Foundations, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Modeling and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Water Sorption Isotherms of Cottonseed Products
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 32-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010005 - 12 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Due to their hygroscopic characteristics, equilibrium moisture contents of agricultural products and byproducts are important factors of their quality. Defatted cottonseed meal (CSM), washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) and cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) can be used as energy and protein sources of animal feedstuff [...] Read more.
Due to their hygroscopic characteristics, equilibrium moisture contents of agricultural products and byproducts are important factors of their quality. Defatted cottonseed meal (CSM), washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) and cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) can be used as energy and protein sources of animal feedstuff or industrial raw materials. Information on their moisture adsorption behaviors is needed for their storage conditions and quality control. Thus, this work measured the equilibrium moisture sorption isotherms of CSM, WCSM and CSPI, at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C. When the moisture contents of the samples were compared at a constant temperature, the general trend of decreasing moisture content was in the order of CSPI < WCSM < CSM for water activity <0.6, but the trend reversed to the order of CSM < WCSM < CSPI for water activity >0.6. Relevant sorption isotherm equations were tested for accurate fit to the moisture adsorption data. Modelling results indicated that the G.A.B. (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) model was a consistently good fit for the data among all sample types and all temperatures. This work provides some insight on designing or selecting appropriate procedures for the handling, aeration, storage and processing of these cottonseed meal products. In particular, it suggests that moisture content should be kept at around 8% for safe storage of these products at room temperature (around 25 °C) but below 5% when they are exposed to higher temperature conditions (e.g., >45 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Sciences and Engineering)
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Article
Ball Convergence of a Parametric Efficient Family of Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 23-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010004 - 18 Jun 2021
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Abstract
The goal is to extend the applicability of Newton-Traub-like methods in cases not covered in earlier articles requiring the usage of derivatives up to order seven that do not appear in the methods. The price we pay by using conditions on the first [...] Read more.
The goal is to extend the applicability of Newton-Traub-like methods in cases not covered in earlier articles requiring the usage of derivatives up to order seven that do not appear in the methods. The price we pay by using conditions on the first derivative that actually appear in the method is that we show only linear convergence. To find the convergence order is not our intention, however, since this is already known in the case where the spaces coincide with the multidimensional Euclidean space. Note that the order is rediscovered by using ACOC or COC, which require only the first derivative. Moreover, in earlier studies using Taylor series, no computable error distances were available based on generalized Lipschitz conditions. Therefore, we do not know, for example, in advance, how many iterates are needed to achieve a predetermined error tolerance. Furthermore, no uniqueness of the solution results is available in the aforementioned studies, but we also provide such results. Our technique can be used to extend the applicability of other methods in an analogous way, since it is so general. Finally note that local results of this type are important, since they demonstrate the difficulty in choosing initial points. Our approach also extends the applicability of this family of methods from the multi-dimensional Euclidean to the more general Banach space case. Numerical examples complement the theoretical results. Full article
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Editorial
Publishers’ Forewords to Launch the New Journal Foundations
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 21-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010003 - 21 May 2021
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Review
Marine Animal-Derived Compounds and Autophagy Modulation in Breast Cancer Cells
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 3-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010002 - 17 May 2021
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Abstract
It is known that in breast cancer biology, autophagy mainly plays a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role in vitro, being conceivably responsible for cell resistance to drug exposure and a higher metastatic attitude in vivo. Thus, the development of novel autophagy-targeting agents represents a [...] Read more.
It is known that in breast cancer biology, autophagy mainly plays a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role in vitro, being conceivably responsible for cell resistance to drug exposure and a higher metastatic attitude in vivo. Thus, the development of novel autophagy-targeting agents represents a valuable strategy to improve the efficacy of anticancer interventions. It is widely acknowledged that the enormous biodiversity of marine organisms represents a highly promising reserve for the isolation of bioactive primary and secondary metabolites targeting one or several specific molecular pathways and displaying active pharmacological properties against a variety of diseases. The aim of this review is to pick up selected studies that report the extraction and identification of marine animal-derived extracts or isolated compounds which exert a modulatory effect on the autophagic process in breast cancer cells and list them with respect to the taxonomical hierarchy of the producing species. Where available, the molecular and biochemical aspects associated with the molecules or extracts under discussion will be also summarized. Full article
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Editorial
Foundations—A New Journal Dedicated to Fundamental Research
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations1010001 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Fundamental or basic research is the cornerstone of building knowledge in science [...] Full article
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