat, A.; Richards, P.J.; El-Shibiny, A. How to Train Your Phage: The Recent Efforts in Phage Training. Biologics 2021, 1, 70-88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020005

AMA Style

Abdelsattar AS, Dawooud A, Rezk N, Makky S, Safwat A, Richards PJ, El-Shibiny A. How to Train Your Phage: The Recent Efforts in Phage Training. Biologics. 2021; 1(2):70-88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdelsattar, Abdallah S., Alyaa Dawooud, Nouran Rezk, Salsabil Makky, Anan Safwat, Philip J. Richards, and Ayman El-Shibiny. 2021. "How to Train Your Phage: The Recent Efforts in Phage Training" Biologics 1, no. 2: 70-88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biologics1020005

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop