Special Issue "Feed Safety and Quality Control"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Niel Karrow
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada
Interests: animal science; genetics; immunology; immune response; mycotoxins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Lvhui Sun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: animal nutrition; feed safety; mycotoxins; animal health; selenium
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Feed safety was defined as protecting both animals and the people that feed them from illness or injury from handling or consuming feed products. The anti-nutritional factors, mycotoxins, and heavy metals etc are widely contaminant in agricultural products, including maize, wheat, barley, peas, oily feedstuffs, and their by-products. These harmful substances are generated in natural food by the normal metabolism of plants, fungi and others, which are seriously influence the feed safety. Improving our knowledge on understand the toxic mechanism of them could help for development of antidotes and countermeasures.

This special issue collects the original research and review that 1) help understanding the toxic mechanisms of the harmful substance appeared in feed on the performance, and products quality of livestock; and 2) dietary strategies to counteract the toxic effects of these harmful substance.

Prof. Niel Karrow
Prof. Lvhui Sun
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • anti-nutritional factors
  • mycotoxins
  • heavy metals
  • animal health
  • product quality
  • remediation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Different Kefir Source on Fermentation, Aerobic Stability, and Microbial Community of Alfalfa Silage
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11072096 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
The present study has been one of the first attempts to thoroughly examine the effects of different kefir sources on fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and microbial communities of alfalfa silages. The effects of commercial kefir (CK) and homemade kefir culture (HK) applied with [...] Read more.
The present study has been one of the first attempts to thoroughly examine the effects of different kefir sources on fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and microbial communities of alfalfa silages. The effects of commercial kefir (CK) and homemade kefir culture (HK) applied with untreated a common control (CON) and three different application doses (5.0, 5.7, and 6.0 log cfu g−1) on wilted alfalfa and stored at an ambient temperature of 25–30 °C are studied. After 45 days of ensiling, fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silages were measured, and bacterial diversity was investigated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing using the GenomeLab™ GeXP platform. Both CK and HK accelerate more lactic acid production and reduced ammonia nitrogen concentration. Factor analysis of kefir sources suggests that the addition of kefir improves the aerobic stability of silages, even the initial water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content is inadequate via its antimicrobial effect on yeast and mold formation. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceous and Lactobacillus brevis were dominant bacterial species among the treated groups at silo opening, while Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis became dominant bacterial species after 7 days of aerobic exposure. In conclusion, the application of kefir on alfalfa silages improves fermentation quality and aerobic stability even with low WSC content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Evaluation of Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Different Sources of Rice and Rice Milling Byproducts in Broilers
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1894; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11071894 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Rice, broken rice (BR), and full-fat rice bran (FFRB) from six different origins were analyzed for their chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolized energy (AMEn), and standardized amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) in 14-day-old and 28-day-old Arbor Acres broilers. Results showed broilers fed with rice [...] Read more.
Rice, broken rice (BR), and full-fat rice bran (FFRB) from six different origins were analyzed for their chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolized energy (AMEn), and standardized amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) in 14-day-old and 28-day-old Arbor Acres broilers. Results showed broilers fed with rice and BR had a similar AMEn regardless of the rice and BR having different CP, EE, NDF, ADF, and ash content. FFRB containing significantly different CP, EE, NDF, ADFm and starch presented variable AMEn (p < 0.05), suggesting that starch content in rice and its byproducts contributed most to the AMEn of broilers. The regression equation of AMEn = 14.312 − (0.198 × NDF) and AMEn = 6.491 + (0.103 × Starch) were feasible to integrally predict AMEn of broilers fed to rice and its byproducts. Moreover, 28-day-old broilers had higher SIAAD than 14-day-old ones. The SIAAD of rice were higher than BR and FFRB except for Met, Cys, Thr, and Tyr in 14-day-old broilers (p < 0.05), and the SIAAD of His, Asp, and Ser in BR were higher than FFRB (p < 0.05). In 28-day-old broilers, the SIAAD of Leu, Trp, Asp, Gly, and Pro of rice were still higher than BR and FFRB (p < 0.05), but BR and FFRB had no significant differences (p > 0.05). The regression equations to estimate the SIAAD of Thr, Lys, and Met were: Met = 81.46 + (0.578 × CP), Thr = 0.863 + (6.311 × CP), and Trp = 102.883 − (1.77 × CP), indicating that CP content in rice and its byproducts was likely a major factor for prediction of SIAAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
Article
Protective Effects of α-Lipoic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid on Cadmium-Induced Liver Injury in Three-Yellow Chickens
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11061606 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a type of noxious heavy metal that is distributed widely. It can severely injure the hepatocytes and cause liver dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. We evaluated the protective effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) or chlorogenic acid (CGA) [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a type of noxious heavy metal that is distributed widely. It can severely injure the hepatocytes and cause liver dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. We evaluated the protective effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) or chlorogenic acid (CGA) and their combination on counteracting cadmium toxicity in vivo in three-yellow chickens. For three months, CdCl2 (50 mg/L) was administrated through their drinking water, α-LA (400 mg/kg) was added to feed and CGA (45 mg/kg) was employed by gavage. The administration of Cd led to variations in growth performance, biochemical markers (of the liver, kidney and heart), hematological parameters, liver histopathology (which suggested hepatic injury) and ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Some antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters showed significant differences in the Cd-exposure group when compared with the control group. The groups treated with Cd and administrated α-LA or CGA showed significant amelioration with inhibited mitochondrial pathway-induced apoptosis. Combining both drugs was the most effective in reducing Cd toxicity in the liver. In summary, the results demonstrated that α-LA and CGA may be beneficial in alleviating oxidative stress induced by oxygen free radicals and tissue injury resulting from Cd-triggered hepatotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
A Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Complex Is Able to Compensate a Nutrient-Deficiency in Growing-Finishing Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11041129 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing a corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet with a multicarbohydrase and phytase complex (MCPC) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. A total [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing a corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet with a multicarbohydrase and phytase complex (MCPC) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 300 pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace; body weight = 25.3 ± 0.7 kg) were randomly allotted to three groups with 10 replicates of 10 pigs each. Pigs from three groups were fed positive control (PC) or negative control (NC), without or with MCPC diets, respectively. The MCPC supplied at least 1800, 1244, 6600, and 1000 units of xylanase, β-glucanase, α-arabinofuranosidase, and phytase per kilogram of diet, respectively. The NC diet was the PC diet but reduced in net energy (NE), digestible amino acids (dig. AA), digestible P (dig. P), and Ca by 74 kcal/kg, 7.0%, 0.134, and 0.119 percentage points, respectively. The diets were fed in 4 growth phases based on body weight (BW): phase 1: 25–50 kg, phase 2: 50–75 kg, phase 3: 75–100 kg, and phase 4: 100–135 kg. Compared to the PC, the NC diet decreased (p < 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and(or) feed to gain ratio during the growing/finishing phases 1, 2, 3, and 4. It also reduced (p < 0.05) the ATTD of crude protein, crude fat, P, and Ca of pigs. MCPC supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the body weight gain, feed intake, and(or) feed to gain ratio in phases 2, 3, and 4 and the ATTD of crude protein, crude fat, ash, P, and Ca for the NC diet. Additionally, dietary treatment had no effects on carcass traits and meat quality with the exception that the loin eye area in the NC plus MCPC diet was higher (p < 0.05) than the NC diet. In conclusion, the addition of MCPC to a corn-soybean meal-wheat-based diet reduced in energy and nutrients improved the growth performance and nutrient digestibility but had little effect on carcass traits and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
Article
Descriptive Histopathological and Ultrastructural Study of Hepatocellular Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 in Rats
Animals 2021, 11(2), 509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11020509 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Liver sinusoids are lined by fenestrated endothelial cells surrounded by perisinusoidal cells, Kupffer cells, and pit cells, as well as large granular lymphocytes. The functional ability of the liver cells can be substantially modified by exposure to toxins. In the current work, we [...] Read more.
Liver sinusoids are lined by fenestrated endothelial cells surrounded by perisinusoidal cells, Kupffer cells, and pit cells, as well as large granular lymphocytes. The functional ability of the liver cells can be substantially modified by exposure to toxins. In the current work, we assessed the histopathological and ultrastructural effects of a time-course exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the hepatic structures of rats. A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a group orally administered 250 µg/kg body weight/day of AFB1 for 5 days/week over 4 weeks, and a group that received the same AFB1 treatment but over 8 weeks. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations of hepatocytes revealed massive vacuolar degeneration and signs of necrosis. Furthermore, the rat liver of the treated group exhibited damage to the sinusoidal endothelium, invasion of the space of Disse with hyperactive Kupffer cells, and some immune cells, as well as Ito cells overloaded with lipids. In addition, damaged telocytes were observed. Taken together, our results indicate that AFB1 induces irreversible adverse effects on the livers of rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Effects of Sugar Cane Molasses Addition on the Fermentation Quality, Microbial Community, and Tastes of Alfalfa Silage
Animals 2021, 11(2), 355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11020355 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
The objective was to study the effects of sugar cane molasses addition on the fermentation quality and tastes of alfalfa silage. Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with no additive (Control), 1% molasses (M1), 2% molasses (M2), and 3% molasses (M3) for 206 days. The [...] Read more.
The objective was to study the effects of sugar cane molasses addition on the fermentation quality and tastes of alfalfa silage. Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with no additive (Control), 1% molasses (M1), 2% molasses (M2), and 3% molasses (M3) for 206 days. The chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the alfalfa silages were determined, the microbial communities were described by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the tastes were evaluated using an electronic tongue sensing system. With the amount of added molasses (M), most nutrition (dry matter and crude protein) was preserved and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) were sufficiently used to promote the fermentation, resulting in a pH reduction from 5.16 to 4.48. The lactic acid (LA) content and LA/acetic acid (AA) significantly increased, indicating that the fermentation had turned to homofermentation. After ensiling, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus were the dominant genus in all treatments and the undesirable microbes were inhibited, resulting in lower propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), and NH3-N production. In addition, bitterness, astringency, and sourness reflected tastes of alfalfa silage, while umami and sourness changed with the amount of added molasses. Therefore, molasses additive had improved the fermentation quality and tastes of alfalfa silage, and the M3 group obtained the ideal pH value (below 4.5) and the best condition for long-term preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility and Intestinal Health in Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(2), 336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11020336 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and intestinal health in pigs. In a 102-day experiment, fourteen barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW = [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and intestinal health in pigs. In a 102-day experiment, fourteen barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW = 38.21 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into control (CON, basal diet) and AFB1 groups (the basal diet supplemented with 280 μg/kg AFB1). Results revealed that the AFB1 exposure decreased the final BW, ADFI and ADG in pigs (p < 0.10). AFB1 exposure also decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of dry mater and gross energy at 50 to 75 kg and 105 to 135 kg stages, and decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract at 75 to 105 kg stage (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, AFB1 exposure increased serum diamine oxidase activity and reduced the mRNA abundance of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, solute carrier family 7 member 1 and zonula occluden-1 in the jejunal mucosa (p < 0.05). Furthermore, AFB1 exposure decreased superoxide dismutase activity (p < 0.05) and increased 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine content (p < 0.10) in jejunal mucosa. AFB1 exposure also increased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β mRNA abundance in jejunal mucosa and upregulated Escherichia coli population in colon (p < 0.05). The data indicated that chronic exposure to low levels of dietary AFB1 suppressed growth performance, reduced the apparent total tract digestibility and damaged intestinal barrier integrity in pigs, which could be associated with the decreased intestinal antioxidant capacity and the increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
Article
Transfer of Mycotoxins from Lactation Feed to Colostrum of Sows
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani10122253 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Studies regarding the transfer of mycotoxins from sow feed to colostrum are scarce. A sample of in-house produced lactation feed and one of colostrum were collected from two or three sows per farm (total 49) from 19 farms. The feed contents of aflatoxins [...] Read more.
Studies regarding the transfer of mycotoxins from sow feed to colostrum are scarce. A sample of in-house produced lactation feed and one of colostrum were collected from two or three sows per farm (total 49) from 19 farms. The feed contents of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FUs), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) were assessed using ELISA and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), The values were very low (10, 12, 17 and 2 positive samples for AFs, FUs, DON and ZEA, respectively), except for two samples (one AF, one DON). Based on feed values, colostrum samples from 13 farms were tested for at least one mycotoxin (Total 35). Aflatoxins were not found in any sample. A signal for FUs was observed in 5 of 11 colostra, despite low feed values; DON was frequently present in the colostrum (10/14). On the farm where the feed exceeded the DON suggested limits, a higher colostrum content was seen, 10.9 µg/kg, approximately 1/69 of the value showing toxicity in young pigs. The absence of reference values for neonate pigs, and the risk of higher and longer ingestion of DON by sows suggested considering routine checks of sow feed; more research on DON transfer and toxicity in piglets is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Effects of Dietary Zearalenone Exposure on the Growth Performance, Small Intestine Disaccharidase, and Antioxidant Activities of Weaned Gilts
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani10112157 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a secondary metabolite with estrogenic effects produced by Fusarium fungi and mainly occurs as a contaminant of grains such as corn and wheat. ZEA, to which weaned gilts are extremely sensitive, is the main Fusarium toxin detected in corn–soybean meal [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a secondary metabolite with estrogenic effects produced by Fusarium fungi and mainly occurs as a contaminant of grains such as corn and wheat. ZEA, to which weaned gilts are extremely sensitive, is the main Fusarium toxin detected in corn–soybean meal diets. Our aim was to examine the effects of ZEA on the growth performance, intestinal disaccharidase activity, and anti-stress capacity of weaned gilts. Twenty 42-day-old healthy Duroc × Landrace × Large White weaned gilts (12.84 ± 0.26 kg) were randomly divided into control and treatment (diet containing 1.04 mg/kg ZEA) groups. The experiment included a 7-day pre-trial period followed by a 35-day test period, all gilts were euthanized and small intestinal samples were collected and subjected to immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The results revealed that inclusion of 1.04 mg/kg ZEA in the diet significantly reduced the activities of lactase, sucrase, and maltase in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of gilts. Similarly, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and activities of catalase in the jejunum and ileum were reduced (p < 0.05). Conversely, the content of malondialdehyde in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and the integrated optical density (IOD), IOD in single villi, and the mRNA and protein expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The results of immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the positive reaction of Hsp70 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of weaned gilts was enhanced in the ZEA treatment, compared with the control. The findings of this study indicate the inclusion of ZEA (1.04 mg/kg) in the diet of gilts reduced the activity of disaccharidase enzymes and induced oxidative stress in the small intestine, thereby indicating that ZEA would have the effect of reducing nutrient absorption in these animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Baicalin-Copper Complex Modulates Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Responses, and Hormone Secretion in DON-Challenged Piglets
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani10091535 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
The present experiment assessed the inflammatory responses, hormone secretion, and gut microbiota of weanling piglets administered baicalin-copper complex (BCU) or deoxynivalenol (DON) supplementation diets. Twenty-eight piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: control diet (Con group), a 4 mg DON/kg diet (DON group), [...] Read more.
The present experiment assessed the inflammatory responses, hormone secretion, and gut microbiota of weanling piglets administered baicalin-copper complex (BCU) or deoxynivalenol (DON) supplementation diets. Twenty-eight piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: control diet (Con group), a 4 mg DON/kg diet (DON group), a 5 g BCU/kg diet (BCU group), a 5 g BCU + 4 mg DON/kg diet (DBCU group). After 14 days, the results showed that dietary BCU supplementation remarkably increased the relative abundance of Clostrium bornimense and decreased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the DBCU group (p < 0.05). BCU decreased the serum concentration of IgG, IL-2, IFN-γ, and IgA in DON treated piglets (p < 0.05), and promoted the serum concentration of IL-1β, IgG, IL-2, IFN-γ, IgA, IL-6, IgM, and TNFα in normal piglets (p < 0.05). BCU increased the concentrations of serum IGF1, insulin, NPY, GLP-1, and GH, and decreased the concentrations of serum somatostatin in no DON treated piglets (p < 0.05). Dietary BCU supplementation significantly promoted the secretion of somatostatin, and inhibited the secretion of leptin in piglets challenged with DON (p < 0.05). BCU regulated the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary of piglets. Collectively, dietary BCU supplementation alleviated inflammatory responses and regulated the secretion of appetite-regulating hormones and growth-axis hormones in DON challenged piglets, which was closely linked to changes of intestinal microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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Article
Effect of a Multi-Carbohydrase and Phytase Complex on the Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Cannulated Growing Pigs
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1434; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani10081434 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
The current study evaluated the influence of a multi-carbohydrase and phytase complex (MCPC) on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs. A total of eight barrows (initial BW = 30.7 ± 1.1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula [...] Read more.
The current study evaluated the influence of a multi-carbohydrase and phytase complex (MCPC) on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs. A total of eight barrows (initial BW = 30.7 ± 1.1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and randomly allotted to four groups. The experiment was conducted according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, each period lasting 10 days. Pigs were fed four experimental diets, which consisted of two basal diets (BD1, low phytate; BD2, high phytate) with or without MCPC containing at least 1800 U xylanase, 6600 U α-arabinofuranosidase, 1244 U β-glucanase, and 1000 U phytase per/kg corn–soybean meal with 15% corn distillers based diet. The high phytate diet reduced (p < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein by 1.4% and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy by 1.7, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively, and tended to decrease (p = 0.10) the ATTD of Ca by 17.3%, relative to the low phytate diet. The dietary supplementation of the MCPC increased (p < 0.05) the AID of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) by 34.2% and 31.1% for BD1 and 26.7% and 41.3% for BD2, respectively, and increased (p < 0.05) ATTD of crude fat, P, and Ca by 1.4%, 45.6%, and 9.6% for BD1 and 3.1%, 66.0%, and 52.7% for BD2, respectively. The MCPC supplementation did not significantly increase the AID and (or) ATTD of crude protein, organic matter, and starch. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of the MCPC could improve the AID of P and Ca and the ATTD of crude fat, P, and Ca. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Safety and Quality Control)
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