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Volume 1, September

Trauma Care, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2021) – 6 articles

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Editorial
Trauma Care—A New Open Access Journal
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 64-65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1010006 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Welcome to Trauma Care (ISSN: 2673-866X)! This new peer-reviewed, international, open access, on-line journal targets a major gap in trauma care [...] Full article
Article
Bearing Witness as Social Action: Religious Ethics and Trauma-Informed Response
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 49-63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1010005 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Written from a standpoint of religious ethics, this article interprets the work of trauma response and recovery in transcendent and moral terms not always apparent to the practitioner or institution. This article provides a broad understanding of spirituality, transcendence, and faith as these [...] Read more.
Written from a standpoint of religious ethics, this article interprets the work of trauma response and recovery in transcendent and moral terms not always apparent to the practitioner or institution. This article provides a broad understanding of spirituality, transcendence, and faith as these concepts relate to Judith Herman’s stages of trauma healing and the characteristics of trauma-informed response articulated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. These features are then mapped onto specific modes of transcendence and moral themes identifiable in a wide range of religious traditions. The connective framework for this mapping is provided by utilizing the concept “bearing witness,” as synthesized from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives, to describe the work of trauma-informed response. This article concludes by recognizing bearing witness as a form of social action, a moral response with implied if not explicit religious dimensions and spiritual implications, for which an understanding of religious ethics is a helpful ally. Thus, this article concludes that religious ethics can be a valuable resource and partner in addressing the personal, systemic, and political aspects of trauma response and recovery, enabling attention to spiritual well-being of both the trauma survivor and the one responding to the survivor. Full article
Article
Suicide and Health Crisis in Extremadura: Impact of Confinement during COVID-19
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 38-48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1010004 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Because of its impact on social well-being, mental health, and financial security, the COVID-19 health crisis may increase the risk of suicide. This study’s objective was to determine what impact the period of confinement might have had on the incidence of deaths by [...] Read more.
Because of its impact on social well-being, mental health, and financial security, the COVID-19 health crisis may increase the risk of suicide. This study’s objective was to determine what impact the period of confinement might have had on the incidence of deaths by suicide (DBS) in the Extremadura region (Spain). Cases registered in the Institutes of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (IMLyCFs) from January 2015 to December 2020 were collected. Intra- and interannual comparisons were made of the suicide rates in the periods of confinement (March–June) and postconfinement (July–October) of 2020 with those of the preceding 5 years. After seasonally adjusting the data by means of a time series analysis, rate ratios (RRs) were calculated together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant differences between the suicide rates of 2020 and the mean of the preceding 5 years (RR = 0.94; CI: 0.56–1.55), and neither did any differences seen in the intra-annual analysis from the period of confinement to postconfinement reach statistical significance (RR = 0.74; CI: 0.45–1.20). It is necessary to strengthen vigilance during and after the crisis and ensure that assistance mechanisms are in place to prevent an increase in suicides. Full article
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Article
Celecoxib in a Preclinical Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Hippocampal Learning Deficits Persist with Inflammatory and Excitotoxic Neuroprotection
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 23-37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1010003 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) contribute to inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. Cycloxygenase (COX) enzymes produce inflammatory cytokines that influence the microglia response to neurotrauma. Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor that is prescribed in some conditions of mTBI to alleviate symptoms of concussion, and [...] Read more.
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) contribute to inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. Cycloxygenase (COX) enzymes produce inflammatory cytokines that influence the microglia response to neurotrauma. Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor that is prescribed in some conditions of mTBI to alleviate symptoms of concussion, and has shown benefits in neurodegenerative conditions. We investigated molecular pathways of neuroinflammation in response to celecoxib treatment in a mouse model of repetetive mTBI. Fifteen mTBIs were delivered over 23 days in adult male C57BL/6J mice in one of four groups (control, celecoxib without impact, celecoxib with impact, and vehicle with impact). Cognitive function was assessed at 48 h and three months following the final mTBI. Morris Water Maze testing revealed impaired hippocampal spatial learning performance in the celecoxib treatment with the impact group compared to the vehicle with impact control in the acute phase, with celecoxib treatment providing no improvement compared with the control at chronic testing; mRNA analysis of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus revealed expression change, indicating significant improvement in microglial activation, inflammation, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration at chronic measurement. These data suggest that, in the acute phase following injury, celecoxib protected against neuroinflammation, but exacerbated clinical cognitive disturbance. Moreover, while there was evidence of neuroprotective alleviation of mTBI pathophysiology at chronic measurement, there remained no change in clinical features. Full article
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Article
Medial Sural Perforator “Nerve through Flap”: Anatomical Study and Clinical Application
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 15-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1010002 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Background: Nerve recovery after a complex trauma is affected by many factors and a poorly vascularized bed is often the cause of failure and perineural scar. Many techniques have been devised to avoid this problem and the possibility to transfer a nerve with [...] Read more.
Background: Nerve recovery after a complex trauma is affected by many factors and a poorly vascularized bed is often the cause of failure and perineural scar. Many techniques have been devised to avoid this problem and the possibility to transfer a nerve with a surrounding viable sliding tissue could help in this purpose; Methods: We performed an anatomic study on 8 injected specimens to investigate the possibility to raise a medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap including the sural nerve within its vascularized sheath; Results: In anatomic specimens, a visible direct nerve vascularization was present in 57% of legs (8 out of 14). In 43% a vascular network was visible in the fascia layer. There were no vascular anomalies. In one patient the MSAP flap was raised including the sural nerve with its proximal tibial and peroneal components within the deep sheath. The tibial and peroneal component of the sural nerve were anastomized independently with the common digital nerve of 4th and 5th fingers and with the collateral nerve for the ulnar aspect of the 5th. After 9 months, the patient showed an improving nerve function both clinically and electromyographically without any problem due to nerve adherence; Conclusions: Given the still debated advantage of a vascularized nerve graft versus a non-vascularized one, this flap could be useful in those cases of composite wounds with nerve lesions acting as a “nerve through flap”, in order to reduce nerve adherence with a viable surrounding gliding tissue. Full article
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Review
Effects of Memantine in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review
Trauma Care 2021, 1(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumas1010001 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people around the world and amongst other effects, causes cognitive decline, neurodegenerative disease and increased risk of seizures and sensory disturbances. Excitotoxicity and apoptosis occur after TBI and are mediated through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor. [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people around the world and amongst other effects, causes cognitive decline, neurodegenerative disease and increased risk of seizures and sensory disturbances. Excitotoxicity and apoptosis occur after TBI and are mediated through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor. Memantine is effective in blocking excessive activity of NMDA-type glutamate receptors and reduces the progression of dementia and may have benefits after TBI. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate whether memantine is effective in improving outcomes, including cognitive function in patients with TBI. Our search yielded only 4 randomized control trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of memantine to placebos, standard treatment protocols or piracetam. A single RCT reported that serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were significantly reduced (p = 0.009) in the memantine compared to the control group, and this coincided with reported significant day-to-day improvements in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) for patients receiving memantine. The remaining RCTs investigated the effects of memantine on cognitive function using 26 standardized tests for assessing cognition function. One RCT reported significant improvements in cognitive function across all domains whilst the other two RCTs, reported that patients in the memantine group underperformed in all cognitive outcome measures. This review shows that despite laboratory and clinical evidence reporting reduced serum NSE and improved GCS, supporting the existence of the neuroprotective properties, there is a lack of reported evidence from RCTs to suggest that memantine directly leads to cognitive improvements in TBI patients. Full article
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