Special Issue "Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment in Companion and Food Animals"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Ms. Chantal Britt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Swiss 3R Competence Centre, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Interests: communications; clinical microbiology; infectious diseases; toxicology; animal welfare
Dr. Jonathan Gómez-Raja
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health and Social Services, Government of Extremadura, Merida, Spain
Interests: microbiology; molecular biology; genetics; mycology; antibiotics; molecular genetics; antimicrobials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global antimicrobial resistance crisis has been the driver of several international strategies on antimicrobial stewardship. Despite their good intentions, such broad strategies are only slowly being implemented in real life. Antimicrobial resistance bacteria flow among humans and animals and actions for fighting the problem must consider both sectors. Antimicrobial usage is one of the potential drivers for antimicrobial resistance. The usage of antibiotics concerning companion and food animals and antimicrobials is undoubtedly beneficial for the prevention of diseases and the improvement of livestock performance.

Unfortunately, in veterinary medicine, which is challenged by a shortage of experts in key disciplines related to antimicrobial stewardship, there are few antimicrobial treatment guidelines and diagnostic tests are inferior compared to human microbiology, without providing enough valuable information, which makes it difficult to identify by whom, when, and how the antimicrobial products are used. The main aspects of antimicrobial resistance monitoring remain unsolved in both companion and food animals, the use of appropriate methods for collection of information at the animal and farm levels, and the choice of metrics of measurement of antimicrobial resistance and animal populations at risk.

This Special Issue invites researchers interested in antimicrobial resistance monitoring in animals, to optimize veterinary antimicrobial use with special emphasis to help in the development of antimicrobial treatment guidelines and refinement of microbiological diagnostic procedures, in both companion and food animals, and to use the gathered information to improve antimicrobial stewardship.

This Special Issue is supported by COST Action CA18217 – European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment.

We would like to encourage the submission of manuscripts that give insight into the aforementioned topics and to create awareness in the population concerning their health.

Prof. Dr. Nikola Puvaca
Dr. Chantal Britt
Dr. Jonathan Gómez-Raja
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobials
  • antibiotics
  • companion animals
  • food animals
  • antimicrobial therapy
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • animal nutrition
  • antibiotics natural alternatives
  • food quality and safety
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Article
Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus Species Isolated in Raw Chicken Meat from Retail Stores
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 904; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080904 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
The study was aimed at evaluating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retailed raw chicken meat from retail stores intended for human consumption. The presence, characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus from 38 retail raw chicken meat samples was performed using [...] Read more.
The study was aimed at evaluating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retailed raw chicken meat from retail stores intended for human consumption. The presence, characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus from 38 retail raw chicken meat samples was performed using a standard microbiological method involving mannitol salt agar (MSA) and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). All the samples were positive for Staphylococcus species, of which 34 (89.5%) were positive for S. aureus. The S. aureus isolates were most resistant to tetracycline (88.24%), erythromycin (82.35%), and chloramphenicol (61.77%). Nevertheless, decreased resistance towards gentamycin (23.53%) and cotrimoxazole (38.24%) were recorded. All the S. aureus isolates in this study were resistant to cloxacillin, amoxicillin, and augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid). The present findings show how the raw chicken meat samples could be a potential source of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains dissemination. Therefore, this study suggests high-level contamination of meat with multidrug-resistant S. aureus and highlights the public health consequences of consuming such products. Undoubtedly, uncontrolled drugs in food animal production as growth stimulators or medicinal treatment present a possible consequence to people’s health. Having the aforementioned in mind, there is a necessity to control the use of drugs and monitor any residues left in the food intended for human consumption. Full article
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Article
HPMCP-Coated Microcapsules Containing the Ctx(Ile21)-Ha Antimicrobial Peptide Reduce the Mortality Rate Caused by Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060616 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
The constant use of synthetic antibiotics as growth promoters can cause bacterial resistance in chicks. Consequently, the use of these drugs has been restricted in different countries. In recent years, antimicrobial peptides have gained relevance due to their minimal capacity for bacterial resistance [...] Read more.
The constant use of synthetic antibiotics as growth promoters can cause bacterial resistance in chicks. Consequently, the use of these drugs has been restricted in different countries. In recent years, antimicrobial peptides have gained relevance due to their minimal capacity for bacterial resistance and does not generate toxic residues that harm the environment and human health. In this study, a Ctx(Ile21)-Ha antimicrobial peptide was employed, due to its previously reported great antimicrobial potential, to evaluate its application effects in laying chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, resistant to nalidixic acid and spectinomycin. For this, Ctx(Ile21)-Ha was synthesized, microencapsulated and coated with hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) to be released in the intestine. Two different doses (20 and 40 mg of Ctx(Ile21)-Ha per kg of isoproteic and isoenergetic poultry feed) were included in the chick’s food and administered for 28 days. Antimicrobial activity, effect and response as treatment were evaluated. Statistical results were analyzed in detail and indicate that the formulated Ctx(Ile21)-Ha peptide had a positive and significant effect in relation to the reduction of chick mortality in the first days of life. However, there was moderate evidence (p = 0.07), not considered statistically significant, in the differences in laying chick weight between the control and microencapsulation treatment groups as a function of time. Therefore, the microencapsulated Ctx(Ile21)-Ha antimicrobial peptide can be an interesting and promising option in the substitution of conventional antibiotics. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Essential Oils against Selected Pathogenic Bacteria: In Vitro Study
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050546 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
The worldwide problem of infectious diseases has appeared in recent years, and antimicrobial agents are crucial in reducing disease emergence. Nevertheless, the development and distribution of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi and [...] Read more.
The worldwide problem of infectious diseases has appeared in recent years, and antimicrobial agents are crucial in reducing disease emergence. Nevertheless, the development and distribution of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi and Citrobacter koseri, has become a major society health hazard. Essential oils could serve as a promising tool as a natural drug in fighting the problem with these bacteria. The current study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus obliqua L’Hér.), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) essential oils. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils were screened against four pathogenic bacteria, E. coli, S. aureus, S. Tyhpi, and C. koseri, and two reference bacterial strains, while for the testing, the agar well diffusion method was used. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric (GC–MSD) analyses were performed on essential oils. The obtained results showed that M. alternifolia essential oil is the richest in terpinen-4-ol, R. officinalis and E. oblique essential oils in 1,8-cineole, and L. angustifolia essential oil in α-terpinyl acetate. In addition, the main bioactive compounds present in the essential oil of tea tree are rich in α-pinene (18.38%), limonene (7.55%) and γ-terpinene (14.01%). The essential oil of rosemary is rich in α-pinene (8.38%) and limonene (11.86%); eucalyptus essential oil has significant concentrations of α-pinene (12.60%), p-cymene (3.24%), limonene (3.87%), and γ-terpinene (7.37%), while the essential oil of lavender is rich in linalool (10.71%), linalool acetate (9.60%), α-terpinyl acetate (10.93%), and carbitol (13.05%) bioactive compounds, respectively. The obtained results from the in vitro study revealed that most of the essential oils exhibited antimicrobial properties. Among the tested essential oils, tea tree was discovered to demonstrate the strongest antimicrobial activity. The recorded MIC of S. Typhi was 6.2 mg/mL, 3.4 mg/mL of C. koseri, 3.1 mg/mL of E. coli, and 2.7 mg/mL of E. coli ATCC 25922, compared to M. alternifolia. Similarly, only S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed antimicrobial activity towards R. officinalis (1.4 mg/mL), E. oblique (2.9 mg/mL), and L. angustifolia (2.1 mg/mL). Based on the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that tea tree essential oil might be used as an ecological antimicrobial in treating infectious diseases caused by the tested pathogens. Full article
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Article
Determination of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Parameters of Doxycycline against Edwardsiella ictaluri in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 329; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030329 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (DC) in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and to calculate related pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of DC against Edwardsiella ictaluri. The minimum inhibitory concentration of DC against E. ictaluri was determined to be [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (DC) in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and to calculate related pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of DC against Edwardsiella ictaluri. The minimum inhibitory concentration of DC against E. ictaluri was determined to be 500 µg/L. As the increase of oral dose from 10 to 40 mg/kg, the area under the concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 96 h (AUC0–96) values were considerably increased in gill, kidney, muscle and skin, and plasma, except in liver. Cmax values exhibited a similar dose-dependent increase trend in plasma and tissues except in liver, but other PK parameters had no apparent dose-dependence. The PK/PD parameter of the ratio of AUC0–96 to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC0–96h/MIC) was markedly increased in plasma and tissues dose-dependently except in liver, but %T > MIC values were increased only moderately at some dose groups. After receiving the same dose with disparate time intervals from 96 to 12 h, the AUC0–96h/MIC was distinctly increased in plasma and tissues, but the %T > MIC had a decreasing trend. When administering 20 mg/kg with a time interval of 96 h, the AUC0–96h/MIC values were consistently >173.03 h and the %T > MIC values were above 99.47% in plasma and all tissues. These results suggest that administration of DC at 20 mg/kg every 96 h is a preferable regimen in yellow catfish. Full article
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Article
Natural Agents against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020205 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Bovine mastitis is the most widespread and economically important disease worldwide. The present study aimed to determine bioactive compounds in two essential oils (EOs) from wild (Thymus serpyllum) and common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and to assess the antioxidant potential as well as antibacterial [...] Read more.
Bovine mastitis is the most widespread and economically important disease worldwide. The present study aimed to determine bioactive compounds in two essential oils (EOs) from wild (Thymus serpyllum) and common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and to assess the antioxidant potential as well as antibacterial efficacy of the EOs against mastitis-associated bacteria. The study also included antibiotic susceptibility tests. The strains were previously isolated from lactating animals with clinical and subclinical mastitis. The antioxidant potential of the commercial EOs of wild and common thyme was evaluated by five in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity was performed using the microdilution technique, while antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. The dominant compound in wild thyme was thymol (45.22%), followed by p-cymene (23.83%) and γ-terpinene (3.12%), while in common thyme, it was thymol (54.17%), followed by γ-terpinene (22.18%) and p-cymene (16.66%). Among the fourteen mastitis-associated bacteria, strain IX Streptococcus spp. (β-hemolytic) was the most sensitive to the tested EOs (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.78/1.56 and 0.39/0.78 mg/mL for T. serpyllum (TS) and T. vulgaris (TV), respectively). Regarding Streptococcus spp. β heamoliticus, MICs for TS ranged from 0.78 to 1.56 mg/mL, while for the same oil, MBCs ranged from 1.56 to 12.5 mg/mL. In the case of T. vulgaris, MICs ranged from 0.39 to 3.125 mg/ mL, while MBCs ranged from 3.125 to 6.25 mg/mL. TV is more active against E. coli, E. sakazakii, and Streptococcus spp., while it is less effective against Staphylococcus spp. than TS. The study revealed that the tested EOs possess remarkable antioxidative and antibacterial activities and could be used in the development of pharmaceutical formulation as an alternative to conventional mastitis therapy. Full article
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Article
In-Water Antibiotic Dosing Practices on Pig Farms
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020169 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Pigs reared on many farms are mass-medicated for short periods with antibiotics through their drinking water to control bacterial pathogen loads and, if a disease outbreak occurs, to treat pigs until clinical signs are eliminated. Farm managers are responsible for conducting in-water antibiotic [...] Read more.
Pigs reared on many farms are mass-medicated for short periods with antibiotics through their drinking water to control bacterial pathogen loads and, if a disease outbreak occurs, to treat pigs until clinical signs are eliminated. Farm managers are responsible for conducting in-water antibiotic dosing events, but little is known about their dosing practices. We surveyed managers of 25 medium to large single-site and multi-site pig farming enterprises across eastern and southern Australia, using a mixed methods approach (online questionnaire followed by a one-on-one semi-structured interview). We found wide variation in the antibiotics administered, the choice and use of dosing equipment, the methods for performing dosing calculations and preparing antibiotic stock solutions, the commencement time and duration of each daily dosing event, and the frequency of administration of metaphylaxis. Farm managers lacked data on pigs’ daily water usage patterns and wastage and the understanding of pharmacology and population pharmacometrics necessary to optimize in-water dosing calculations and regimens and control major sources of between-animal variability in systemic exposure of pigs to antibiotics. There is considerable scope to increase the effectiveness of in-water dosing and reduce antibiotic use (and cost) on pig farms by providing farm managers with measurement systems, technical guidelines, and training programs. Full article
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Article
Third Generation Cephalosporin Resistant Enterobacterales Infections in Hospitalized Horses and Donkeys: A Case–Case–Control Analysis
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020155 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
In human medicine, infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCRE) are associated with detrimental outcomes. In veterinary medicine, controlled epidemiological analyses are lacking. A matched case–case–control investigation (1:1:1 ratio) was conducted in a large veterinary hospital (2017–2019). In total, 29 infected horses and [...] Read more.
In human medicine, infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCRE) are associated with detrimental outcomes. In veterinary medicine, controlled epidemiological analyses are lacking. A matched case–case–control investigation (1:1:1 ratio) was conducted in a large veterinary hospital (2017–2019). In total, 29 infected horses and donkeys were matched to 29 animals with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacterales (3GCSE) infections, and 29 uninfected controls (overall n = 87). Despite multiple significant associations per bivariable analyses, the only independent predictor for 3GCRE infection was recent exposure to antibiotics (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 104, p < 0.001), but this was also an independent predictor for 3GCSE infection (aOR = 22, p < 0.001), though the correlation with 3GCRE was significantly stronger (aOR = 9.3, p = 0.04). In separated multivariable outcome models, 3GCRE infections were independently associated with reduced clinical cure rates (aOR = 6.84, p = 0.003) and with 90 days mortality (aOR = 3.6, p = 0.003). Klebsiella spp. were the most common 3GCRE (36%), and blaCTX-M-1 was the major β-lactamase (79%). Polyclonality and multiple sequence types were evident among all Enterobacterales (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae). The study substantiates the significance of 3GCRE infections in equine medicine, and their independent detrimental impact on cure rates and mortality. Multiple Enterobacterales genera, subtypes, clones and mechanisms of resistance are prevalent among horses and donkeys with 3GCRE infections. Full article
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Article
The Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity of Cyadox against Pathogens Collected from Pigs, Chicken, and Fish in China
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020153 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Cyadox has potential use as an antimicrobial agent in animals. However, its pharmacodynamic properties have not been systematically studied yet. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cyadox were assayed, and the antibacterial efficacy of cyadox against facultative anaerobes was also [...] Read more.
Cyadox has potential use as an antimicrobial agent in animals. However, its pharmacodynamic properties have not been systematically studied yet. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cyadox were assayed, and the antibacterial efficacy of cyadox against facultative anaerobes was also determined under anaerobic conditions. It was shown that Clostridium perfringens and Pasteurella multocida (MIC = 0.25 and 1 μg/mL) from pigs, Campylobacter jejuni and Pasteurella multocida from poultry, E. coli, Streptococcus spp., and Flavobacterium columnare from fish were highly susceptible to cyadox (MIC= 1 and 8 μg/mL). However, F. columnare has no killing effect for drug tolerance. Under in vitro anaerobic conditions, the antibacterial activity of cyadox against most facultative anaerobes was considerably enhanced Under anaerobic conditions for the facultative anaerobes, susceptible bacteria were P. multocida, Aeromonas spp. (including A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. jandaei, A. caviae, and A. sobria, excluding A. punctata), E. coli, Salmonella spp. (including S. choleraesui, S. typhimurium, and S. pullorum), Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio fluvialis, Yersinia ruckeri, Erysipelothrix, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Streptococcus agalactiae (MICs were 0.25~8 μg/mL, MBCs were 1–64 μg/mL). Intermediate bacteria were Enterococcus spp. (including E. faecalis and E. faecium), Yersinia enterocolitica, and Streptococcus spp. (MICs mainly were 8~32 μg/mL, MBCs were 16~128 μg/mL). This study firstly showed that cyadox had strong antibacterial activity and had the potential to be used as a single drug in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Full article
Article
Higher Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacterales in Dogs Attended for Enteric Viruses in Brazil Before and After Treatment with Cephalosporins
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020122 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
The extensive use of antibiotics is a leading cause for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among dogs. However, the impact of using antibiotics to treat viral infections on AMR remains unknown. In this study, we compared the prevalence of extended-spectrum [...] Read more.
The extensive use of antibiotics is a leading cause for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among dogs. However, the impact of using antibiotics to treat viral infections on AMR remains unknown. In this study, we compared the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (ESCR-E) between dogs with a suspected infection of canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper (CDV) before and after treatment with third-generation cephalosporins. We found a higher prevalence of ESCR-E faecal carriage in dogs suspected of CPV (37%) and CDV (15%) compared to dogs with noninfectious pathologies (9%) even prior to the start of their treatment. A 7-day course of ceftriaxone or ceftiofur administrated to CPV and CDV-suspected dogs substantially increased their ESCR-E faecal carriage during treatment (85% for CPV and 57% for CDV), and 4 weeks after the treatment ended (89% for CPV and 60% for CDV) when dogs were back in their households. Most of the observed resistance was carried by ESCR-E. coli carrying blaCTX-M genes. Our results suggest the need to optimize prophylactic antibiotic therapy in dogs treated for a suspected viral infection to prevent ESCR-E emergence and spread in the community. Full article
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Article
A Pilot Study in Sweden on Efficacy of Benzylpenicillin, Oxytetracycline, and Florfenicol in Treatment of Acute Undifferentiated Respiratory Disease in Calves
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 736; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110736 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major indication for antibiotic treatment of cattle worldwide and some of the antibiotics used belong to classes of highest priority among those listed by WHO as critically important for human medicine. To preserve the efficacy of “newer” [...] Read more.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major indication for antibiotic treatment of cattle worldwide and some of the antibiotics used belong to classes of highest priority among those listed by WHO as critically important for human medicine. To preserve the efficacy of “newer” antibiotics, it has been suggested that “older” drugs should be revisited and used when possible. In this pilot study, we evaluated the efficacy of benzylpenicillin (PEN), oxytetracycline (OTC), and florfenicol (FLO) for treatment of naturally occurring BRD on two farms raising calves for slaughter. Farm personnel selected calves for enrolment, assigned calves to one of the three regimens in a systematically random manner, treated the calves, and registered the results. Overall, 117 calves were enrolled in the study. Nineteen calves relapsed in BRD before slaughter and were retreated (16.2%) and three died (2.6%). For PEN, treatment response rates after 30 days, 60 days, and until slaughter were 90.2%, 87.8%, and 80.5%, respectively; for OTC, 90.0%, 85.0%, and 85.0%, respectively; and for FLO, 86.1%, 83.3%, and 77.8%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in relapse, mortality, or response rates between the three treatment regimens. This indicates that PEN, OTC, and FLO were equally effective for treatment of BRD but the results need to be confirmed in a more elaborate study with a higher statistical power. The findings support the current recommendations from the Swedish Veterinary Association and the Medical Products Agency to use benzylpenicillin as a first line antibiotic for treatment of calves with undifferentiated respiratory disease in Sweden. Due to differences in the panorama of infectious agents and presence of acquired antibiotic resistance, the findings might not be applicable in other geographical areas. Full article
Article
Comparative Evaluation of qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS Genes in Enterobacteriaceae Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Cases, in Swine Units and a Hospital from Western Romania
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 698; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100698 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Excessive use of antimicrobials and inadequate infection control practices has turned antimicrobial resistance (AMR) into a global, public health peril. We studied the expression of qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS plasmid in ciprofloxacin (CIP)-resistant strains of Escherichia coli in swine and humans [...] Read more.
Excessive use of antimicrobials and inadequate infection control practices has turned antimicrobial resistance (AMR) into a global, public health peril. We studied the expression of qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS plasmid in ciprofloxacin (CIP)-resistant strains of Escherichia coli in swine and humans from Romania, using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) for human subjects (H) on 147 samples and 53 swine (S) was ascertained as well as the isolation of bacterial DNA (E. coli) as follows: bacteriolysis, DNA-binding, rinsing, elution, amplification, and nucleic acids’ migration and U.V. visualization stages. From 24 samples of E. coli resistant to CIP collected from H subjects and 15 from S, for PCR analysis, 15 H and 12 S were used, with DNA purity of 1.8. The statistically analyzed results using the Crosstabs function (IBM SPSS Statistics-Ver. 2.1.), revealed the qnrS (417 bp) gene in 13 human subjects (52.0%), as well as in all swine samples studied. The qnrB (526 bp) gene was exposed in 9 of the human patients (36.0%) and in all swine isolates, and the qnrA (516 bp) gene was observed only in 3 of the isolates obtained from human subjects (12.0%) and was not discovered in pigs (p > 0.05). The presence of plasmids qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS in the human samples and of qnrB and qnrS in swine, facilitates the survival of pathogens despite the CIP action. The long-term use of CIP could cause a boost in the prevalence of qnr resistance genes, and resistance in the pigs destined for slaughter, a perturbing fact for public health and the human consumer. Full article
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Porcine Pasteurella multocida Are Not Associated with Its Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 614; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090614 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected from farms in “Castilla y León” (north-western Spain) in 2017–2019. These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA [...] Read more.
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected from farms in “Castilla y León” (north-western Spain) in 2017–2019. These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA, tetB, blaROB1, blaTEM, ermA, ermC, mphE and msrE. Relevant resistance percentages were shown against tetracyclines (52.1% for doxycycline, 68.7% for oxytetracycline), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43.7%) and tiamulin (25.0%), thus suggesting that P. multocida isolates were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin and macrolides. Overall, 29.2% of isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. The tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) were detected in 22.9% of the isolates, but none were positive to both simultaneously; blaROB1 and blaTEM genes were found in one third of isolates but both genes were detected simultaneously in only one isolate. The ermC gene was observed in 41.7% of isolates, a percentage that decreased to 22.9% for msrE; finally, ermA was harbored by 16.7% and mphE was not found in any of them. Six clusters were established based on hierarchical clustering analysis on antimicrobial susceptibility for the twelve antimicrobials. Generally, it was unable to foresee the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for each family and the association of each particular isolate inside the clusters established from the presence or absence of the resistance genes analyzed. Full article
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Article
Levers to Improve Antibiotic Treatment of Lambs via Drinking Water in Sheep Fattening Houses: The Example of the Sulfadimethoxine/Trimethoprim Combination
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090561 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
To limit the spread of bacterial diseases in sheep fattening houses, antibiotics are often administered collectively. Collective treatments can be delivered by drinking water but data on the drug’s solubility in water or on plasma exposure of the animals are lacking. We first [...] Read more.
To limit the spread of bacterial diseases in sheep fattening houses, antibiotics are often administered collectively. Collective treatments can be delivered by drinking water but data on the drug’s solubility in water or on plasma exposure of the animals are lacking. We first assessed the solubility of products containing sulfadimethoxine (SDM), associated or not with trimethoprim (TMP), in different waters. We then compared in lambs the SDM and TMP pharmacokinetic profiles after individual intravenous (IV) and oral administrations of SDM-TMP in experimental settings (n = 8) and after a collective treatment by drinking water with SDM-TMP or SDM alone in a sheep fattening house (n = 100 for each treatment). The individual water consumption during the collective treatments was also monitored to characterize the ingestion variability. We showed that TMP had a short terminal half-life and very low oral bioavailability, demonstrating that it would be unable to potentiate SDM by oral route. Conversely, SDM had a long terminal half-life of 18 h and excellent oral bioavailability. However, delivery by drinking water resulted in a very high interindividual variability of SDM plasma concentrations, meaning that although disease spread could be controlled at the group level, some individuals would inevitably be under- or over-exposed to the antibiotic. Full article
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Article
Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacterales Shedding by Dogs and Cats Hospitalized in an Emergency and Critical Care Department of a Veterinary Teaching Hospital
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090545 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) gut shedding in human medicine is considered as a major reservoir for ESBL-associated infections in high risk patients. In veterinary medicine, data regarding ESBL-PE gut shedding on admission to emergency and critical care department is scarce. We aimed to [...] Read more.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) gut shedding in human medicine is considered as a major reservoir for ESBL-associated infections in high risk patients. In veterinary medicine, data regarding ESBL-PE gut shedding on admission to emergency and critical care department is scarce. We aimed to determine ESBL-PE shedding rates by dogs and cats in this setting and to determine the risk factors for shedding, at two separate periods, three-years apart. Rectal swabs were collected from animals, on admission and 72 h post admission, enriched and plated on Chromagar ESBL plates, followed by bacterial identification. ESBL phenotype was confirmed and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined (Vitek 2). Medical records were reviewed for risk factor analysis (SPSS). Overall, 248 animals were sampled, including 108 animals on period I (2015–2016) and 140 animals on period II (2019). In both periods combined, 21.4% of animals shed ESBL-PE on admission, and shedding rates increased significantly during hospitalization (53.7%, p-value < 0.001). The main ESBL-PE species were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for more than 85% of the isolates. In a multivariable analysis, previous hospitalization was a risk factor for ESBL-PE gut shedding (p-value = 0.01, Odds ratio = 3.05, 95% Confidence interval 1.28–7.27). Our findings demonstrate significant ESBL-PE gut shedding among small animals in the emergency and critical care department, posing the necessity to design and implement control measures to prevent transmission and optimize antibiotic therapy in this setting. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Porcine Respiratory Bacteria in Spain
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070402 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
The monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pig pathogens is critical to optimize antimicrobial treatments and prevent development of resistance with a one-health approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of swine respiratory pathogens in Spain from 2017 [...] Read more.
The monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pig pathogens is critical to optimize antimicrobial treatments and prevent development of resistance with a one-health approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of swine respiratory pathogens in Spain from 2017 to 2019. Bacterial isolation and identification were carried out following standardized methods from samples coming from sacrificed or recently deceased pigs with acute clinical signs compatible with respiratory tract infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the broth microdilution method containing a total of 10 and 7–8 antimicrobials/concentrations respectively, in accordance with the recommendations presented by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The obtained antimicrobial susceptibility varies between pig respiratory pathogens. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) were highly susceptible (≥90%) to ceftiofur, florfenicol and macrolides (tilmicosin, tildipirosin and tulathromycin). However, the antimicrobial susceptibility was intermediate (>60% but <90%) for amoxicillin and enrofloxacin in the case of APP and sulfamethoxazole/trimethropim and tiamulin in the case of PM. Both bacteria showed low (<60%) antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline. Finally, Bordetella bronchiseptica was highly susceptible only to tildipirosin and tulathromycin (100%) and its susceptibility for florfenicol was close to 50% and <30% for the rest of the antimicrobial families tested. These results emphasize the need of determining antimicrobial susceptibility in pig respiratory cases in order to optimize the antimicrobial treatment in a case-by-case scenario. Full article
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Article
Oxytetracycline Pharmacokinetics After Intramuscular Administration in Cows with Clinical Metritis Associated with Trueperella Pyogenes Infection
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070392 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Systemic therapy with oxytetracycline is often used for treatment of clinical metritis although data about its penetration into the uterus and uterine secretion are lacking. Uterine secretions and milk from six cows with clinical metritis were collected for microbiological assay. The animals were [...] Read more.
Systemic therapy with oxytetracycline is often used for treatment of clinical metritis although data about its penetration into the uterus and uterine secretion are lacking. Uterine secretions and milk from six cows with clinical metritis were collected for microbiological assay. The animals were treated intramuscularly with long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg) and samples of plasma, milk and uterine secretions were collected for determination of the antibiotic concentrations by HPLC-PDA analysis. Pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic and in silico prediction of its penetration into the uterus were described. Trueperella pyogenes with MIC values of 16–64 µg mL−1 was isolated (n of cows = 4) from uterine secretions. Oxytetracycline showed fast absorption and penetration in the uterine secretions and milk. No change of withdrawal time for milk was necessitated in cows with clinical metritis. Maximum levels in uterine secretions and predicted concentrations of oxytetracycline in the uterus were lower than MIC values. Systemic administration of long-acting oxytetracycline did not guarantee clinical cure and was not a suitable choice for treatment of clinical metritis associated with Trueperella pyogenes. The appropriate approach to antibiotic treatment of uterine infections of cows requires knowledge on penetration of the antibiotics at the site of infection and sensitivity of pathogens. Full article
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Review

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Review
Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Humans and Pet Animals
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010069 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Throughout scientific literature, we can find evidence that antimicrobial resistance has become a big problem in the recent years on a global scale. Public healthcare systems all over the world are faced with a great challenge in this respect. Obviously, there are many [...] Read more.
Throughout scientific literature, we can find evidence that antimicrobial resistance has become a big problem in the recent years on a global scale. Public healthcare systems all over the world are faced with a great challenge in this respect. Obviously, there are many bacteria that can cause infections in humans and animals alike, but somehow it seems that the greatest threat nowadays comes from the Enterobacteriaceae members, especially Escherichia coli. Namely, we are witnesses to the fact that the systems that these bacteria developed to fight off antibiotics are the strongest and most diverse in Enterobacteriaceae. Our great advantage is in understanding the systems that bacteria developed to fight off antibiotics, so these can help us understand the connection between these microorganisms and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistance both in humans and their pets. Furthermore, unfavorable conditions related to the ease of E. coli transmission via the fecal–oral route among humans, environmental sources, and animals only add to the problem. For all the above stated reasons, it is evident that the epidemiology of E. coli strains and resistance mechanisms they have developed over time are extremely significant topics and all scientific findings in this area will be of vital importance in the fight against infections caused by these bacteria. Full article
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