Special Issue "Development of Antimicrobial Biomaterials and Natural Alternatives against Biofilms and Implant-Related Infections"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Débora C. Coraça-Huber
Guest Editor
Research Laboratory for Biofilms and Implant Associated Infections (BIOFILM LAB), Experimental Orthopedics, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Interests: biofilms; implant-infections; antimicrobials; local delivery systems
Prof. Dr. Eliana Aparecida de Rezende Duek
Guest Editor
Department of Physiological Sciencesb, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil
Interests: biomedical engineering; biomaterials; polimers; local delivery systems
Prof. Dr. Marina Angélica Marciano da Silva
Guest Editor
Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas - FOP/UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
Interests: dental medicine; bone cements; endodontics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Implantable medical devices, such as prosthetics, catheters, and several other devices, have revolutionized medicine, but they increase the risk of infection. Indeed, implant infection is one of the most frequent and severe complications associated with the use of biomaterials. Implant infections count as nosocomial infections, being a major cause of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. Those infections are difficult to treat, often requiring surgical implant replacement. The mortality rates for periprosthetic joint infections are equivalent to the rates for breast cancer and melanoma. The most commonly cultured microorganisms in implant infections are Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS; primarily S. epidermidis), followed by S. aureus and mixed flora. In previous decades, commercially available antibiotics lost their ability to fight against CoNS and several other microorganisms. CoNS of both animal and human origins represent an important reservoir of genetic elements that lead to resistance not only to beta-lactam antibiotics but also to other antibiotic classes. One additional mechanism contributing to this phenomenon and negatively affecting the antimicrobial susceptibility of CoNS is the potential of these bacteria to produce biofilms. The presence of biofilm results in antibiotic tolerance by bacteria because many of them cannot sufficiently penetrate through biofilms. There is an urgent need to investigate alternatives to antibiotic substances. Local antimicrobial therapies can contribute to better outcomes during infection treatments. The investigation of biomaterials able to deliver antibiotics, natural antimicrobial substances or antibiotic-boosting substances is of great interest.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further investigate such substances in association with biomaterials for use in all areas of implantology. Submissions on local delivery systems, smart implants associated with antibiotic boosting substances, natural antimicrobials, and new antimicrobial substances are especially encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Débora C. Coraça-Huber
Prof. Dr. Eliana Aparecida de Rezende Duek
Prof. Dr. Marina Angélica Marciano da Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Biofilms
  • Implant infections
  • Antimicrobials
  • Biomedical engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Bolymers
  • Local delivery systems
  • Dental medicine
  • Bone cements
  • Endodontics

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Incorporation of Hybrid Nanomaterial in Dental Porcelains: Antimicrobial, Chemical, and Mechanical Properties
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020098 - 20 Jan 2021
Biofilm formation on biomaterials is a challenge in the health area. Antimicrobial substances based on nanomaterials have been proposed to solve this problem. The aim was to incorporate nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (β-AgVO3) into dental porcelains [...] Read more.
Biofilm formation on biomaterials is a challenge in the health area. Antimicrobial substances based on nanomaterials have been proposed to solve this problem. The aim was to incorporate nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (β-AgVO3) into dental porcelains (IPS Inline and Ex-3 Noritake), at concentrations of 2.5% and 5%, and evaluate the surface characteristics (by SEM/EDS), antimicrobial activity (against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), silver (Ag+) and vanadium (V4+/V5+) ions release, and mechanical properties (microhardness, roughness, and fracture toughness). The β-AgVO3 incorporation did not alter the porcelain’s components, reduced the S. mutans, S. sobrinus and A. actinomycetemcomitans viability, increased the fracture toughness of IPS Inline, the roughness for all groups, and did not affect the microhardness of the 5% group. Among all groups, IPS Inline 5% released more Ag+, and Ex-3 Noritake 2.5% released more V4+/V5+. It was concluded that the incorporation of β-AgVO3 into dental porcelains promoted antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and A. actinomycetemcomitans (preventing biofilm formation), caused a higher release of vanadium than silver ions, and an adequate mechanical behavior was observed. However, the incorporation of β-AgVO3 did not reduce P. aeruginosa viability and increased the surface roughness of dental porcelains. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Paper 1

Title: Influence of Different Nutrient Media on the Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biofilm Gene Expression of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci compared to Human Synovial Fluid

Authors: S. Steixner*; C. Spiegel; D. Dammerer; M. Fille; M. Nogler; D. C. Coraça-Huber

Abstract: Background: Bacterial antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation are mechanisms usually involved in the pathogeny of implant-related infections. Worldwide, antibiotic susceptibility is tested using nutrient-enriched media. Clinical routine laboratories and even research canters use as example EUCAST or CLSI for guidelines. In this study, we wanted to investigate the effect of different nutrient-enriched media compared with human synovial fluids, on the antibiotic susceptibility and gene expression of bacteria in biofilm. Methods: As media, Müller-Hinton Bouillon (MHB), Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) and human synovial fluid (SF), each also supplemented with 1% glucose (MHBG/TSBG/SFG), were used. The influence of different nutrient media on the antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units (CFU) and by checking the metabolic activity of the bacteria. We used reverse transcriptase and real-time qPCR to investigate the influence of the different media on the gene expression on biofilms. Results: Significant differences in growth and antibiotic susceptibility were detected in all strains tested among the different media used. The nutrient media showed influence on the cell viability of all bacteria after antibiotic treatment. The results highlight the strong influence of glucose on the antibiotic susceptibility of all strains tested. For all strains, a significant difference in bacterial recovery and viability were found when compared to biofilm grown in synovial fluid. Conclusion: Nutrient-enriched media, normally used in laboratories to test antibiotics, highly influence the susceptibility of microorganisms. The use of media which simulates human fluids instead of nutrient-enriched media should be encouraged.

Keywords: biofilm; coagulase-negative staphylococci; antibiotic susceptibility; nutrient media; viability; gene expression; biofilm genes

Paper 2:

Title: A New Low Cost Dermal Substitute of Polyvinyl Alcohol with Silver Nanoparticles and Gelatin with Hyaluronic Acid: In Vitro and in Vivo Approaches 

Authors: Dario Mendes-Jr, Moema A. Hausen, Jessica Asami, Akemi Higa, Fabio L. Leite, Giovanni P. Mambrini, Eliana A. de Rezende Duek

Abstract: The experimental use of poly (alcohol-vinyl) (PVA) as a skin curative is increasing widely. Thus, the use of this hydrogel is challenging due to ease microbiota growth. So on, the association with silver nanoparticles (NpAg) as a microbial agent, turns PVA in the match as a dressing focused on creating a physical barrier to avoid the wound dehydration. When associated to extracellular components such as dermal-derived matrix (DDM), the device obtained can create the desired biological conditions to act as a skin substitute. This study, aimed to analyze the anti-microbiological activity, and the in vitro and in vivo responses of a bilaminar device of PVA containing NpAgs integrated to a DDM added to hyaluronic acid. Additionally, mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in the device to evaluate in vivo immunomodulatory behavior. The device morphology revealed a porous pattern that favored water retention and in vitro cell adhesion. Controlled wounds in the dorsal of rat skins revealed, after 14 and 28 days, a striking skin remodeling with epidermis fulfilling all previous injured area. No infections or significant inflammations were observed, despite increased angiogenesis and no fibrosis-markers were identified, as compared to controls. Although, few antibacterial activities were obtained, the addition of NpAg essentially prevented fungal growth. All results demonstrated that the combination of the components used here as a dermal device, chosen according to previous miscellany studies of low cost biomaterials, to promote skin protection avoiding infections and dehydration, minimizing typical wound inflammatory responses and favoring the cellular healing responses, gives rise to the device here developed for further clinical trials.

Paper 3:

Title: Antimicrobial Activity of Tricalcium Silicate-Based Dental Biomaterials: Literature Review

Authors: Ana Cristina Padilha Janini, Gabriela Fernanda Bombarda, Thiago Bessa Marconato Antunes, Lauter Eston Pelepenko, Marina Angélica Marciano*

Abstract: Introduction: Endodontic biomaterials have revolutionized dental treatments and are used for vital pulp therapies, irrigation, intracanal medication, filling and regenerative procedures. The tricalcium silicate-based materials involve a class of dental materials that can be used inside and outside the root canals, in direct contact with the dental structure, and often with the conjunctive and bone tissues. As they interact with tissues and stimulate biomineralization, their biological properties are of major importance. In contrast, the main challenge in endodontic treatment is the elimination of biofilms that survive within the anatomical complexities of the root canal system. Studies show a polymicrobial etiology in endodontic infections and the persistence of microorganisms after chemical-mechanical disinfection. Thus, it is a challenge for these biomaterials to exert antimicrobial activity and maintain their biological properties. Objective: This article presents a literature review with scientific studies on the antimicrobial properties of the main bioactive tricalcium silicate-based dental biomaterials used in endodontic practice. Conclusions: It is necessary that in vitro studies use greater methodological standardization for antimicrobial analysis of tricalcium silicate materials, and new studies are indicated to preferentially evaluate polymicrobial biofilms associated with endodontic disease, especially with the introduction of bioactive materials.

Keywords: antimicrobial biofilm; bioactive materials; endodontics; root canal sealer

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