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Special Issue "Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Miguel Á. Moreno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Interests: antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals is currently focussed on zoonotic and commensal bacteria from food animals in line with the One Health approach for fighting against AMR. Nevertheless, antimicrobials are used in animals for treating conditions produced by pathogenic animal bacteria and consequently, monitoring of AMR in these bacteria is also needed for proper understanding the AMR landscape and for helping veterinarians treating sick animals.

Discrepancies in methodology (disk based versus dilution methods) and, especially, low availability of specific animal clinical breakpoints for the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing results hamper the comparative analysis of published data and should be highlighted.       

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that could improve antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens of animal origin, including proposals for establishment of animal-specific clinical breakpoints and harmonization of methods. Submissions reporting data of AMR monitoring in both food and companion animals are also welcome.

Prof. Miguel Á. Moreno
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiogram
  • breakpoint
  • antibiotics
  • surveillance
  • pets
  • livestock
  • sick

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Characterizing Antimicrobial Resistance in Chicken Pathogens: A Step towards Improved Antimicrobial Stewardship in Poultry Production in Vietnam
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080499 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, farmers use large quantities of antimicrobials to raise small-scale chicken flocks, often including active ingredients regarded of “critical importance’” by the World Health Organization. Due to limitations in laboratory capacity, the choice of antimicrobials normally does not [...] Read more.
In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, farmers use large quantities of antimicrobials to raise small-scale chicken flocks, often including active ingredients regarded of “critical importance’” by the World Health Organization. Due to limitations in laboratory capacity, the choice of antimicrobials normally does not follow any empirical criteria of effectiveness. The aim of this study was to highlight non-critically important antimicrobials against which chicken pathogens are likely to be susceptible as a basis for treatment guidelines. Microtiter broth dilution method was performed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 commonly used antimicrobials for 58 isolates, including Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) (n = 22), Gallibacterium anatis (n = 19), and Avibacterium endocarditidis (n = 17). Unfortunately, internationally accepted breakpoints for resistance in these organisms do not exist. We drew tentative epidemiological cut-offs (TECOFFs) for those antimicrobial-pathogen combinations where MIC distributions suggested the presence of a distinct non-wild-type population. Based on the observed results, doxycycline would be the drug of choice for A.endocarditidis (11.8% presumptive non-wild type) and G. anatis infections (5.3% presumptive non-wild type). A total of 13.6% ORT isolates were non-wild type with regards to oxytetracycline, making it the drug of choice against this pathogen. This study illustrates the challenges in interpreting susceptibility testing results and the need to establish internationally accepted breakpoints for veterinary pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals)
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Article
High Prevalence and Diversity of Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Including Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli CC648 Lineage in Rural and Urban Dogs in Northwest Spain
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 468; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080468 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of extended spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples recovered from rural and urban healthy dogs in Northwest Spain (Galicia) to identify potential high-risk clones and to molecularly characterize positive isolates regarding [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of extended spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples recovered from rural and urban healthy dogs in Northwest Spain (Galicia) to identify potential high-risk clones and to molecularly characterize positive isolates regarding the genes coding for ESBL/pAmpC resistance and virulence. Thirty-five (19.6%) out of 179 dogs were positive for cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichiacoli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39 and three isolates, respectively). All the isolates were multidrug resistant, with high rates of resistance to different drugs, including ciprofloxacin (71.4%). A wide diversity of ESBL/pAmpC enzymes, as well as E. coli phylogroups (A, B1, C, D, E, F and clade I) were found. The eight isolates (20.5%) found to conform to the ExPEC status, belonged to clones O1:H45-clade I-ST770 (CH11-552), O18:H11-A-ST93-CC168 (CH11-neg), O23:H16-B1-ST453-CC86 (CH6-31), and O83:H42-F-ST1485-CC648 (CH231-58), with the latter also complying the uropathogenic (UPEC) status. The three K. pneumoniae recovered produced CTX-M-15 and belonged to the ST307, a clone previously reported in human clinical isolates. Our study highlights the potential role of both rural and urban dogs as a reservoir of high-risk Enterobacteriaceae clones, such as the CC648 of E. coli and antimicrobial resistance traits. Within a One-Health approach, their surveillance should be a priority in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals)
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Article
The pathogen Mycoplasma dispar Shows High Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Antimicrobials Commonly Used for Bovine Respiratory Disease
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 460; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080460 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Mycoplasma dispar is an overlooked pathogen often involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which affects cattle around the world. BRD results in lost production and high treatment and prevention costs. Additionally, chronic therapies with multiple antimicrobials may lead to antimicrobial resistance. Data on [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma dispar is an overlooked pathogen often involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which affects cattle around the world. BRD results in lost production and high treatment and prevention costs. Additionally, chronic therapies with multiple antimicrobials may lead to antimicrobial resistance. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility to M. dispar is limited so minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of a range of antimicrobials routinely used in BRD were evaluated using a broth microdilution technique for 41 M. dispar isolates collected in Italy between 2011–2019. While all isolates had low MIC values for florfenicol (<1 μg/mL), many showed high MIC values for erythromycin (MIC90 ≥8 μg/mL). Tilmicosin MIC values were higher (MIC50 = 32 μg/mL) than those for tylosin (MIC50 = 0.25 μg/mL). Seven isolates had high MIC values for lincomycin, tilmicosin and tylosin (≥32 μg/mL). More, alarmingly, results showed more than half the strains had high MICs for enrofloxacin, a member of the fluoroquinolone class considered critically important in human health. A time-dependent progressive drift of enrofloxacin MICs towards high-concentration values was observed, indicative of an on-going selection process among the isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals)
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Article
Assessment of the Usefulness of Cefapirin and Cefalonium Disks for Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Mastitis
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040197 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Cefapirin (CEP) and cefalonium (CNM) are first-generation cephalosporins widely used to treat bovine mastitis caused by Gram-positive bacteria including staphylococci. However, disks for susceptibility testing of those drugs in causative bacteria are not available. This study evaluated the efficacy of 10 µg and [...] Read more.
Cefapirin (CEP) and cefalonium (CNM) are first-generation cephalosporins widely used to treat bovine mastitis caused by Gram-positive bacteria including staphylococci. However, disks for susceptibility testing of those drugs in causative bacteria are not available. This study evaluated the efficacy of 10 µg and 30 µg pilot disks of CEP (CEP10 and CEP30) and CNM (CNM10 and CNM30) against 130 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. Scattergrams of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) illustrated significant correlations between the MICs and ZDs of CEP10 (r = −0.912), CEP30 (r = −0.933), CNM10 (r = −0.847), and CNM30 (r = −0.807). The analysis by Normalized Resistance Interpretation indicated that the epidemiolocal cut-off value (ECV) of MIC for both cefapirin and cefalonium is ≤ 0.5 µg/mL, and the ECV of ZD for CEP10, CEP30, CNM10, and CNM30 were ≥ 22 mm, ≥ 25 mm, ≥ 22 mm, and ≥ 29 mm, respectively. We believe that both 10 μg and 30 μg CEP and CNM susceptibility disks will be helpful for guiding the appropriate use of these antibiotics for bovine mastitis. Further studies toward the establishment of clinical breakpoint of CEP and CNM would be needed for their routine use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals)
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Case Report
Isolation of Tetracycline-Resistant Chlamydia suis from a Pig Herd Affected by Reproductive Disorders and Conjunctivitis
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040187 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Due to various challenges in diagnosing chlamydiosis in pigs, antibiotic treatment is usually performed before any molecular or antibiotic susceptibility testing. This could increase the occurrence of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia (C.) suis isolates in the affected pig population and potentiate the reoccurrence of clinical [...] Read more.
Due to various challenges in diagnosing chlamydiosis in pigs, antibiotic treatment is usually performed before any molecular or antibiotic susceptibility testing. This could increase the occurrence of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia (C.) suis isolates in the affected pig population and potentiate the reoccurrence of clinical signs. Here, we present a case of an Austrian pig farm, where tetracycline resistant and sensitive C. suis isolates were isolated from four finishers with conjunctivitis. On herd-level, 10% of the finishers suffered from severe conjunctivitis and sows showed a high percentage of irregular return to estrus. Subsequent treatment of whole-herd using oxytetracycline led to a significant reduction of clinical signs. Retrospective antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed tetracycline resistance and decreased susceptibility to doxycycline in half of the ocular C. suis isolates, and all isolates were able to partially recover following a single-dose tetracycline treatment in vitro. These findings were later confirmed in vivo, when all former clinical signs recurred three months later. This case report raises awareness of tetracycline resistance in C. suis and emphasizes the importance of preventative selection of tetracycline resistant C. suis isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogens Isolated from Animals)
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