Special Issue "Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Martinez-Medina Margarita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Department of Biology, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain
Interests: Adherence-Invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity; Adherence-Invasive Escherichia coli molecular markers; Escherichia coli pathoadaptive mutations; Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobials; effective therapies against Adherence-Invasive Escherichia coli; intra-species diversity of gut Escherichia coli; Escherichia coli postbiotics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In addition to being an important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, the species pathogenic Escherichia coli contains many pathotypes, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and so on. That cause a variety of diseases, such as diarrhoea or dysentery, and other pathotypes cause extra-intestinal infections, including urinary tract infections and meningitis. Moreover, Adherent-Invasive E. coli (AIEC), a group of E. coli strains geneticaly close to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

Virulence factors of pathogenic E. coli can affect a wide range of eukaryotic cellular processes, including cell signalling, ion secretion, protein synthesis, mitosis, cytoskeletal function and mitochondrial function.

Bacterial infections are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the antibiotic sensitivities of different strains of E. coli vary widely. As gram-negative organisms, E. coli are resistant to many antibiotics that are effective against gram-positive organisms. Antibiotics which may be considered to treat E. coli infections include amoxicillin, as well as other semisynthetic penicillins, many cephalosporins, diverse combinations of beta-lactams with beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, aztreonam, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,  nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, colistin... On the other hand, antibiotic treatments have profound effects to the human microbiome, and thus new strategies such as very-narrow-spectrum treatments are welcomed.

Antibiotic Resistance has become a particular problem in recent decades. Researchers have actively been working to develop safe, effective strategy to lower the worldwide incidence of E. coli infection. Such as Phage therapy, Vaccination.

 

This special issue of "Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies " aims to publish the more recent advances in the infections and therapies caused by pathogenic E. coli. The issue welcomes various submission types, such as original research papers, short communications, reviews, case reports, and perspectives.

 

Potential topics for this special issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Human or animal, intestinal or extraintestinal infections: therapies, antibiotic resistance, etc.
  • High-risk E. coli multiresistant clones: epidemiology and new treatments
  • New effective antibiotics against invasive  E. coli
  • New effective antibiotics against persistent infections by biofilm-forming E. coli
  • Phage therapy for E. coli infections
  • New very-narrow-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of E. coli infections
  • Interplay between antibiotic resistance and virulence during E. coli infection
  • Impact of use of antibiotics in livestock agriculture on the selection of resistant/virulent E. coli clones and spread of them in the environment and transmission to humans.
  • Antibiotics to treat dysbiosis?
  • Antibiotic treatment in a context of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) overcolonisation
  • Old antibiotics still useful to treat E. coli infections

Dr. Martinez-Medina Margarita
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pathogenic Escherichia
  • Escherichia
  • antibiotics
  • antibiotic resistance
  • infections
  • therapies
  • gram-negative

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue: Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020112 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Escherichia coli is a facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae family that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals shortly after birth, and it is a lifelong colonizer of adults [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)

Research

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Article
Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli Associated with Granulomatous Colitis of Boxer Dogs
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090540 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Invasive Escherichia coli is causally associated with granulomatous colitis (GC) of Boxer dogs and French Bulldogs. The virulence determinants of GC E. coli are unclear. E. coli isolated from 16 GC (36 strains) and 17 healthy control (HC: 33 strains) dogs were diverse [...] Read more.
Invasive Escherichia coli is causally associated with granulomatous colitis (GC) of Boxer dogs and French Bulldogs. The virulence determinants of GC E. coli are unclear. E. coli isolated from 16 GC (36 strains) and 17 healthy control (HC: 33 strains) dogs were diverse in phylogeny, genotype, and serotype and lacked diarrheagenic genes. Genes encoding type II (gsp), IV (traC), and VI (hcp) secretion systems, long polar fimbriae (lpfA154/141), and iron acquisition (fyuA, chuA) were frequent in GC and HC. E. coli from 14/15 GC and 10/11 HC invaded Caco-2 better than non-pathogenic E. coli strain DH5α, with invasion correlated with motility and presence of chuA and colV. E. coli from all GC and 10/11 HC survived better than DH5α in J774 macrophages, with adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in 60% GC and 73% HC. AIEC replicated in monocyte derived macrophages from a GC Boxer with CD48/SLAM risk haplotype but not the HC. Fluroquinolone resistant E. coli were less motile and invasive than fluoroquinolone sensitive (p < 0.05), and only 1/8 resistant strains met criteria for AIEC. In conclusion GC E. coli are diverse, resemble extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), including AIEC, and can replicate in GC-susceptible macrophages. They are likely resident pathosymbionts that can opportunistically persist within macrophages of a GC-susceptible dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Short Chain Fatty Acids Modulate the Growth and Virulence of Pathosymbiont Escherichia coli and Host Response
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 462; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080462 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), principally acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced by fermentation of dietary fibers by the gut microbiota. SCFA regulate the growth and virulence of enteric pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Klebsiella and Salmonella. We sought to [...] Read more.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), principally acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced by fermentation of dietary fibers by the gut microbiota. SCFA regulate the growth and virulence of enteric pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Klebsiella and Salmonella. We sought to investigate the impact of SCFA on growth and virulence of pathosymbiont E. coli associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), and their role in regulating host responses to bacterial infection in vitro. We found that under ileal conditions (pH = 7.4; 12 mM total SCFA), SCFA significantly (p < 0.05) potentiate the growth and motility of pathosymbiont E. coli. However, under colonic conditions (pH = 6.5; 65 to 123 mM total SCFA), SCFA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit growth in a pH dependent fashion (up to 60%), and down-regulate virulence gene expression (e.g., fliC, fimH, htrA, chuA, pks). Functional analysis reveals that colonic SCFA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit E. coli motility (up to 95%), infectivity (up to 60%), and type 1 fimbria-mediated agglutination (up to 50%). In addition, SCFA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit the activation of NF-κB, and IL-8 production by epithelial cells. Our findings provide novel insights on the role of the regional chemical microenvironment in regulating the growth and virulence of pathosymbiont E. coli and opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Antibacterial Activity of Bacteriocinogenic Commensal Escherichia coli against Zoonotic Strains Resistant and Sensitive to Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070411 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance concerns various areas with high consumption of antibiotics, including husbandry. Resistant strains are transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products via the food chain and may pose a health risk. The commensal microbiota protects against the invasion of environmental strains [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance concerns various areas with high consumption of antibiotics, including husbandry. Resistant strains are transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products via the food chain and may pose a health risk. The commensal microbiota protects against the invasion of environmental strains by secretion of bacteriocins, among other mechanisms. The present study aims to characterize the bactericidal potential of bacteriocinogenic Escherichia coli from healthy humans against multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive strains from pigs and cattle. Bacteriocin production was tested by the double-layer plate method, and bacteriocin genes were identified by the PCR method. At least one bacteriocinogenic E. coli was detected in the fecal samples of 55% of tested individuals, adults and children. Among all isolates (n = 210), 37.1% were bacteriocinogenic and contained genes of colicin (Col) Ib, ColE1, microcin (Mcc) H47, ColIa, ColM, MccV, ColK, ColB, and single ColE2 and ColE7. Twenty-five E. coli carrying various sets of bacteriocin genes were further characterized and tested for their activity against zoonotic strains (n = 60). Strains with ColE7 (88%), ColE1-ColIa-ColK-MccH47 (85%), MccH47-MccV (85%), ColE1-ColIa-ColM (82%), ColE1 (75%), ColM (67%), and ColK (65%) were most active against zoonotic strains. Statistically significant differences in activity toward antibiotic-resistant strains were shown by commensal E. coli carrying MccV, ColK-MccV, and ColIb-ColK. The study demonstrates that bacteriocinogenic commensal E. coli exerts antagonistic activity against zoonotic strains and may constitute a defense line against multidrug-resistant strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Activity of Bacteriophage and Complex Tannins against Biofilm-Forming Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Canada and South Africa
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9050257 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Bacteriophages, natural killers of bacteria, and plant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, are potential agents for the control of foodborne pathogens. The first objective of this study evaluated the efficacy of a bacteriophage SA21RB in reducing pre-formed biofilms on stainless-steel produced by [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages, natural killers of bacteria, and plant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, are potential agents for the control of foodborne pathogens. The first objective of this study evaluated the efficacy of a bacteriophage SA21RB in reducing pre-formed biofilms on stainless-steel produced by two Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, one from South Africa and the other from Canada. The second objective examined the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of condensed tannin (CT) from purple prairie clover and phlorotannins (PT) from brown seaweed against these strains. For 24-h-old biofilms, (O113:H21; 6.2 log10 colony-forming units per square centimeter (CFU/cm2) and O154:H10; 5.4 log10 CFU/cm2), 3 h of exposure to phage (1013 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL)) reduced (p ≤ 0.05) the number of viable cells attached to stainless-steel coupons by 2.5 and 2.1 log10 CFU/cm2 for O113:H21 and O154:H10, respectively. However, as biofilms matured, the ability of phage to control biofilm formation declined. In biofilms formed for 72 h (O113:H21; 5.4 log10 CFU/cm2 and O154:H10; 7 log10 CFU/cm2), reductions after the same duration of phage treatment were only 0.9 and 1.3 log10 CFU/cm2 for O113:H21 and O154:H10, respectively. Initial screening of CT and PT for anti-bacterial activity by a microplate assay indicated that both STEC strains were less sensitive (p ≤ 0.05) to CT than PT over a concentration range of 25–400 µg/mL. Based on the lower activity of CT (25–400 µg/mL), they were not further examined. Accordingly, PT (50 µg/mL) inhibited (p ≤ 0.05) biofilm formation for up to 24 h of incubation at 22 °C, but this inhibition progressively declined over 72 h for both O154:H10 and O113:H21. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that both SA21RB and PT eliminated 24 h biofilms, but that both strains were able to adhere and form biofilms on stainless-steel coupons at longer incubation times. These findings revealed that phage SA21RB is more effective at disrupting 24 than 72 h biofilms and that PT were able to inhibit biofilm formation of both E. coli O154:H10 and O113:H21 for up to 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli Show Increased Resistance to β-Lactams
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9050251 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
The adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been associated with the aetiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Scarce reports have shown the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of AIEC. Despite antibiotics not being recommended to treat CD, antimicrobial therapy could be useful in stratified [...] Read more.
The adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been associated with the aetiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Scarce reports have shown the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of AIEC. Despite antibiotics not being recommended to treat CD, antimicrobial therapy could be useful in stratified patients, such as AIEC carriers. We examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of AIEC strains to identify which therapies could be effective or confer a risk for such patients. Phenotypic resistance to 30 antimicrobials was tested according to CLSI standards. AIEC (n = 22) and non-pathogenic E. coli (non-AIEC) strains (n = 37) isolated from the gut mucosa of 31 CD patients and 18 controls were studied. De novo genome sequencing was carried out for 39 of the 59 strains, and AMR genes were searched using the DeepARG database in these genomes and 33 additional AIEC publicly available genomes. The strains isolated from CD and controls showed similar phenotypic AMR profiles. The genomic analysis did not reveal an increased prevalence of AMR genes. However, AIEC strains were more frequently resistant to β-lactams than non-AIEC strains (11 AIEC (50%) and 5 non-AIEC (22%) strains were resistant to at least one β-lactam; p < 0.042). Two AIEC strains were resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. One strain carried a plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (CMY-69), and the other presented mutations in the promotor of the intrinsic chromosomal AmpC related to the hyperproduction of this enzyme. The rest of the strains were resistant to β-lactams not including expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. The majority carried TEM-related β-lactamases. Genomic analysis including external AIEC revealed that the gene sul1 encoding for sulphonamide resistance was more frequent in AIEC strains than non-AIEC strains (34.6% vs. 9.5%, p = 0.030). AMR in AIEC is a matter of concern regarding the putative implication of the pathotype in CD. The high proportion of AIEC resistant to β-lactams warrants caution about the risk there may be in the use of these antimicrobials in AIEC-colonized CD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
High Abundance of Proteobacteria in Ileo-Anal Pouch Anastomosis and Increased Abundance of Fusobacteria Associated with Increased Pouch Inflammation
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9050237 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Low diversity intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, including patients with ulcerative colitis with an ileo-anal pouch anastomosis. Furthermore, specific Escherichia coli phylogroups have been linked to inflammatory bowel disease. Our aim was to characterize the differences among microbiota and [...] Read more.
Low diversity intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, including patients with ulcerative colitis with an ileo-anal pouch anastomosis. Furthermore, specific Escherichia coli phylogroups have been linked to inflammatory bowel disease. Our aim was to characterize the differences among microbiota and E. coli phylogroups in active and inactive pouchitis. Disease activity was assessed using the modified pouch disease activity index and by fecal calprotectin. Microbiota diversity was assessed by 16S rDNA MiSeq sequencing. E. coli phylogroup was determined after triplex PCR. Twenty patients with ulcerative colitis with an ileo-anal pouch anastomosis were included, 10 of whom had active pouchitis. Ileo-anal pouch anastomosis patients had an increased abundance of Proteobacteria colonization compared to patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease and healthy controls, p = 1.4·10−5. No differences in E. coli phylogroup colonization could be determined between cases of active and inactive disease. No significant link was found between α-diversity and pouch inflammation. However, higher levels of Fusobacteria colonization were found in patients with a pouch with a fecal calprotectin level above 500, p = 0.02. In conclusion, patients with a pouch had an increased Proteobacteria abundance, but only Fusobacteria abundance was linked to inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Efficacy of A Poly(MeOEGMA) Brush on the Prevention of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation and Susceptibility
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9050216 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections, and they are often associated with biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices such as catheters and stents. This study aims to investigate the antibiofilm performance of a polymer brush—poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections, and they are often associated with biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices such as catheters and stents. This study aims to investigate the antibiofilm performance of a polymer brush—poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate], poly(MeOEGMA)—and evaluate its effect on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli biofilms formed on that surface. Biofilms were formed in a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC) for 24 h under the hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in urinary catheters and stents and challenged with ampicillin. Results obtained with the brush were compared to those obtained with two control surfaces, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. The polymer brush reduced by 57% the surface area covered by E. coli after 24 h, as well as the number of total adhered cells. The antibiotic treatment potentiated cell death and removal, and the total cell number was reduced by 88%. Biofilms adapted their architecture, and cell morphology changed to a more elongated form during that period. This work suggests that the poly(MeOEGMA) brush has potential to prevent bacterial adhesion in urinary tract devices like ureteral stents and catheters, as well as in eradicating biofilms developed in these biomedical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Prevalence of Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistances in E. coli Associated with Neonatal Diarrhea, Postweaning Diarrhea, and Edema Disease in Pigs from Austria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040208 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Increasing numbers of multi-resistant Escherichia (E.) coli from clinical specimens emphasize the importance of monitoring of their resistance profiles for proper treatment. Furthermore, knowledge on the presence of virulence associated genes in E. coli isolates from European swine stocks is scarce. Consequently, a [...] Read more.
Increasing numbers of multi-resistant Escherichia (E.) coli from clinical specimens emphasize the importance of monitoring of their resistance profiles for proper treatment. Furthermore, knowledge on the presence of virulence associated genes in E. coli isolates from European swine stocks is scarce. Consequently, a total of 694 E. coli isolated between 2016 and 2018 from diarrheic piglets of Austrian swine herds were investigated. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to twelve antibiotics using agar disk diffusion test and for the presence of 22 virulence associated genes via PCR. Overall, 71.9, 67.7, and 49.5% of all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while resistance levels to gentamicin and fosfomycin were 7.7 and 2.0%, respectively. Resistance frequency to ciprofloxacin was higher than in previous studies. Isolates were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin if they were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. No isolate was resistant to meropenem or amikacin. Virulence genes were detected more frequently in isolates expressing hemolytic activity on blood agar plates. The detection rate of faeG was increased in fimH negative isolates. We assume, that hemolytic activity and absence of fimH could be considered as potential indicators for the virulence of E. coli in piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Genomic Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates Belonging to a New Hybrid aEPEC/ExPEC Pathotype O153:H10-A-ST10 eae-beta1 Occurred in Meat, Poultry, Wildlife and Human Diarrheagenic Samples
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040192 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Different surveillance studies (2005–2015) in northwest Spain revealed the presence of eae-positive isolates of Escherichia coli O153:H10 in meat for human consumption, poultry farm, wildlife and human diarrheagenic samples. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic and genomic relatedness [...] Read more.
Different surveillance studies (2005–2015) in northwest Spain revealed the presence of eae-positive isolates of Escherichia coli O153:H10 in meat for human consumption, poultry farm, wildlife and human diarrheagenic samples. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic and genomic relatedness between human and animal/meat isolates, as well as the mechanism of its persistence. We also wanted to know whether it was a geographically restricted lineage, or whether it was also reported elsewhere. Conventional typing showed that 32 isolates were O153:H10-A-ST10 fimH54, fimAvMT78, traT and eae-beta1. Amongst these, 21 were CTX-M-32 or SHV-12 producers. The PFGE XbaI-macrorestriction comparison showed high similarity (>85%). The plasmidome analysis revealed a stable combination of IncF (F2:A-:B-), IncI1 (STunknown) and IncX1 plasmid types, together with non-conjugative Col-like plasmids. The core genome investigation based on the cgMLST scheme from EnteroBase proved close relatedness between isolates of human and animal origin. Our results demonstrate that a hybrid MDR aEPEC/ExPEC of the clonal group O153:H10-A-ST10 (CH11-54) is circulating in our region within different hosts, including wildlife. It seems implicated in human diarrhea via meat transmission, and in the spreading of ESBL genes (mainly of CTX-M-32 type). We found genomic evidence of a related hybrid aEPEC/ExPEC in at least one other country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Article
Clonal Structure, Virulence Factor-encoding Genes and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli, Causing Urinary Tract Infections and Other Extraintestinal Infections in Humans in Spain and France during 2016
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040161 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Escherichia coli is the main pathogen responsible for extraintestinal infections. A total of 196 clinical E. coli consecutively isolated during 2016 in Spain (100 from Lucus Augusti hospital in Lugo) and France (96 from Beaujon hospital in Clichy) were characterized. Phylogroups, clonotypes, sequence [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli is the main pathogen responsible for extraintestinal infections. A total of 196 clinical E. coli consecutively isolated during 2016 in Spain (100 from Lucus Augusti hospital in Lugo) and France (96 from Beaujon hospital in Clichy) were characterized. Phylogroups, clonotypes, sequence types (STs), O:H serotypes, virulence factor (VF)-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance were determined. Approximately 10% of the infections were caused by ST131 isolates in both hospitals and approximately 60% of these infections were caused by isolates belonging to only 10 STs (ST10, ST12, ST58, ST69, ST73, ST88, ST95, ST127, ST131, ST141). ST88 isolates were frequent, especially in Spain, while ST141 isolates significantly predominated in France. The 23 ST131 isolates displayed four clonotypes: CH40-30, CH40-41, CH40-22 and CH40-298. Only 13 (6.6%) isolates were carriers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. However, 37.2% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Approximately 40% of the MDR isolates belonged to only four of the dominant clones (B2-CH40-30-ST131, B2-CH40-41-ST131, C-CH4-39-ST88 and D-CH35-27-ST69). Among the remaining MDR isolates, two isolates belonged to B2-CH14-64-ST1193, i.e., the new global emergent MDR clone. Moreover, a hybrid extraintestinal pathogenic E.coli (ExPEC)/enteroaggregative isolate belonging to the A-CH11-54-ST10 clone was identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Review

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Review
FimH and Anti-Adhesive Therapeutics: A Disarming Strategy Against Uropathogens
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070397 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Chaperone-usher fimbrial adhesins are powerful weapons against the uropathogens that allow the establishment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). As the antibiotic therapeutic strategy has become less effective in the treatment of uropathogen-related UTIs, the anti-adhesive molecules active against fimbrial adhesins, key determinants of [...] Read more.
Chaperone-usher fimbrial adhesins are powerful weapons against the uropathogens that allow the establishment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). As the antibiotic therapeutic strategy has become less effective in the treatment of uropathogen-related UTIs, the anti-adhesive molecules active against fimbrial adhesins, key determinants of urovirulence, are attractive alternatives. The best-characterized bacterial adhesin is FimH, produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Hence, a number of high-affinity mono- and polyvalent mannose-based FimH antagonists, characterized by different bioavailabilities, have been reported. Given that antagonist affinities are firmly associated with the functional heterogeneities of different FimH variants, several FimH inhibitors have been developed using ligand-drug discovery strategies to generate high-affinity molecules for successful anti-adhesion therapy. As clinical trials have shown d-mannose’s efficacy in UTIs prevention, it is supposed that mannosides could be a first-in-class strategy not only for UTIs, but also to combat other Gram-negative bacterial infections. Therefore, the current review discusses valuable and effective FimH anti-adhesive molecules active against UTIs, from design and synthesis to in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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Other

Brief Report
First Report and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a blaOXA-244-Harboring Escherichia coli Isolate Recovered in the American Continent
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8040222 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
The carbapenemase OXA-244 is a derivate of OXA-48, and its detection is very difficult in laboratories. Here, we report the identification and genomic analysis of an Escherichia coli isolate (28Eco12) harboring the blaOXA-244 gene identified in Colombia, South America. The 28Eco12 isolate [...] Read more.
The carbapenemase OXA-244 is a derivate of OXA-48, and its detection is very difficult in laboratories. Here, we report the identification and genomic analysis of an Escherichia coli isolate (28Eco12) harboring the blaOXA-244 gene identified in Colombia, South America. The 28Eco12 isolate was identified during a retrospective study, and it was recovered from a patient treated in Colombia. The complete nucleotide sequence was established using the PacBio platform. A comparative genomics analysis with other blaOXA-244–harboring Escherichia coli strains was performed. The 28Eco12 isolate belonged to sequence type (ST) 38, and its genome was composed of two molecules, a chromosome of 5,343,367 bp and a plasmid of 92,027 bp, which belonged to the incompatibility group IncY and did not harbor resistance genes. The blaOXA-244 gene was chromosomally encoded and mobilized by an ISR1-related Tn6237 composite transposon. Notably, this transposon was inserted and located within a new genomic island. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaOXA-244–harboring Escherichia coli isolate in America. Our results suggest that the introduction of the OXA-244-producing E. coli isolate was through clonal expansion of the ST38 pandemic clone. Other isolates producing OXA-244 could be circulating silently in America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections and Therapies)
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