Special Issue "Antimicrobial Stewardship in Secondary Care across Different Resource Settings"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Esmita Charani
Website
Guest Editor
NIHR Health Protection Research Unit, Imperial College, London, UK
Interests: Antibiotic Stewardship; Behaviour Change Approaches; Public Health; Social Science Research; Health Inequalities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance remains a global threat, more so today than ever before. Efforts to tackle antimicrobial resistance need to be implemented across different healthcare settings, in different countries facing different limitations and staff resources. In this Special Issue of Antibiotics, we would like to invite research, insights, and views on how antibiotic stewardship interventions are being developed, implemented, and evaluated in different countries and healthcare organizations. This Issue is open to both qualitative and quantitative research from high-, middle-, and low-income settings.

Dr. Esmita Charani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiotic stewardship
  • behaviour change approaches
  • implementation science
  • health inequalities

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mapping the Implementation of a Clinical Pharmacist-Driven Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme at a Tertiary Care Centre in South India
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020220 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
In many parts of the world, including in India, pharmacist roles in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes remain unexplored. We describe the evolution and effect of the role of adding clinical pharmacists to a multidisciplinary AMS at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kerala, [...] Read more.
In many parts of the world, including in India, pharmacist roles in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes remain unexplored. We describe the evolution and effect of the role of adding clinical pharmacists to a multidisciplinary AMS at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kerala, India. Through effective leadership, multidisciplinary AMS (February 2016) and antitubercular therapy (ATT) stewardship programmes (June 2017) were established. Clinical pharmacists were introduced as core members of the programmes, responsible for the operational delivery of key stewardship interventions. Pharmacy-led audit and feedback monitored the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions and compliance to AMS/ATT recommendations. Between February 2016 and January 2017, 56% (742/1326) of antimicrobial prescriptions were appropriate, and 54% (318/584) of recommendations showed compliance. By the third year of the AMS, appropriateness increased to 80% (1752/2190), and compliance to the AMS recommendations to 70% (227/325). The appropriateness of ATT prescriptions increased from a baseline of 61% (95/157) in the first year, to 72% (62/86, June 2018–February 2019). The compliance to ATT recommendations increased from 42% (25/60) to 58% (14/24). Such a model can be effective in implementing sustainable change in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India, where the shortage of infectious disease physicians is a major impediment to the implementation and sustainability of AMS programmes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Appropriateness of Antimicrobial Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: Development and Piloting of a Novel Tool—AmRAT
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020200 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing is considered to be the leading cause of high burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in resource-constrained lower- and middle-income countries. Under its global action plan, the World Health Organization has envisaged tackling the AMR threat through promotion of rational antibiotic [...] Read more.
Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing is considered to be the leading cause of high burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in resource-constrained lower- and middle-income countries. Under its global action plan, the World Health Organization has envisaged tackling the AMR threat through promotion of rational antibiotic use among prescribers. Given the lack of consensus definitions and other associated challenges, we sought to devise and validate an Antimicrobial Rationality Assessment Tool—AmRAT—for standardizing the assessment of appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing. A consensus algorithm was developed by a multidisciplinary team consisting of intensivists, internal medicine practitioners, clinical pharmacologists, and infectious disease experts. The tool was piloted by 10 raters belonging to three groups of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) personnel: Master of Pharmacology (M.Sc.) (n = 3, group A), Doctor of Medicine (MD) residents (n = 3, group B), and DM residents in clinical pharmacology (n = 4, group C) using retrospective patient data from 30 audit and feedback forms collected as part of an existing AMS program. Percentage agreement and the kappa (κ) coefficients were used to measure inter-rater agreements amongst themselves and with expert opinion. Sensitivity and specificity estimates were analyzed comparing their assessments against the gold standard. For the overall assessment of rationality, the mean percent agreement with experts was 76.7% for group A, 68.9% for group B, and 77.5% for group C. The kappa values indicated moderate agreement for all raters in group A (κ 0.47–0.57), and fair to moderate in group B (κ 0.22–0.46) as well as group C (κ 0.37–0.60). Sensitivity and specificity for the same were 80% and 68.6%, respectively. Though evaluated by raters with diverse educational background and variable AMS experience in this pilot study, our tool demonstrated high percent agreement and good sensitivity and specificity, assuring confidence in its utility for assessing appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions in resource-constrained healthcare environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes in Saudi Hospitals: Evidence from a National Survey
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020193 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Saudi hospitals and healthcare facilities are facing increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of new multi-drug resistant strains. This is placing an unprecedented threat to successful treatments and outcomes of patients accessing those facilities. The inappropriate use of antimicrobials is fueling [...] Read more.
Saudi hospitals and healthcare facilities are facing increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of new multi-drug resistant strains. This is placing an unprecedented threat to successful treatments and outcomes of patients accessing those facilities. The inappropriate use of antimicrobials is fueling this crisis, warranting urgent implementation of interventions to preserve antimicrobials and reduce resistance rates. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) can improve antimicrobial use, treatment success rates and reduce the levels of antimicrobial resistance. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) devised a national antimicrobial stewardship plan to implement ASPs in hospitals, but little is known about the progress of implementation and the factors affecting it. This study aims to assess the level and the factors affecting the adoption and implementation of ASPs in Saudi hospitals at a national level. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire sent to all MOH hospitals. Overall, 147 out 247 MOH hospitals responded to the survey (54%). Only 26% of the hospitals reported the implementation of ASPs. Hospitals lack the knowledge, technological and staff resources to adopt and implement ASPs. Alternative models of ASP adoption could be explored to improve the rates of implementation of ASPs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Antibiotic Prescribing Practices in a Rural Refugee Settlement District in Uganda
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020172 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Ensuring access to effective antibiotics and rational prescribing of antibiotics are critical in reducing antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated antibiotic prescribing practices in a rural district in Uganda. It was a cross-sectional study that involved a retrospective review of 500 outpatient [...] Read more.
Ensuring access to effective antibiotics and rational prescribing of antibiotics are critical in reducing antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated antibiotic prescribing practices in a rural district in Uganda. It was a cross-sectional study that involved a retrospective review of 500 outpatient prescriptions from five health facilities. The prescriptions were systematically sampled. World Health Organization core medicine use prescribing and facility indicators were used. Percentage of encounters with one or more antibiotics prescribed was 23% (10,402/45,160). The mean number of antibiotics per prescription was 1.3 (669/500). About 27% (133/500) of the diagnoses and 42% (155/367) of the prescriptions were noncompliant with the national treatment guidelines. Prescribing antibiotics for nonbacterial infections such as malaria 32% (50/156) and noninfectious conditions such as dysmenorrhea and lumbago 15% (23/156) and nonspecific diagnosis such as respiratory tract infection 40% (59/133) were considered noncompliant with the guidelines. On average, 68% (51/75) of the antibiotics were available on the day of the visit. Inappropriate prescribing practices included excessive use of antibiotics and failure to diagnose and prescribe in compliance with treatment guidelines. There is a need to strengthen antibiotic use in the health facilities through setting up stewardship programs and interventions to promote adherence to national treatment guidelines. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drivers of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Overuse across Diverse Hospital Contexts—A Qualitative Study of Prescribers in the UK, Sri Lanka and South Africa
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010094 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Antimicrobial stewardship programs focus on reducing overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSAs), primarily through interventions to change prescribing behavior. This study aims to identify multi-level influences on BSA overuse across diverse high and low income, and public and private, healthcare contexts. Semi-structured interviews were [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs focus on reducing overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSAs), primarily through interventions to change prescribing behavior. This study aims to identify multi-level influences on BSA overuse across diverse high and low income, and public and private, healthcare contexts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 46 prescribers from hospitals in the UK, Sri Lanka, and South Africa, including public and private providers. Interviews explored decision making about prescribing BSAs, drivers of the use of BSAs, and benefits of BSAs to various stakeholders, and were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Analysis identified drivers of BSA overuse at the individual, social and structural levels. Structural drivers of overuse varied significantly across contexts and included: system-level factors generating tensions with stewardship goals; limited material resources within hospitals; and patient poverty, lack of infrastructure and resources in local communities. Antimicrobial stewardship needs to encompass efforts to reduce the reliance on BSAs as a solution to context-specific structural conditions. Full article
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