Oxygen, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 4 articles

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Review
Comprehension of the Relationship between Autophagy and Reactive Oxygen Species for Superior Cancer Therapy with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Oxygen 2021, 1(1), 22-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1010004 - 25 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Epigenetics contains various mechanisms by which cells employ to regulate the transcription of many DNAs. Histone acetylation is an obvious example of the epigenetic mechanism regulating the expression of several genes by changing chromatin accessibility. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes [...] Read more.
Epigenetics contains various mechanisms by which cells employ to regulate the transcription of many DNAs. Histone acetylation is an obvious example of the epigenetic mechanism regulating the expression of several genes by changing chromatin accessibility. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that play a critical role in the epigenetic regulation by deacetylation of histone proteins. Inhibitors of the histone deacetylase could result in hyperacetylation of histones, which eventually induce various cellular consequences such as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of apoptotic pathways, and initiating autophagy. In particular, excessive levels of ROS have been proposed to contribute to the pathophysiology of various diseases including cancer. Cancers are, as it were, a class of redox diseases. Low levels of ROS are beneficial for cells, however, cancer cells generally have high levels of ROS, which makes them more susceptible than normal cells to the further increases of ROS levels. Cancer cells exhibit metabolic alterations for managing to sustain these oxidative stresses. There is a growing interest in the use of HDAC inhibitors as promising cancer therapeutics with potentiating the activity of established therapeutic applications. Therefore, it should be important to understand the underlying relationship between the regulation of HDACs, ROS production, and cancer cell biology. Full article
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Article
Development of Novel High Li-Ion Conductivity Hybrid Electrolytes of Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) and Li6.6La3Zr1.6Sb0.4O12 (LLZSO) for Advanced All-Solid-State Batteries
Oxygen 2021, 1(1), 16-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen1010003 - 15 Jul 2021
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Abstract
A lithium superionic conductor of Li10GeP2S12 that exhibits the highest lithium ionic conductivity among the sulfide electrolytes and the most promising oxide electrolytes, namely, Li6.6La3Sr0.06Zr1.6Sb0.4O12 and Li [...] Read more.
A lithium superionic conductor of Li10GeP2S12 that exhibits the highest lithium ionic conductivity among the sulfide electrolytes and the most promising oxide electrolytes, namely, Li6.6La3Sr0.06Zr1.6Sb0.4O12 and Li6.6La3Zr1.6Sb0.4O12, are successfully synthesized. Novel hybrid electrolytes with a weight ratio of Li6.6La3Zr1.6Sb0.4O12 to Li10GeP2S12 from 1/1 to 1/3 with the higher Li-ion conductivity than that of the pure Li10GeP2S12 electrolyte are developed for the fabrication of the advanced all-solid-state Li batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor and Its Applications)
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Review
Oxygen Is Instrumental for Biological Signaling: An Overview
Oxygen 2021, 1(1), 3-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1010002 - 12 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Control of cellular function is extremely complex, being reliant on a wide range of components. Several of these are small oxygen-based molecules. Although reactive compounds containing oxygen are usually harmful to cells when accumulated to relatively high concentrations, they are also instrumental in [...] Read more.
Control of cellular function is extremely complex, being reliant on a wide range of components. Several of these are small oxygen-based molecules. Although reactive compounds containing oxygen are usually harmful to cells when accumulated to relatively high concentrations, they are also instrumental in the control of the activity of a myriad of proteins, and control both the upregulation and downregulation of gene expression. The formation of one oxygen-based molecule, such as the superoxide anion, can lead to a cascade of downstream generation of others, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH), each with their own reactivity and effect. Nitrogen-based signaling molecules also contain oxygen, and include nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite, both instrumental among the suite of cell signaling components. These molecules do not act alone, but form part of a complex interplay of reactions, including with several sulfur-based compounds, such as glutathione and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Overaccumulation of oxygen-based reactive compounds may alter the redox status of the cell and lead to programmed cell death, in processes referred to as oxidative stress, or nitrosative stress (for nitrogen-based molecules). Here, an overview of the main oxygen-based molecules involved, and the ramifications of their production, is given. Full article
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Editorial
Oxygen: A New Open Access Journal Focused on the Biology and Chemistry of This Essential Molecule
Oxygen 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1010001 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Oxygen (ISSN 2673-9801) is a new and exciting open access journal which will embrace research based on this essential molecule [...] Full article
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