Dynamics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 4 articles

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Article
Crashworthiness Performance of Aluminium, GFRP and Hybrid Aluminium/GFRP Circular Tubes under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Axial Loading Conditions: A Comparative Experimental Study
Dynamics 2021, 1(1), 22-48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dynamics1010004 - 28 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Offshore structures are exposed to risks of vessel collisions and impacts from dropped objects. Tubular members are extensively used in offshore construction, and thus, there is scope to investigate their crashworthiness behaviour. Aluminium, glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) and hybrid aluminium/GFRP circular tube [...] Read more.
Offshore structures are exposed to risks of vessel collisions and impacts from dropped objects. Tubular members are extensively used in offshore construction, and thus, there is scope to investigate their crashworthiness behaviour. Aluminium, glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) and hybrid aluminium/GFRP circular tube specimens were fabricated and then tested under quasi-static and dynamic axial loading conditions. Two hybrid configurations were examined: external and internal layers from respectively aluminium and GFRP, and vice versa. The material impregnated with epoxy resin woven glass fabric was allowed to cure attached to the aluminium layer to ensure interlayer bonding. The quasi-static and dynamic tests were conducted using respectively a universal testing machine at a prescribed crosshead speed of 10 mm/min, and a 78 kg drop hammer released from 2.5 m. The non-hybrid configurations (aluminium and GFRP specimens) outperformed their hybrid counterparts in terms of crashworthiness characteristics. Full article
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Editorial
Editorial for the Launching of Dynamics
Dynamics 2021, 1(1), 18-21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dynamics1010003 - 01 May 2021
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Abstract
Nowadays, the subject of studying system dynamics behavior has become very important in many branches of technology [...] Full article
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Article
A Simple Transient Poiseuille-Based Approach to Mimic the Womersley Function and to Model Pulsatile Blood Flow
Dynamics 2021, 1(1), 9-17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dynamics1010002 - 28 Apr 2021
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Abstract
As it is known, the Womersley function models velocity as a function of radius and time. It has been widely used to simulate the pulsatile blood flow through circular ducts. In this context, the present study is focused on the introduction of a [...] Read more.
As it is known, the Womersley function models velocity as a function of radius and time. It has been widely used to simulate the pulsatile blood flow through circular ducts. In this context, the present study is focused on the introduction of a simple function as an approximation of the Womersley function in order to evaluate its accuracy. This approximation consists of a simple quadratic function, suitable to be implemented in most commercial and non-commercial computational fluid dynamics codes, without the aid of external mathematical libraries. The Womersley function and the new function have been implemented here as boundary conditions in OpenFOAM ESI software (v.1906). The discrepancy between the obtained results proved to be within 0.7%, which fully validates the calculation approach implemented here. This approach is valid when a simplified analysis of the system is pointed out, in which flow reversals are not contemplated. Full article
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Communication
Classical Dynamics of Rydberg States of Muonic-Electronic Helium and Helium-Like Ions in a Weak Electric Field: Counter-Intuitive Linear Stark Effect
Dynamics 2021, 1(1), 1-8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dynamics1010001 - 23 Mar 2021
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Abstract
According to the existing paradigm, helium atoms and helium-like ions (hereafter, heliumic systems) in a relatively weak external static electric field do not exhibit the linear Stark effect—in distinction to hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions. In the present paper we consider the classical [...] Read more.
According to the existing paradigm, helium atoms and helium-like ions (hereafter, heliumic systems) in a relatively weak external static electric field do not exhibit the linear Stark effect—in distinction to hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions. In the present paper we consider the classical dynamics of a muonic-electronic heliumic system in Rydberg states–starting from the concept from our previous paper. We show that there are two states of the system where the averaged electric dipole moment is non-zero. Consequently, in these states the heliumic system should exhibit the linear Stark effect even in a vanishingly small electric field, which is a counter-intuitive result. We also demonstrate the possibility of controlling the overall precession of the electronic orbit by an external electric field. In particular, we show the existence of a critical value of the external electric field that would “kill” the precession and make the electronic orbit stationary. This is another counter-intuitive result. We calculate analytically the value of the critical field and show that it is typically smaller or even much smaller than 1 V/cm. Full article
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