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Microbiota of the Tongue and Systemic Connections: The Examination of the Tongue as an Integrated Approach in Oral Medicine

1
Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Biotechnology Laboratory (OBL), University of Cagliari, 09126 Cagliari, Italy
2
RDH, Freelancer Researcher, 72100 Brindisi, Italy
3
DDS, Private Dental Practice, 72015 Fasano, Italy
4
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Medicine Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
5
Department of Innovative Technologies in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 24 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oral and Dental Hygiene)
The tongue is able to quickly reflect the state of health or disease of the human body. Tongue inspection is an important diagnostic approach. It is a unique method that allows to explore the pathogenesis of diseases based on the guiding principles of the holistic concept that involves the observation of changes in the lining of the tongue in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. It is a potential method of screening and early detection of cancer. However, the subjective inspection of the tongue has a low reliability index, and therefore computerized systems of acquisition of diagnostic bioinformation have been developed to analyze the lining of the tongue. Next-generation sequencing technology is used to determine the V2–V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA to study the microbiota. A lot of neoplasms are identified only at an advanced phase, while in the early stages, many subjects remain in an asymptomatic form. On the contrary, the early diagnosis is able to increase the prognosis of cancer and improve the survival rates of subjects. Evidently, it is necessary to develop new strategies in oral medicine for the early diagnosis of diseases, and the diagnosis of the tongue as a minimally invasive method is certainly one of them. View Full-Text
Keywords: tongue microbiota; host–microbiota symbiosis; tongue diagnosis; systems correlations; minimally invasive; hygiene tongue microbiota; host–microbiota symbiosis; tongue diagnosis; systems correlations; minimally invasive; hygiene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Casu, C.; Mosaico, G.; Natoli, V.; Scarano, A.; Lorusso, F.; Inchingolo, F. Microbiota of the Tongue and Systemic Connections: The Examination of the Tongue as an Integrated Approach in Oral Medicine. Hygiene 2021, 1, 56-68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hygiene1020006

AMA Style

Casu C, Mosaico G, Natoli V, Scarano A, Lorusso F, Inchingolo F. Microbiota of the Tongue and Systemic Connections: The Examination of the Tongue as an Integrated Approach in Oral Medicine. Hygiene. 2021; 1(2):56-68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hygiene1020006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Casu, Cinzia, Giovanna Mosaico, Valentino Natoli, Antonio Scarano, Felice Lorusso, and Francesco Inchingolo. 2021. "Microbiota of the Tongue and Systemic Connections: The Examination of the Tongue as an Integrated Approach in Oral Medicine" Hygiene 1, no. 2: 56-68. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hygiene1020006

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