Special Issue "Papers from AgEng2021"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Precision and Digital Agriculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fátima Baptista
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agricultural Engineering Department, School of Science and Technology, University of Évora and ICAAM, 7004-516 Évora, Portugal
Interests: energy efficiency; greenhouses; animal buildings; environmental control; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Luis Leopoldo Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Évora/ MED - Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Évora, Portugal
Prof. José Carlos Barbosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polythenic Institute of Bragança
Dr. Vasco Fitas da Cruz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Rural Engineering Department and MED, School of Science and Technology, University of Évora, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal
Interests: environmental control for livestock and poultry; precision livestock farming; animal waste management; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Adélia Sousa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Évora/ MED - Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Évora, Portugal
Prof. José Rafael Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Évora/ MED - Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Évora, Portugal
Dr. Patrícia Lourenço
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Évora/ MED - Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Évora, Portugal

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agricultural engineers are professionals with high competences and skills to enhance the sustainable production of food, feed, and biomass, ensuring nutritional and health conditions respecting the nature, the environment, landscape, and rural communities. This means a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary work in the field of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering.

AgEng conferences, organized each two years under the aegis of the EurAgEng society, are an opportunity to bring together engineers, scientists, technicians, academics, and industry people to exchange knowledge, ideas, to present innovations, and to discuss the state-of-the-art and future perspectives for agricultural engineering. The AgEng2021 will be held at the University of Évora, Portugal, between 4 and 8 July 2021 with a focus on New Challenges for Agricultural Engineering towards a Digital World. It is expected that results from research and technology development in agricultural and biosystem engineering with a focus on sustainable agriculture in a digital world will be presented. Studies focusing not only on technology but also economy and environmental impacts will be welcome.

AgEng2021 will deal with the typical topics of agricultural engineering, such as precision agriculture, automation, robotics and sensor technology, soil, land and water engineering, farming systems, farm buildings, mechanization and post-harvest technologies as new multidisciplinary topics as smart farming, artificial intelligence, big data processing and management, circular economy, energy, education and rural development. Detailed information is available at https://ageng2020.com/.

Prof. Fátima Baptista
Prof. Luis Leopoldo Silva
Prof. José Carlos Barbosa
Prof. Vasco Fitas da Cruz
Prof. Adélia Sousa
Prof. José Rafael Silva
Dr. Patrícia Lourenço
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Please note that only Manuscripts previously accepted for the AgEng2021 will be considered for this special issue. Submission to this special issue will be open in June.

Keywords

  • Agricultural engineering
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Technology
  • Smart farming/precision agriculture irrigation and drainage
  • Farming systems
  • Circular economy
  • Energy and bioenergy
  • Postharvest
  • Education and rural development

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Dealing with Plastic Waste from Agriculture Activity
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy12010134 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 163
Abstract
The increase in agricultural production and food quality has forced the growing use of plastics in various activities. The plastic wastes are partially recycled in or outside Portugal; nevertheless, the contaminated wastes are sent to landfill. It is crucial to consider new models [...] Read more.
The increase in agricultural production and food quality has forced the growing use of plastics in various activities. The plastic wastes are partially recycled in or outside Portugal; nevertheless, the contaminated wastes are sent to landfill. It is crucial to consider new models for their valorization at a regional level and from a circular economy perspective. In the scope of the Placarvões project, a study was elaborated, which included the types and quantities of plastics used in the irrigation area of the Alqueva Dam, in southern Portugal. The crops that use the most plastic are intensive olive groves, almonds, and table grapes, which represent more than 91% of total plastic waste. The production of activated carbons (ACs) is a solution to avoid plastics landfill. ACs were produced from plastic used on food packaging (PB-Samples) and sheeting film (PS-Samples) by activation with K2CO3. ACs presented well-developed textural properties (PB-K2CO3-1:1–700 and PS-K2CO3-1:1–700 exhibited a volume of 0.32 and 0.25 cm3 g−1 and an apparent surface area of 723 and 623 m2 g−1, respectively). Both ACs performed very well concerning four pesticide removals from the liquid phase. This solution is very promising, such these ACs could be applied in effluent treatments on a large scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lateral Stability Performance of Articulated Narrow-Track Tractors
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11122512 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
A tractor losing lateral stability starts to rollover. It is a matter of fact that tractor lateral rollover accidents are one of the most frequent causes of death and injuries for farmers. Consequently, tractors are fitted with a specific protective structure to minimize [...] Read more.
A tractor losing lateral stability starts to rollover. It is a matter of fact that tractor lateral rollover accidents are one of the most frequent causes of death and injuries for farmers. Consequently, tractors are fitted with a specific protective structure to minimize the consequences for the driver during the rollover (ROPS). The narrow-track tractor, designed to operate in vineyards and orchards, is a tractor category with a very narrow track width and the risk of rollover is higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate the compact narrow-track tractor types commercially available, designed to mount a cantilever engine in the forward position with effects on the Center of Gravity (CoG) because more than 50% of the tractor weight is loaded on the front axle, and, specifically, the articulated narrow-track tractors where the stability is affected by the pivot point connecting the two tractor bodies. As a consequence of the typical tractor design of articulated tractors, during the steering action the line passing through the front and rear tire contact points on the ground changes, influencing the tractor’s stability. The approach of the research was based on reproducing the lateral stability tractor condition by developing a kinematic model, with the goal to virtually simulate the tractor behavior and to calculate the lateral stability angle for articulated tractors. The innovative contribution of this paper was the tractor articulation joint modeling, assuming a virtual pivot point to reproduce two relatives’ rotations between the front and rear bodies of the tractor: vertical (yaw angle) and longitudinal (roll angle) rotations. The lowest value of the stability angle was 39.3°, measured at −35° yaw angle. The model at the tractor design stage will allow adjusting of the tractor parameters to improve the lateral stability performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dual Crop Coefficient Approach in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Loureiro
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 2062; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11102062 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Vineyard irrigation management in temperate zones requires knowledge of the crop water requirements, especially in the context of climate change. The main objective of this work was to estimate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro for local conditions, [...] Read more.
Vineyard irrigation management in temperate zones requires knowledge of the crop water requirements, especially in the context of climate change. The main objective of this work was to estimate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro for local conditions, applying the dual crop coefficient approach. The study was carried out in a vineyard during two growing seasons (2019–2020). Three irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI), and rainfed (R), were considered. The ETc was estimated using the SIMDualKc model, which performs the soil water balance with the dual Kc approach. This balance was performed by calculating the basal coefficients for the grapevine (Kcb crop) and the active soil ground cover (Kcb gcover), which represent the transpiration component of ETc and the soil evaporation coefficient (Ke). The model was calibrated and validated by comparing the simulated soil water content (SWC) with the soil water content data measured with frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). A suitable adjustment between the simulated and observed SWC was obtained for the 2019 R strategy when the model was calibrated. As for the vine crop, the best fit was obtained for Kcb full ini = 0.33, Kcb full mid = 0.684, and Kcb full end = 0.54. In this sense, the irrigation schedule must adjust these coefficients to local conditions to achieve economically and environmentally sustainable production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Subsoil Melioration with Organic Material—Principle, Technology and Yield Effects
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1970; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11101970 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
An increasing challenge for agriculture in times of climate change is to sustainably ensure or increase the yield capacity of crop production. Low-yielding sites are particularly at risk in this respect. One strategy to counteract is to promote the use of the subsoil. [...] Read more.
An increasing challenge for agriculture in times of climate change is to sustainably ensure or increase the yield capacity of crop production. Low-yielding sites are particularly at risk in this respect. One strategy to counteract is to promote the use of the subsoil. This article describes the technical procedure and development of an implement for stripe-wise subsoil melioration with application of compost in a layer of 30–60 cm. These stripes are each 30 cm wide and 70 cm apart. A technology has been developed for process, which allows the described procedure to be used over a large area. The melioration is carried out in one pass by an implement in an arrangement of 3 rows resulting in a working width of 3 m. A hopper on top of the implements frame includes an embedded hydraulic system to feed compost into the injection coulter. Results from 4-year field trials with standard crop rotations verify yield increases of up to 20% still 5 years after melioration. An overview of these trials and results will also be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Challenges for Agriculture through Industry 4.0
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1935; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11101935 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Industry 4.0 is currently considered the structural implementation of networked and cooperative digitalisation and the next step in technological and social development. The aim of this paper is to examine how these structures are also suitable for agriculture and whether there are already [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 is currently considered the structural implementation of networked and cooperative digitalisation and the next step in technological and social development. The aim of this paper is to examine how these structures are also suitable for agriculture and whether there are already approaches to this. Therefore, the main aspects of Industry 4.0 will be analysed and compared with agricultural examples from arable farming and livestock farming. The study shows that the approaches of Industry 4.0 are also useful for agriculture. However, they must be adapted to agriculture, as it has a different basic structure. As in industry, it is also evident in agriculture that there is still a need for action in the organisational and technical networking of systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Article
Linear Models for the Prediction of Animal Zone Ammonia in a Weaned Piglet Building
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1927; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11101927 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Measuring ammonia inside livestock buildings poses many challenges that hinder the incorporation of this variable into environmental control systems. The aim of this study was to measure various microclimate variables inside a weaned piglet building and analyse their interactions with NH3 concentrations [...] Read more.
Measuring ammonia inside livestock buildings poses many challenges that hinder the incorporation of this variable into environmental control systems. The aim of this study was to measure various microclimate variables inside a weaned piglet building and analyse their interactions with NH3 concentrations for setpoint temperatures of 26 and 25 °C, in order to control NH3 concentrations based on other easily measurable variables. The experimental test was conducted on a conventional farm in Northwest Spain. NH3 concentrations in the animal zone were best correlated with CO2 concentrations in the animal zone (R = 0.91 and R = 0.55) and velocity of air extracted through the fan (R = 0.72 and R = 0.65) for setpoint temperatures of 26 and 25 °C, respectively. Similarly, strong correlations were found with relative humidity in the animal zone and temperature of inlet air. Because NH3 concentration in the animal zone is related to the performance of the ventilation system, strong positive correlations were found between NH3 concentration and temperature of inlet air whereas negative correlations were found between NH3 concentration and ventilation rates. Linear regression models based on CO2 concentrations in the animal zone and temperature of inlet air are recommended, because they provide a good fit for both setpoint temperatures using variables that can be readily measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Robotic Cultivation of Pome Fruit: A Benchmark Study of Manipulation Tools—From Research to Industrial Standards
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1922; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11101922 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
In pome fruit cultivation, apples and pears need to be handled in various processes such as harvesting and sorting. Currently, most processes require a vast amount of manual labor. Combined with a structural shortage of seasonal workers, innovation in this field is crucial. [...] Read more.
In pome fruit cultivation, apples and pears need to be handled in various processes such as harvesting and sorting. Currently, most processes require a vast amount of manual labor. Combined with a structural shortage of seasonal workers, innovation in this field is crucial. Automated processes could provide a solution wherein the search for an appropriate manipulation tool is essential. Aside from several grippers, customized for harvesting by various researchers, the industry also provides a wide variety of standardized manipulation tools. This paper benchmarks a wide set of the most relevant gripping principles, primarily based on their ability to successfully handle fruit, without causing damage. In addition, energy consumption and general feasibility are evaluated as well. The performed study showed that the customized foam gripper scores the overall best for all test scenarios at the cost of being the least energy efficient. Furthermore, most other gripping tools excelled at certain specific tasks rather than being generally deployable. Impactive grippers are better suited for harvesting at low energy consumption, while astrictive grippers are more suited for sorting tasks constricted by the available space. The results also showed that commercially available soft grippers are not always capable of handling sensitive fruits such as pears without causing damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Development of the Technical Structure of the “Cow Energy” Concept
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1915; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11101915 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Regional energy supply is an important topic in the context of the energy transition in Germany. The “Cow Energy” project aims to combine the production of energy and milk for the farmer. In order to take the different needs into account, a central [...] Read more.
Regional energy supply is an important topic in the context of the energy transition in Germany. The “Cow Energy” project aims to combine the production of energy and milk for the farmer. In order to take the different needs into account, a central energy management system (EMS) is being established. This system records and simulates how much electricity is generated from renewable sources (biogas, solar, wind, etc.) on the farm. This is compared with the consumption of the barn technology (milking robot, feeding robot, etc.). This energy management is regulated according to the needs of the cows. In order to balance the fluctuations between energy production and energy consumption, the EMS regulates various battery systems. One goal is to network this energy system with the region and to establish regional energy networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Orchard Level Assessment of Irrigation Performance and Water Productivity of an Irrigation Community in Eastern Spain
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11091829 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Over the last three decades, a great investment effort has been made in the modernization of irrigation in the Valencian Community (Spain). The initial change from distribution networks to pressurized ones and the shift towards drip irrigation systems was followed by improvements in [...] Read more.
Over the last three decades, a great investment effort has been made in the modernization of irrigation in the Valencian Community (Spain). The initial change from distribution networks to pressurized ones and the shift towards drip irrigation systems was followed by improvements in irrigation scheduling, based on agrometeorological data, soil water content sensors, and remote sensing. These improvements are considered adequate for increasing irrigation water use efficiency, but it is difficult to find systematic measurements to assess its impacts on irrigation adequacy along with irrigation productivity in fruit orchards. This work presents the results of a four year assessment of irrigation water and energy use efficiency along with water productivity of a recently established irrigation community in the province of Valencia (Spain). The study was carried out at the orchard level and focused on two fruit crops: persimmon and peach trees. Six irrigation performance indicators, relative water supply (RWS), relative irrigation supply (RIS), yield performance (Yp), global water productivity (WPoverall), output per unit irrigation water (OUI), and the percent of nitrogen fertilization obtained by irrigation water, were defined and calculated for years 2017 to 2020 in 104 persimmon and peach orchards. The results showed that most of the farmers irrigated below the crop water requirements, showing RWS and RIS values less than 1, and there was great variability among farmers, especially in WPoverall and OUI indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Estimation of the Remaining Value for Grape Harvesters Based on Second-Hand European Market Online Data
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11091802 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Assessing the remaining value (RV) of agricultural machines is essential to compute the depreciation costs, especially in the second-hand market, although previous scientific studies have employed the scrap value as an estimate of RV (10 years of life). Since Brazil, a developing country, [...] Read more.
Assessing the remaining value (RV) of agricultural machines is essential to compute the depreciation costs, especially in the second-hand market, although previous scientific studies have employed the scrap value as an estimate of RV (10 years of life). Since Brazil, a developing country, is at the very first steps of the process of grape harvest mechanization, it is likely that second-hand grape harvesters will be mainly machines that will be imported and employed for this task. ASABE has developed a methodology to evaluate RV based on an experimental formula that takes into account the auction value, the age and the intensity of annual use. Our work adjusted the RV coefficients for grape harvesters based on the online European market (Spain and France) considering 1290 visited reporting brands, models, ages, hours of use and sale value, refined to 89 unique records. For self-propelled grape harvesters, two types of ownership were identified based on the normal distribution of annual use intensity: private owners (22) and farm service providers (6), with an average RV of 28% and 40% of auction value, respectively. For trailed harvesters, the average RV for a machine age shorter than 13.5 years was 36% of the auction value compared to 12.5% for a life of more than 24 years. The performance of the RV models (R2) based on the formulation of ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) amounted to 0.86 and 0.85 for self-propelled and trailed harvesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environmental and Animal-Related Parameters and the Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from an Open-Sided Free-Stall Barn in Hot Mediterranean Climate: A Preliminary Study
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1772; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11091772 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
Increased knowledge on the factors that affect emissions from open-sided dairy buildings may lead to an improvement of the mitigation strategies. In this study, ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions were assessed in an open dairy barn in a [...] Read more.
Increased knowledge on the factors that affect emissions from open-sided dairy buildings may lead to an improvement of the mitigation strategies. In this study, ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions were assessed in an open dairy barn in a hot Mediterranean climate at different managements of the cooling system, as well as the influence of environmental and animal-related parameters on daily emissions. Measurements of gas concentrations and micro-climatic parameters were carried out in a cubicle free-stall dairy barn located in the province of Ragusa (Italy) in two weeks of 2016 characterised by similar climatic conditions in the warm period. Emissions of NH3 and CH4 were estimated through the application of the carbon-dioxide (CO2) mass balance method. Data collected were organised in specific datasets to carry out different statistical analyses on gas emissions depending on selected parameters for the two weeks with a different management of the cooling system. The results showed higher NH3 emissions and lower CH4 emissions in W1 than those in W2. The variability in gas emissions was related to the effect of temperature humidity index (THI) (p < 0.001) and cow behaviour (p < 0.01). The highest emissions were recorded during the cleaning procedures for both NH3 (p < 0.001) and CH4 (p < 0.001), whereas the lowest emissions were recorded during the central hours of the day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Granulometric Parameters of Solid Blueberry Fertilizers and Their Suitability for Precision Fertilization
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11081576 - 08 Aug 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
For precise fertilization of blueberry plants, it is technologically the easiest and most suitable option to use a volumetric filling, for which it can be presumed that it is possible to precisely dose the fertilizer for each plant by grams. For setting up [...] Read more.
For precise fertilization of blueberry plants, it is technologically the easiest and most suitable option to use a volumetric filling, for which it can be presumed that it is possible to precisely dose the fertilizer for each plant by grams. For setting up a volumetric filler, it is necessary to know parameters such as the size of the fertilizer particles and their bulk density. The aim of this research is to determine the granulometric parameters and their effect, which is done by measuring up three different fertilizers (SQM Qrop K, Memon Siforga, Substral): width, height, and length of 100 randomly selected fertilizer particles as well as the volumes and weights of 100 particles in 10 repetitions. According to the measurements, the average diameters of fertilizer particles were found as well as the average mass, volumes, and bulk density. A Mahr Digital Caliper 16EWRi 0–150 mm was used to measure the diameters of the fertilizer granules. A Yxlon FF35 computer tomograph was used to accurately scan particles. The analytical scale, Kern ABJ 220-4NM, was used to determine mass. The volumes were measured, using measuring glasses, with one having a maximum volume of 10 mL in 0.2 mL increments and another having a maximum volume of 100 mL in 1 mL increments. Descriptive statistics analysis was performed in Microsoft Excel. It turned out that the average diameters (3.68 vs. 3.64 vs. 4.29 mm) and bulk densities (0.928 vs. 0.631 vs. 0.824 g cm−3) of the three fertilizers differed far from each other, meaning that the given volume could be filled with different amounts of fertilizer. Equations between mass and weight were formed according to the measurements. As a result, it was found that a volumetric filler can be used for fertilizing blueberry plants precisely, but it demands adjusting the filler each time in the situation, which is defined by the variety of blueberry plants: their age, size, and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Paddy Rice Imagery Dataset for Panicle Segmentation
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11081542 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Accurate panicle identification is a key step in rice-field phenotyping. Deep learning methods based on high-spatial-resolution images provide a high-throughput and accurate solution of panicle segmentation. Panicle segmentation tasks require costly annotations to train an accurate and robust deep learning model. However, few [...] Read more.
Accurate panicle identification is a key step in rice-field phenotyping. Deep learning methods based on high-spatial-resolution images provide a high-throughput and accurate solution of panicle segmentation. Panicle segmentation tasks require costly annotations to train an accurate and robust deep learning model. However, few public datasets are available for rice-panicle phenotyping. We present a semi-supervised deep learning model training process, which greatly assists the annotation and refinement of training datasets. The model learns the panicle features with limited annotations and localizes more positive samples in the datasets, without further interaction. After the dataset refinement, the number of annotations increased by 40.6%. In addition, we trained and tested modern deep learning models to show how the dataset is beneficial to both detection and segmentation tasks. Results of our comparison experiments can inspire others in dataset preparation and model selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from AgEng2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop