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Aquaculture Journal: A New Open Access Journal
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Are Shell Strength Phenotypic Traits in Mussels Associated with Species Alone?

1
Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
2
Scottish Shellfish Marketing Group, Bellshill, Glasgow ML4 3NZ, UK
3
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenji Saitoh
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
Mussels often hybridise to form the Mytilus species complex comprised of M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis as the main species cultivated in Europe and, where their geographical distribution overlaps, the species M. trossulus. It has been suggested that M. trossulus have a weaker shell than the UK native M. edulis and hybridisation reduces farmed mussel yields and overall fitness. Here, we investigate the hypothesised link between species and shell weakness, employing multi-locus genotyping combined with measurements of six different phenotypes indicative of shell strength (shell thickness, flexural strength, Young’s modulus, Vicker’s hardness, fracture toughness, calcite and aragonite crystallographic orientation). Historic evidence from shell strength studies assumed species designation based on geographical origin, single locus DNA marker or allozyme genetic techniques that are limited in their ability to discern hybrid individuals. Single nucleotide polymorphic markers have now been developed with the ability to better distinguish between the species of the complex and their hybrids. Our study indicates that shell strength phenotypic traits are less associated with species than previously thought. The application of techniques outlined in this study challenges the historic influence of M. trossulus hybridisation on mussel yields and opens up potential for the environment to determine mussel shell fitness. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mytilus species complex; biominerals; material properties; micro-indentation; aquaculture Mytilus species complex; biominerals; material properties; micro-indentation; aquaculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carboni, S.; Evans, S.; Tanner, K.E.; Davie, A.; Bekaert, M.; Fitzer, S.C. Are Shell Strength Phenotypic Traits in Mussels Associated with Species Alone? Aquac. J. 2021, 1, 3-13. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aquacj1010002

AMA Style

Carboni S, Evans S, Tanner KE, Davie A, Bekaert M, Fitzer SC. Are Shell Strength Phenotypic Traits in Mussels Associated with Species Alone? Aquaculture Journal. 2021; 1(1):3-13. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aquacj1010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carboni, Stefano, Sarah Evans, K. E. Tanner, Andrew Davie, Michaël Bekaert, and Susan C. Fitzer 2021. "Are Shell Strength Phenotypic Traits in Mussels Associated with Species Alone?" Aquaculture Journal 1, no. 1: 3-13. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aquacj1010002

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