Special Issue "Genomic Analysis of Antibiotics Resistance in Pathogens"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Teresa V. Nogueira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
INIAV - National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research / cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: bacterial genomics; microbiome dynamics; evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens currently poses a serious threat to public health and the economy. Due to antibiotic treatments in humans and in veterinary medicine, pathogenic bacteria are the most frequently exposed to unnatural doses of antibiotics and their selective effect.

In bacteria, resistance to antibiotics can be encoded on chromosomes, plasmids, or other mobile genetic elements. It can also result from mutations that lead to changes in the antibiotics’ affinity for their targets or in the antibiotics' ability to act on bacterial growth or death. The exposure of bacteria, bacterial populations, and microbial communities to antibiotics, at different concentrations, shapes their genomic dynamics, such as the mobilization and spreading of resistance determinants. It is essential to understand the dynamics and mobilization of the genes that encode antibiotic resistance, in human, animal, plant, and environmental microbiomes, through genomic and metagenomic approaches and bioinformatics analyses.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions on the horizontal transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes, their dissemination and epidemiology, association with bacterial virulence, between bacterial genotypes and their phenotypes, or any related research topic.

Dr. Teresa V. Nogueira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • genome analysis
  • metagenome analysis
  • horizontal gene transfer
  • clinical microbiology
  • veterinary microbiology
  • superbugs

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Co-Existence of Certain ESBLs, MBLs and Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes among MDR E. coli Isolated from Different Clinical Specimens in Egypt
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 835; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070835 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains and even pan drug resistant (PDR) strains is alarming. In this study, we studied the resistance pattern of E. coli pathogens recovered from patients with different infections in different hospitals in Minia, Egypt and the co-existence [...] Read more.
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains and even pan drug resistant (PDR) strains is alarming. In this study, we studied the resistance pattern of E. coli pathogens recovered from patients with different infections in different hospitals in Minia, Egypt and the co-existence of different resistance determinants. E. coli was the most prevalent among patients suffering from urinary tract infections (62%), while they were the least isolated from eye infections (10%). High prevalence of MDR isolates was found (73%) associated with high ESBLs and MBLs production (89.4% and 64.8%, respectively). blaTEM (80%) and blaNDM (43%) were the most frequent ESBL and MBL, respectively. None of the isolates harbored blaKPC and blaOXA-48 carbapenemase like genes. Also, the fluoroquinolone modifying enzyme gene aac-(6′)-Ib-cr was detected in 25.2% of the isolates. More than one gene was found in 81% of the isolates. Azithromycin was one of the most effective antibiotics against MDR E. coli pathogens. The high MAR index of the isolates and the high prevalence of resistance genes, indicates an important public health concern and high-risk communities where antibiotics are abused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analysis of Antibiotics Resistance in Pathogens)
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Article
Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Expression of Efflux Pump and Quorum-Sensing Genes in MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 625; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060625 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Most of the infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa strains are extremely difficult to be treated with conventional antibiotics. Biofilm formation and efflux pumps are recognized as the major antibiotic resistance mechanisms in MDR P. aeruginosa. Biofilm formation by P. [...] Read more.
Most of the infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa strains are extremely difficult to be treated with conventional antibiotics. Biofilm formation and efflux pumps are recognized as the major antibiotic resistance mechanisms in MDR P. aeruginosa. Biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa depends mainly on the cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing (QS) systems. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TDN) have been used as antimicrobial agents against several microorganisms but have not been reported as an anti-QS agent. This study aims to evaluate the impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TDN) on QS and efflux pump genes expression in MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 P. aeruginosa isolates were performed by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TDN) were prepared by the sol gel method and characterized by different techniques (DLS, HR-TEM, XRD, and FTIR). The expression of efflux pumps in the MDR isolates was detected by the determination of MICs of different antibiotics in the presence and absence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Biofilm formation and the antibiofilm activity of TDN were determined using the tissue culture plate method. The effects of TDN on the expression of QS genes and efflux pump genes were tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The average size of the TDNs was 64.77 nm. It was found that TDN showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation (96%) and represented superior antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa strains in comparison to titanium dioxide powder. In addition, the use of TDN alone or in combination with antibiotics resulted in significant downregulation of the efflux pump genes (MexY, MexB, MexA) and QS-regulated genes (lasR, lasI, rhll, rhlR, pqsA, pqsR) in comparison to the untreated isolate. TDN can increase the therapeutic efficacy of traditional antibiotics by affecting efflux pump expression and quorum-sensing genes controlling biofilm production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analysis of Antibiotics Resistance in Pathogens)
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Article
Pan-Resistome Insights into the Multidrug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050596 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for many nosocomial infections. This etiologic agent has acquired, over the years, multiple mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials and the ability to survive in different environments. In this [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for many nosocomial infections. This etiologic agent has acquired, over the years, multiple mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials and the ability to survive in different environments. In this context, our study aims to elucidate the resistome from the A. baumannii strains based on phylogenetic, phylogenomic, and comparative genomics analyses. In silico analysis of the complete genomes of A. baumannii strains was carried out to identify genes involved in the resistance mechanisms and the phylogenetic relationships and grouping of the strains based on the sequence type. The presence of genomic islands containing most of the resistance gene repertoire indicated high genomic plasticity, which probably enabled the acquisition of resistance genes and the formation of a robust resistome. A. baumannii displayed an open pan-genome and revealed a still constant genetic permutation among their strains. Furthermore, the resistance genes suggest a specific profile within the species throughout its evolutionary history. Moreover, the current study performed screening and characterization of the main genes present in the resistome, which can be used in applied research to develop new therapeutic methods to control this important bacterial pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analysis of Antibiotics Resistance in Pathogens)
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