Special Issue "Antibiotics and Antimicrobials Resistance: Mechanisms and New Strategies to Fight Resistant Bacteria"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Cécile Muller
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Caen Normandy - Unité de Recherche Risques Microbiens
Interests: antibiotic resistance; virulence; opportunistic pathogens; transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation; drug screening; molecular microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 In the context of global emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide, and has become a priority for microbiological research. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is essential to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance, and innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant microorganisms have to be designed. This Special Issue aims to highlight our increased understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria resist to antibiotics and antimicrobial molecules, as well as the identification of innovative molecules to fight bacterial pathogens which have developed a multidrug-resistance profile to clinically used antibiotics. We expect to collect original research article, short communications or review articles describing recent advances in the field of the characterization of antimicrobial activities.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial resistance
  • Response to antimicrobials or antibiotics
  • Biochemical and genetics studies on microorganisms to improve antimicrobials effects
  • Advances in research on new and current antibiotics and relative antimicrobial agents
  • Submissions on new alternatives molecules to reduce infection by anti-virulence, anti-biofilm or antimicrobial potentiators mechanisms are especially encouraged.  

Dr. Cécile MULLER
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antibiotics
  • antimicrobials
  • resistance, tolerance
  • drug screening
  • potentiators
  • new strategies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
ESBL Activity, MDR, and Carbapenem Resistance among Predominant Enterobacterales Isolated in 2019
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 744; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060744 - 19 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Antimicrobial-resistance in Enterobacterales is a serious concern in Saudi Arabia. The present study retrospectively analyzed the antibiograms of Enterobacterales identified from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 from a referral hospital in the Aljouf region of Saudi Arabia. The revised document of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial-resistance in Enterobacterales is a serious concern in Saudi Arabia. The present study retrospectively analyzed the antibiograms of Enterobacterales identified from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 from a referral hospital in the Aljouf region of Saudi Arabia. The revised document of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) CR-2015 and Magiorakos et al.’s document were used to define carbapenem resistance and classify resistant bacteria, respectively. The association of carbapenem resistance, MDR, and ESBL with various sociodemographic characteristics was assessed by the chi-square test and odds ratios. In total, 617 Enterobacterales were identified. The predominant (n = 533 (86.4%)) isolates consisted of 232 (37.6%), 200 (32.4%), and 101 (16.4%) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis, respectively. In general, 432 (81.0%) and 128 (24.0%) isolates were of MDR and ESBL, respectively. The MDR strains were recovered in higher frequency from intensive care units (OR = 3.24 (1.78–5.91); p < 0.01). E. coli and K. pneumoniae resistance rates to imipenem (2.55 (1.21–5.37); p < 0.01) and meropenem (2.18 (1.01–4.67); p < 0.04), respectively, were significantly higher in winter. The data emphasize that MDR isolates among Enterobacterales are highly prevalent. The studied Enterobacterales exhibited seasonal variation in antimicrobial resistance rates towards carbapenems and ESBL activity. Full article
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Article
Combining Functional Genomics and Whole-Genome Sequencing to Detect Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacterial Strains Co-Occurring Simultaneously in a Brazilian Hospital
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040419 - 11 Apr 2021
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Abstract
(1) Background: The rise of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria represents an emergent threat to human health. Here, we investigate antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria of several species isolated from an intensive care unit in Brazil. (2) Methods: We used whole-genome analysis to identify antibiotic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The rise of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria represents an emergent threat to human health. Here, we investigate antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria of several species isolated from an intensive care unit in Brazil. (2) Methods: We used whole-genome analysis to identify antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and plasmids in 34 strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, providing the first genomic description of Morganella morganii and Ralstonia mannitolilytica clinical isolates from South America. (3) Results: We identified a high abundance of beta-lactamase genes in resistant organisms, including seven extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (OXA-1, OXA-10, CTX-M-1, KPC, TEM, HYDRO, BLP) shared between organisms from different species. Additionally, we identified several ARG-carrying plasmids indicating the potential for a fast transmission of resistance mechanism between bacterial strains. Furthermore, we uncovered two pairs of (near) identical plasmids exhibiting multi-drug resistance. Finally, since many highly resistant strains carry several different ARGs, we used functional genomics to investigate which of them were indeed functional. In this sense, for three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and M. morganii), we identified six beta-lactamase genes out of 15 predicted in silico as those mainly responsible for the resistance mechanisms observed, corroborating the existence of redundant resistance mechanisms in these organisms. (4) Conclusions: Systematic studies similar to the one presented here should help to prevent outbreaks of novel multidrug-resistant bacteria in healthcare facilities. Full article
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Article
Elizabethkingia Intra-Abdominal Infection and Related Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance: A Clinical-Genomic Study
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020173 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
(1) Background: Elizabethkingia spp. is an emerging nosocomial pathogen which causes mostly blood stream infection and nosocomial pneumonia. Among Elizabethkingia species, Elizabethkingia anophelis is the major pathogen, but misidentification as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a common problem. Elizabethkingia also possesses broad antibiotic resistance, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Elizabethkingia spp. is an emerging nosocomial pathogen which causes mostly blood stream infection and nosocomial pneumonia. Among Elizabethkingia species, Elizabethkingia anophelis is the major pathogen, but misidentification as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a common problem. Elizabethkingia also possesses broad antibiotic resistance, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of the infection. The aim of our study was to review Elizabethkingia intra-abdominal infections and investigate resistance mechanisms against TMP/SMX in Elizabethkingia anophelis by whole genome sequencing. (2) Methods: We retrospectively searched records of patients with Elizabethkingia intra-abdominal infection between 1990 and 2019. We also conducted whole genome sequencing for a TMP/SMX-resistant Elizabethkingia anophelis to identify possible mechanisms of resistance. (3) Results: We identified a total of nine cases of Elizabethkingia intra-abdominal infection in a review of the literature, including our own case. The cases included three biliary tract infections, three CAPD-related infection, two with infected ascites, and two postoperation infections. Host factor, indwelling-catheter, and previous invasive procedure, including surgery, play important roles in Elizabethkingia infection. Removal of the catheter is crucial for successful treatment. Genomic analysis revealed accumulated mutations leading to TMP/SMX-resistance in folP. (4) Conclusions: Patients with underlying disease and indwelling catheter are more susceptible to Elizabethkingia intra-abdominal infection, and successful treatment requires removal of the catheter. The emerging resistance to TMP/SMX may be related to accumulated mutations in folP. Full article
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Review

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Review
Resistance and Adaptation of Bacteria to Non-Antibiotic Antibacterial Agents: Physical Stressors, Nanoparticles, and Bacteriophages
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040435 - 13 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to human health worldwide, forcing scientists to explore non-traditional antibacterial agents to support rapid interventions and combat the emergence and spread of drug resistant bacteria. Many new antibiotic-free approaches are being developed while the old ones are [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to human health worldwide, forcing scientists to explore non-traditional antibacterial agents to support rapid interventions and combat the emergence and spread of drug resistant bacteria. Many new antibiotic-free approaches are being developed while the old ones are being revised, resulting in creating unique solutions that arise at the interface of physics, nanotechnology, and microbiology. Specifically, physical factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, UV light) are increasingly used for industrial sterilization. Nanoparticles (unmodified or in combination with toxic compounds) are also applied to circumvent in vivo drug resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Recently, bacteriophage-based treatments are also gaining momentum due to their high bactericidal activity and specificity. Although the number of novel approaches for tackling the antimicrobial resistance crisis is snowballing, it is still unclear if any proposed solutions would provide a long-term remedy. This review aims to provide a detailed overview of how bacteria acquire resistance against these non-antibiotic factors. We also discuss innate bacterial defense systems and how bacteriophages have evolved to tackle them. Full article
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