Next Article in Journal
Clusters, Assemblies and Aggregates of Tumor Cells in the Blood of Breast Cancer Patients; Composition, Mode of Action, Detection and Impact on Metastasis and Survival
Previous Article in Journal
Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Pathways Regulate Hypoxic Stress Induced Fibroblast Growth Factor but Not Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Review

The Contribution of Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Atherosclerosis

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, J. H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
2
Division of Infectious, Inflammatory and Immunologic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pier Paolo Claudio
Int. J. Transl. Med. 2021, 1(1), 39-54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtm1010004
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive condition in which the wall of the artery develops abnormalities and causes thickening of the blood vessels. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by vascular inflammation and the growth of atherosclerotic plaques that eventually lead to compromised blood flow. The endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a phenomenon whereby endothelial cells lose their endothelial properties and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype similar to myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. This process is considered a key contributor to the development and, importantly, the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, therapeutically targeting the EndMT will provide a broad strategy to attenuate the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we review our current knowledge of EndMT in atherosclerosis including several key pathways such as hypoxia, TGF-β signaling, inflammation, and environmental factors during the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, we discuss several transgenic mouse models for studying atherosclerosis. Taken together, rapidly accelerating knowledge and continued studies promise further progress in preventing this common chronic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; EndMT; inflammatory; TGF-β; hypoxia atherosclerosis; EndMT; inflammatory; TGF-β; hypoxia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Ogbu, S.C.; Musich, P.R.; Thewke, D.P.; Yao, Z.; Jiang, Y. The Contribution of Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Transl. Med. 2021, 1, 39-54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtm1010004

AMA Style

Zhang J, Ogbu SC, Musich PR, Thewke DP, Yao Z, Jiang Y. The Contribution of Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Translational Medicine. 2021; 1(1):39-54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtm1010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jinyu, Stella C. Ogbu, Phillip R. Musich, Douglas P. Thewke, Zhiqiang Yao, and Yong Jiang. 2021. "The Contribution of Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Atherosclerosis" International Journal of Translational Medicine 1, no. 1: 39-54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtm1010004

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop