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Oxygen, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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Review
Role of Oxygen Radicals in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Tau Protein
Oxygen 2021, 1(2), 96-120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1020010 - 27 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Oxygen free radical burst is a prominent early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Posttranslational modifications of Tau protein, primarily hyper-phosphorylation and truncation, are indicated as critical mediators of AD pathology. This finding is confirmed by the high levels of oxidative [...] Read more.
Oxygen free radical burst is a prominent early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Posttranslational modifications of Tau protein, primarily hyper-phosphorylation and truncation, are indicated as critical mediators of AD pathology. This finding is confirmed by the high levels of oxidative stress markers and by the increased susceptibility to oxygen radicals found in cultured neurons and in brains from transgenic animal models expressing toxic Tau forms, in concomitance with a dramatic reduction in their viability/survival. Here, we collect the latest progress in research focused on the reciprocal and dynamic interplay between oxygen radicals and pathological Tau, discussing how these harmful species cooperate and/or synergize in the progression of AD. In this context, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in determining Tau pathology, and vice versa, primarily could be able to define novel biomarkers of early stages of human tauopathies, including AD, and then to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating, halting, or reversing disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
The Reactive Oxygen Species Singlet Oxygen, Hydroxy Radicals, and the Superoxide Radical Anion—Examples of Their Roles in Biology and Medicine
Oxygen 2021, 1(2), 77-95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1020009 - 27 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species comprise oxygen-based free radicals and non-radical species such as peroxynitrite and electronically excited (singlet) oxygen. These reactive species often have short lifetimes, and much of our understanding of their formation and reactivity in biological and especially medical environments has come [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species comprise oxygen-based free radicals and non-radical species such as peroxynitrite and electronically excited (singlet) oxygen. These reactive species often have short lifetimes, and much of our understanding of their formation and reactivity in biological and especially medical environments has come from complimentary fast reaction methods involving pulsed lasers and high-energy radiation techniques. These and related methods, such as EPR, are discussed with particular reference to singlet oxygen, hydroxy radicals, the superoxide radical anion, and their roles in medical aspects, such as cancer, vision and skin disorders, and especially pro- and anti-oxidative processes. Full article
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Editorial
Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors: A Preface to the Special Issue
Oxygen 2021, 1(2), 73-76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oxygen1020008 - 13 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Chemical sensors are measurement devices that convert a chemical or physical property of a specific analyte into a measurable signal, whose magnitude is normally proportional to the concentration of the analyte [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors)
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