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Volume 1, December

Foundations, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 10 articles

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Article
The Scaling of Blood Pressure and Volume
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 145-154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010010 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The cardiovascular system is an apparatus of mass convection, and changes in organismic size impart changes in variables of this system, namely scaling effects. Blood flow depends on pressure and conductance, and the maintenance of flow results in entropy production, that is, loss [...] Read more.
The cardiovascular system is an apparatus of mass convection, and changes in organismic size impart changes in variables of this system, namely scaling effects. Blood flow depends on pressure and conductance, and the maintenance of flow results in entropy production, that is, loss of available work. In terms of scaling, it is well known that blood pressure is kept constant while blood volume varies linearly with body mass. Yet, such expected rules have never been proven. The present study shows that these scaling rules derive from the simultaneous optimization of blood flow and entropy production in circulation and how these impact the transition from ecto- to endotermy. Thus, for the first time in almost a century of data collection, these observed relationships are explained from a theoretical standpoint. The demonstration presented herein is a building block to form a solid basis for the other scaling rules of the cardiovascular system as well as of other organic systems. The approach is of wide interest in any area where generalized flow is analyzed in terms of system optimization, giving a broad perspective on change in either engineered or naturally evolving systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Sciences)
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Article
A Comparison of Linking Methods for Two Groups for the Two-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model in the Presence and Absence of Random Differential Item Functioning
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 116-144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010009 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
This article investigates the comparison of two groups based on the two-parameter logistic item response model. It is assumed that there is random differential item functioning in item difficulties and item discriminations. The group difference is estimated using separate calibration with subsequent linking, [...] Read more.
This article investigates the comparison of two groups based on the two-parameter logistic item response model. It is assumed that there is random differential item functioning in item difficulties and item discriminations. The group difference is estimated using separate calibration with subsequent linking, as well as concurrent calibration. The following linking methods are compared: mean-mean linking, log-mean-mean linking, invariance alignment, Haberman linking, asymmetric and symmetric Haebara linking, different recalibration linking methods, anchored item parameters, and concurrent calibration. It is analytically shown that log-mean-mean linking and mean-mean linking provide consistent estimates if random DIF effects have zero means. The performance of the linking methods was evaluated through a simulation study. It turned out that (log-)mean-mean and Haberman linking performed best, followed by symmetric Haebara linking and a newly proposed recalibration linking method. Interestingly, linking methods frequently found in applications (i.e., asymmetric Haebara linking, recalibration linking used in a variant in current large-scale assessment studies, anchored item parameters, concurrent calibration) perform worse in the presence of random differential item functioning. In line with the previous literature, differences between linking methods turned out be negligible in the absence of random differential item functioning. The different linking methods were also applied in an empirical example that performed a linking of PISA 2006 to PISA 2009 for Austrian students. This application showed that estimated trends in the means and standard deviations depended on the chosen linking method and the employed item response model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical Sciences)
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Article
Analogues of the Laplace Transform and Z-Transform with Piecewise Linear Kernels
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 99-115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010008 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Two new transforms with piecewise linear kernels are introduced. These transforms are analogues of the classical Laplace transform and Z-transform. Properties of these transforms are investigated and applications to ordinary differential equations and integral equations are provided. This article is ideal for [...] Read more.
Two new transforms with piecewise linear kernels are introduced. These transforms are analogues of the classical Laplace transform and Z-transform. Properties of these transforms are investigated and applications to ordinary differential equations and integral equations are provided. This article is ideal for study as a foundational project in an undergraduate course in differential and/or integral equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical Sciences)
Review
A Survey on Existence Results for Boundary Value Problems of Hilfer Fractional Differential Equations and Inclusions
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 63-98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010007 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
This paper is a survey of the recent results of the author for various classes of boundary value problems for Hilfer fractional differential equations and inclusions of fractional order in (1,2] supplemented with different kinds of nonlocal boundary conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical Sciences)
Review
Information Geometric Measures of Complexity with Applications to Classical and Quantum Physical Settings
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 45-62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010006 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
We discuss the fundamental theoretical framework together with numerous results obtained by the authors and colleagues over an extended period of investigation on the Information Geometric Approach to Chaos (IGAC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fundamental Physics)
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Article
Modeling and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Water Sorption Isotherms of Cottonseed Products
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 32-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010005 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Due to their hygroscopic characteristics, equilibrium moisture contents of agricultural products and byproducts are important factors of their quality. Defatted cottonseed meal (CSM), washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) and cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) can be used as energy and protein sources of animal feedstuff [...] Read more.
Due to their hygroscopic characteristics, equilibrium moisture contents of agricultural products and byproducts are important factors of their quality. Defatted cottonseed meal (CSM), washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) and cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) can be used as energy and protein sources of animal feedstuff or industrial raw materials. Information on their moisture adsorption behaviors is needed for their storage conditions and quality control. Thus, this work measured the equilibrium moisture sorption isotherms of CSM, WCSM and CSPI, at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C. When the moisture contents of the samples were compared at a constant temperature, the general trend of decreasing moisture content was in the order of CSPI < WCSM < CSM for water activity <0.6, but the trend reversed to the order of CSM < WCSM < CSPI for water activity >0.6. Relevant sorption isotherm equations were tested for accurate fit to the moisture adsorption data. Modelling results indicated that the G.A.B. (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) model was a consistently good fit for the data among all sample types and all temperatures. This work provides some insight on designing or selecting appropriate procedures for the handling, aeration, storage and processing of these cottonseed meal products. In particular, it suggests that moisture content should be kept at around 8% for safe storage of these products at room temperature (around 25 °C) but below 5% when they are exposed to higher temperature conditions (e.g., >45 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Sciences and Engineering)
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Article
Ball Convergence of a Parametric Efficient Family of Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 23-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010004 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The goal is to extend the applicability of Newton-Traub-like methods in cases not covered in earlier articles requiring the usage of derivatives up to order seven that do not appear in the methods. The price we pay by using conditions on the first [...] Read more.
The goal is to extend the applicability of Newton-Traub-like methods in cases not covered in earlier articles requiring the usage of derivatives up to order seven that do not appear in the methods. The price we pay by using conditions on the first derivative that actually appear in the method is that we show only linear convergence. To find the convergence order is not our intention, however, since this is already known in the case where the spaces coincide with the multidimensional Euclidean space. Note that the order is rediscovered by using ACOC or COC, which require only the first derivative. Moreover, in earlier studies using Taylor series, no computable error distances were available based on generalized Lipschitz conditions. Therefore, we do not know, for example, in advance, how many iterates are needed to achieve a predetermined error tolerance. Furthermore, no uniqueness of the solution results is available in the aforementioned studies, but we also provide such results. Our technique can be used to extend the applicability of other methods in an analogous way, since it is so general. Finally note that local results of this type are important, since they demonstrate the difficulty in choosing initial points. Our approach also extends the applicability of this family of methods from the multi-dimensional Euclidean to the more general Banach space case. Numerical examples complement the theoretical results. Full article
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Editorial
Publishers’ Forewords to Launch the New Journal Foundations
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 21-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010003 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 388
Review
Marine Animal-Derived Compounds and Autophagy Modulation in Breast Cancer Cells
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 3-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010002 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
It is known that in breast cancer biology, autophagy mainly plays a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role in vitro, being conceivably responsible for cell resistance to drug exposure and a higher metastatic attitude in vivo. Thus, the development of novel autophagy-targeting agents represents a [...] Read more.
It is known that in breast cancer biology, autophagy mainly plays a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role in vitro, being conceivably responsible for cell resistance to drug exposure and a higher metastatic attitude in vivo. Thus, the development of novel autophagy-targeting agents represents a valuable strategy to improve the efficacy of anticancer interventions. It is widely acknowledged that the enormous biodiversity of marine organisms represents a highly promising reserve for the isolation of bioactive primary and secondary metabolites targeting one or several specific molecular pathways and displaying active pharmacological properties against a variety of diseases. The aim of this review is to pick up selected studies that report the extraction and identification of marine animal-derived extracts or isolated compounds which exert a modulatory effect on the autophagic process in breast cancer cells and list them with respect to the taxonomical hierarchy of the producing species. Where available, the molecular and biochemical aspects associated with the molecules or extracts under discussion will be also summarized. Full article
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Editorial
Foundations—A New Journal Dedicated to Fundamental Research
Foundations 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foundations1010001 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 517
Abstract
Fundamental or basic research is the cornerstone of building knowledge in science [...] Full article
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