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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Novel Seleno- and Thio-Urea Containing Dihydropyrrol-2-One Analogues as Antibacterial Agents
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030321 - 19 Mar 2021
Abstract
The quorum sensing (QS) system in multi-drug-resistant bacteria such as P. aeruginosa is primarily responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance and is considered an attractive target for antimicrobial drug discovery. In this study, we synthesised a series of novel selenourea and thiourea-containing [...] Read more.
The quorum sensing (QS) system in multi-drug-resistant bacteria such as P. aeruginosa is primarily responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance and is considered an attractive target for antimicrobial drug discovery. In this study, we synthesised a series of novel selenourea and thiourea-containing dihydropyrrol-2-one (DHP) analogues as LasR antagonists. The selenium DHP derivatives displayed significantly better quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) activities than the corresponding sulphur analogues. The most potent analogue 3e efficiently inhibited the las QS system by 81% at 125 µM and 53% at 31 µM. Additionally, all the compounds were screened for their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus, and interestingly, only the selenium analogues showed antibacterial activity, with 3c and 3e being the most potent with a MIC of 15.6 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium, Metals and Trace Elements in Novel Antimicrobial Compounds)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Transmission of Similar Mcr-1 Carrying Plasmids among Different Escherichia coli Lineages Isolated from Livestock and the Farmer
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030313 - 17 Mar 2021
Abstract
Colistin use has mostly been stopped in human medicine, due to its toxicity. However, nowadays, it still is used as a last-resort antibiotic to treat hospital infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae. On the contrary, colistin has been used in veterinary medicine until [...] Read more.
Colistin use has mostly been stopped in human medicine, due to its toxicity. However, nowadays, it still is used as a last-resort antibiotic to treat hospital infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae. On the contrary, colistin has been used in veterinary medicine until recently. In this study, 210 fecal samples from pigs (n = 57), calves (n = 152), and the farmer (n = 1) were collected from a farm where E. coli harboring mcr-1–mcr-3 was previously detected. Samples were plated, and mcr-genes presence was confirmed by multiplex-PCR. Hybrid sequencing which determined the presence and location of mcr-1, other antibiotic resistance genes, and virulence factors. Eighteen colistin resistant isolates (13 from calves, four from pigs, and one from the farmer) contained mcr-1 associated with plasmids (IncX4, IncI2, and IncHI2), except for two that yielded mcr-1 in the chromosome. Similar plasmids were distributed in different E. coli lineages. Transmission of mcr-1 to the farmer most likely occurred by horizontal gene transfer from E. coli of calf origin, since plasmids were highly similar (99% coverage, 99.97% identity). Moreover, 33 virulence factors, including stx2 for Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) were detected, highlighting the role of livestock as a reservoir of pathotypes with zoonotic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Animals)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Allium Extract Implements Weaned Piglet’s Productive Parameters by Modulating Distal Gut Microbiota
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030269 - 08 Mar 2021
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen as a global threat for human health. One of the leading factors for this emergence has been the massive use of antibiotics growth-promoter (AGPs) in livestock, enhancing the spread of AMR among human pathogenic bacteria. Thus, several alternatives [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen as a global threat for human health. One of the leading factors for this emergence has been the massive use of antibiotics growth-promoter (AGPs) in livestock, enhancing the spread of AMR among human pathogenic bacteria. Thus, several alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, or phytobiotics have been proposed for using in animal feeding to maintain or improve productive levels while diminishing the negative effects of AGPs. Reducing the use of antibiotics is a key aspect in the pig rearing for production reasons, as well as for the production of high-quality pork, acceptable to consumers. Here we analyze the potential use of Allium extract as an alternative. In this study, weaned piglets were fed with Allium extract supplementation and compared with control and antibiotic (colistin and zinc oxide) treated piglets. The effects of Allium extract were tested by analyzing the gut microbiome and measuring different productive parameters. Alpha diversity indices decreased significantly in Allium extract group in caecum and colon. Regarding beta diversity, significant differences between treatments appeared only in caecum and colon. Allium extract and antibiotic piglets showed better values of body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than control group. These results indicate that productive parameters can be implemented by modifying the gut microbiota through phytobiotics such as Allium extract, which will drive to drop the use of antibiotics in piglet diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Clinical Antimicrobials for Animal Production)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Antibiotic Resistant Bloodstream Infections in Pediatric Patients Receiving Chemotherapy or Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Factors Associated with Development of Resistance, Intensive Care Admission and Mortality
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030266 - 05 Mar 2021
Abstract
Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a severe complication of antineoplastic chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in the presence of antibiotic resistance (AR). A multinational, multicenter retrospective study in patients aged ≤ 18 years, treated with chemotherapy or HSCT from 2015 to [...] Read more.
Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a severe complication of antineoplastic chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in the presence of antibiotic resistance (AR). A multinational, multicenter retrospective study in patients aged ≤ 18 years, treated with chemotherapy or HSCT from 2015 to 2017 was implemented to analyze AR among non-common skin commensals BSI. Risk factors associated with AR, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality were analyzed by multilevel mixed effects or standard logistic regressions. A total of 1291 BSIs with 1379 strains were reported in 1031 patients. Among Gram-negatives more than 20% were resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam and ciprofloxacin while 9% was resistant to meropenem. Methicillin-resistance was observed in 17% of S. aureus and vancomycin resistance in 40% of E. faecium. Previous exposure to antibiotics, especially to carbapenems, was significantly associated with resistant Gram-negative BSI while previous colonization with methicillin-resistant S. aureus was associated with BSI due to this pathogen. Hematological malignancies, neutropenia and Gram-negatives resistant to >3 antibiotics were significantly associated with higher risk of ICU admission. Underlying disease in relapse/progression, previous exposure to antibiotics, and need of ICU admission were significantly associated with mortality. Center-level variation showed a greater impact on AR, while patient-level variation had more effect on ICU admission and mortality. Previous exposure to antibiotics or colonization by resistant pathogens can be the cause of AR BSI. Resistant Gram-negatives are significantly associated with ICU admission and mortality, with a significant role for the treating center too. The significant evidence of center-level variations on AR, ICU admission and mortality, stress the need for careful local antibiotic stewardship and infection control programs. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Burkholderia Bacteria Produce Multiple Potentially Novel Molecules that Inhibit Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020147 - 02 Feb 2021
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens represents a global threat to human health. This study determines the antimicrobial potential of a taxonomically and geographically diverse collection of 263 Burkholderia (sensu lato) isolates and applies natural product dereplication strategies to identify potentially novel molecules. Antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens represents a global threat to human health. This study determines the antimicrobial potential of a taxonomically and geographically diverse collection of 263 Burkholderia (sensu lato) isolates and applies natural product dereplication strategies to identify potentially novel molecules. Antimicrobial activity is almost exclusively present in Burkholderia sensu stricto bacteria and rarely observed in the novel genera Paraburkholderia, Caballeronia, Robbsia, Trinickia, and Mycetohabitans. Fourteen isolates show a unique spectrum of antimicrobial activity and inhibited carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Dereplication of the molecules present in crude spent agar extracts identifies 42 specialized metabolites, 19 of which represented potentially novel molecules. The known identified Burkholderia metabolites include toxoflavin, reumycin, pyrrolnitrin, enacyloxin, bactobolin, cepacidin, ditropolonyl sulfide, and antibiotics BN-227-F and SF 2420B, as well as the siderophores ornibactin, pyochelin, and cepabactin. Following semipreparative fractionation and activity testing, a total of five potentially novel molecules are detected in active fractions. Given the molecular formula and UV spectrum, two of those putative novel molecules are likely related to bactobolins, and another is likely related to enacyloxins. The results from this study confirm and extend the observation that Burkholderia bacteria present exciting opportunities for the discovery of potentially novel bioactive molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Anaerobic Bacteria in Major Liver Resection
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020139 - 31 Jan 2021
Abstract
(1) Background: Anaerobic infections in hepatobiliary surgery have rarely been addressed. Whereas infectious complications during the perioperative phase of liver resections are common, there are very limited data on the prevalence and clinical role of anaerobes in this context. Given the risk of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Anaerobic infections in hepatobiliary surgery have rarely been addressed. Whereas infectious complications during the perioperative phase of liver resections are common, there are very limited data on the prevalence and clinical role of anaerobes in this context. Given the risk of contaminated bile in liver resections, the goal of our study was to investigate the prevalence and outcome of anaerobic infections in major hepatectomies. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 245 consecutive major hepatectomies that were performed at the department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery of the University Hospital of Tuebingen between July 2017 and August 2020. All microbiological cultures were screened for the prevalence of anaerobic bacteria and the patients’ clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. (3) Results: Of the 245 patients, 13 patients suffered from anaerobic infections. Seven had positive cultures from the biliary tract during the primary procedure, while six had positive culture results from samples obtained during the management of complications. Risk factors for anaerobic infections were preoperative biliary stenting (p = 0.002) and bile leaks (p = 0.009). All of these infections had to be treated by intervention and adjunct antibiotic treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. (4) Conclusions: Anaerobic infections are rare in liver resections. Certain risk factors trigger the antibiotic coverage of anaerobes. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Key Parameters on the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Camphor Complexes
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020135 - 30 Jan 2021
Abstract
Nine new complexes with camphor imine or camphor sulfonimine ligands were synthesized and analytically and spectroscopically characterized, aiming to identify the key parameters that drive the antibacterial activity of the complexes with metal cores and imine substituents with distinct electronic and steric characteristics. [...] Read more.
Nine new complexes with camphor imine or camphor sulfonimine ligands were synthesized and analytically and spectroscopically characterized, aiming to identify the key parameters that drive the antibacterial activity of the complexes with metal cores and imine substituents with distinct electronic and steric characteristics. The antimicrobial activity of all complexes was evaluated by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 477, and Burkholderia contaminans IST408, and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus Newman. Camphor imine complexes based on the hydroxyl silver center ({Ag(OH)}) typically perform better than those based on the nitrate silver center ({Ag(NO3)}), while ligands prone to establish hydrogen bonding facilitate interactions with the bacterial cell surface structures. A different trend is observed for the silver camphor sulfonimine complexes that are almost non-sensitive to the nature of the metal cores {Ag(OH)} or {Ag(NO3)} and display low sensitivity to the Y substituent. The antibacterial activities of the Ag(I) camphor sulfonimine complexes are higher than those of the camphor imine analogues. All the complexes display higher activity towards Gram-negative strains than towards the Gram-positive strain. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Recent Advances in Fiber–Hydrogel Composites for Wound Healing and Drug Delivery Systems
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030248 - 02 Mar 2021
Abstract
In the last decades, much research has been done to fasten wound healing and target-direct drug delivery. Hydrogel-based scaffolds have been a recurrent solution in both cases, with some reaching already the market, even though their mechanical stability remains a challenge. To overcome [...] Read more.
In the last decades, much research has been done to fasten wound healing and target-direct drug delivery. Hydrogel-based scaffolds have been a recurrent solution in both cases, with some reaching already the market, even though their mechanical stability remains a challenge. To overcome this limitation, reinforcement of hydrogels with fibers has been explored. The structural resemblance of fiber–hydrogel composites to natural tissues has been a driving force for the optimization and exploration of these systems in biomedicine. Indeed, the combination of hydrogel-forming techniques and fiber spinning approaches has been crucial in the development of scaffolding systems with improved mechanical strength and medicinal properties. In this review, a comprehensive overview of the recently developed fiber–hydrogel composite strategies for wound healing and drug delivery is provided. The methodologies employed in fiber and hydrogel formation are also highlighted, together with the most compatible polymer combinations, as well as drug incorporation approaches creating stimuli-sensitive and triggered drug release towards an enhanced host response. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Bacteriophage-Derived Depolymerases against Bacterial Biofilm
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020175 - 10 Feb 2021
Abstract
In addition to specific antibiotic resistance, the formation of bacterial biofilm causes another level of complications in attempts to eradicate pathogenic or harmful bacteria, including difficult penetration of drugs through biofilm structures to bacterial cells, impairment of immunological response of the host, and [...] Read more.
In addition to specific antibiotic resistance, the formation of bacterial biofilm causes another level of complications in attempts to eradicate pathogenic or harmful bacteria, including difficult penetration of drugs through biofilm structures to bacterial cells, impairment of immunological response of the host, and accumulation of various bioactive compounds (enzymes and others) affecting host physiology and changing local pH values, which further influence various biological functions. In this review article, we provide an overview on the formation of bacterial biofilm and its properties, and then we focus on the possible use of phage-derived depolymerases to combat bacterial cells included in this complex structure. On the basis of the literature review, we conclude that, although these bacteriophage-encoded enzymes may be effective in destroying specific compounds involved in the formation of biofilm, they are rarely sufficient to eradicate all bacterial cells. Nevertheless, a combined therapy, employing depolymerases together with antibiotics and/or other antibacterial agents or factors, may provide an effective approach to treat infections caused by bacteria able to form biofilms. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis and Modifications of the Gut Microbiota in Children with Cancer
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020152 - 03 Feb 2021
Abstract
In children with cancer, chemotherapy can produce cytotoxic effects, resulting in immunosuppression and an augmented risk of febrile neutropenia and bloodstream infections. This has led to widespread use of antibiotic prophylaxis which, combined with intensive chemotherapy treatment, could have a long-term effect on [...] Read more.
In children with cancer, chemotherapy can produce cytotoxic effects, resulting in immunosuppression and an augmented risk of febrile neutropenia and bloodstream infections. This has led to widespread use of antibiotic prophylaxis which, combined with intensive chemotherapy treatment, could have a long-term effect on the gastrointestinal microbiome. In this review, we aimed to analyze the current literature about the widespread use of antibiotic prophylaxis in children experiencing infectious complications induced by chemotherapy and its effects on the gut microbiome. Our review of the literature shows that antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with cancer is still a trending topic and, at the moment, there are not enough data to define universal guidelines. Children with cancer experience long and painful medical treatments and side effects, which are associated with great economic and social burdens, important psychological consequences, and dysbiosis induced by antibiotics and also by chemotherapy. Considering the importance of a healthy gut microbiota, studies are needed to understand the impact of dysbiosis in response to therapy in these children and to define how to modulate the microbiome to favor a positive therapeutic outcome. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Elicitation of Stress-Induced Phenolic Metabolites for Antimicrobial Applications against Foodborne Human Bacterial Pathogens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020109 - 23 Jan 2021
Abstract
Foodborne bacterial pathogens in consumed foods are major food safety concerns worldwide, leading to serious illness and even death. An exciting strategy is to use novel phenolic compounds against bacterial pathogens based on recruiting the inducible metabolic responses of plant endogenous protective defense [...] Read more.
Foodborne bacterial pathogens in consumed foods are major food safety concerns worldwide, leading to serious illness and even death. An exciting strategy is to use novel phenolic compounds against bacterial pathogens based on recruiting the inducible metabolic responses of plant endogenous protective defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such stress-inducible phenolic metabolites have high potential to reduce bacterial contamination, and particularly improve safety of plant foods. The stimulation of plant protective response by inducing biosynthesis of stress-inducible phenolics with antimicrobial properties is among the safe and effective strategies that can be targeted for plant food safety and human gut health benefits. Metabolically driven elicitation with physical, chemical, and microbial elicitors has shown significant improvement in the biosynthesis of phenolic metabolites with antimicrobial properties in food and medicinal plants. Using the above rationale, this review focuses on current advances and relevance of metabolically driven elicitation strategies to enhance antimicrobial phenolics in plant food models for bacterial-linked food safety applications. Additionally, the specific objective of this review is to explore the potential role of redox-linked pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) regulation for enhancing biosynthesis of stress-inducible antibacterial phenolics in elicited plants, which are relevant for wider food safety and human health benefits. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Riboswitches as Drug Targets for Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010045 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Riboswitches reside in the untranslated region of RNA and regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of essential metabolites through binding of small molecules. Since their discovery at the beginning of this century, riboswitches have been regarded as potential antibacterial targets. Using fragment screening, [...] Read more.
Riboswitches reside in the untranslated region of RNA and regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of essential metabolites through binding of small molecules. Since their discovery at the beginning of this century, riboswitches have been regarded as potential antibacterial targets. Using fragment screening, high-throughput screening and rational ligand design guided by X-ray crystallography, lead compounds against various riboswitches have been identified. Here, we review the current status and suitability of the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), glmS, guanine, and other riboswitches as antibacterial targets and discuss them in a biological context. Further, we highlight challenges in riboswitch drug discovery and emphasis the need to develop riboswitch specific high-throughput screening methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Targets and Mechanisms in Antimicrobial Drug Discovery)
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Other

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceBrief Report
First Report of an Extensively Drug-Resistant ST23 Klebsiella pneumoniae of Capsular Serotype K1 Co-Producing CTX-M-15, OXA-48 and ArmA in Spain
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020157 - 04 Feb 2021
Abstract
An extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate MS3802 from a tracheostomy exudate was whole-genome sequenced using MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms in order to identify the antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates and their genomic context. Isolate MS3802 belonged to the clone ST23 [...] Read more.
An extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate MS3802 from a tracheostomy exudate was whole-genome sequenced using MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms in order to identify the antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates and their genomic context. Isolate MS3802 belonged to the clone ST23 and presented a capsular serotype K1, associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) isolates. The isolate harboured a chromosomally encoded blaCTX-M-15 gene and contained a large IncHI1B hybrid virulence/resistance plasmid carrying another copy of the blaCTX-M-15 and the virulence factors iucABCD-iutA, iroBCDN, rmpA and rmpA2. The carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48 was found in a Tn1999-like transposon and the 16S rRNA methylase armA gen located in the vicinity of other antibiotic-resistant genes on an IncM2 plasmid. This study represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of a blaCTX-M-15-, blaOXA-48- and armA-harbouring K. pneumoniae of ST23 and capsular serotype K1 in Spain. Our report emphasizes the importance of implementing new surveillance strategies to monitor the risk of emergence and spread of such XDR and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates. Full article
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