Special Issue "Antimicrobial Stewardship"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jerod Nagel
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy Services and Clinical Sciences, University of Michigan Health System and College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Dr. Angela Huang
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Froedtert & The Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Antibiotics is an open access, peer-review, multi-disciplinary journal encompassing the general fields of biochemistry, chemistry, genetics, microbiology and pharmacology. The Antibiotic Stewardship issue will consist of 10-15 manuscripts, which may include original research, review articles, case series and opinion papers.

Any antibiotic stewardship related topics will be accepted, and specific areas of interest include:

  1. Novel methods to promote appropriate antibiotic utilization
  2. Disease-based antimicrobial stewardship
  3. Influence of antibiotic utilization changes on antibiotic resistance
  4. Impact of antimicrobial stewardship on quality performance measures and patient outcomes
  5. Review of specific controversial stewardship issues that have major impact on utilization, cost or resistance
  6. Collaborative practice agreements in antimicrobial stewardship
  7. Antimicrobial stewardship in special populations (e.g., pediatrics, geriatrics, emergency medicine, hematology/oncology)
  8. Antimicrobial stewardship in alternative settings (e.g., community practice, long-term care, resource limited, small and rural hospitals)
  9. Risk-stratified approach to treating common infections in hospitalized patients
  10. Role of antimicrobial stewardship in managing medication shortages
  11. Building a business model for antimicrobial stewardship

Dr. Jerod Nagel
Dr. Angela Huang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Treatment Modalities and Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives in the Management of Intra-Abdominal Infections
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010011 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4113
Abstract
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) commonly results in the empiric use of broad [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Article
Antimicrobial Stewardship for a Geriatric Behavioral Health Population
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010008 - 19 Jan 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3141
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship and multi-disciplinary intervention can prevent inappropriate antimicrobial use and improve patient care. Special populations, especially older adults and patients with mental health disorders, can be particularly in need of such intervention. The purpose [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship and multi-disciplinary intervention can prevent inappropriate antimicrobial use and improve patient care. Special populations, especially older adults and patients with mental health disorders, can be particularly in need of such intervention. The purpose of this project was to assess the impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit (GPU). Patients ≥18 years old prescribed oral antibiotics during GPU admission were included. Antimicrobial appropriateness was assessed pre- and post-pharmacist intervention. During the six-month pre- and post-intervention phase, 63 and 70 patients prescribed antibiotics were identified, respectively. Subjects in the post-intervention group had significantly less inappropriate doses for indication compared to the pre-intervention group (10.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.02), and significantly less antibiotics prescribed for an inappropriate duration (15.8% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for use of appropriate drug for indication or appropriate dose for renal function between groups. Significantly more patients in the post intervention group had medications prescribed with appropriate dose, duration, and indication (51% vs. 66%, p = 0.04). Pharmacist intervention was associated with decreased rates of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Article
Evaluation of a Computerized Decision Support Intervention to Decrease Use of Anti-Pseudomonal Carbapenems in Penicillin Allergic Patients
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010007 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
Allergies to β-lactam antibiotics are commonly documented in hospitalized patients; however, true allergy is uncommon. Cross-reactivity rates for advanced generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are low; particularly for patients without a history of symptoms consistent with type 1 hypersensitivity. We observed that providers preferentially [...] Read more.
Allergies to β-lactam antibiotics are commonly documented in hospitalized patients; however, true allergy is uncommon. Cross-reactivity rates for advanced generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are low; particularly for patients without a history of symptoms consistent with type 1 hypersensitivity. We observed that providers preferentially prescribed antipseudomonal carbapenems (APC) over advanced generation cephalosporins for patients with β-lactam allergy history, including those with low risk for antimicrobial-resistant infections. Information was inserted into the computerized decision support system (CDSS) to aid clinicians in assessing β-lactam cross-reactivity risk and selecting appropriate therapy. A retrospective evaluation was conducted in a small hospital to assess the impact of the CDSS changes in APC prescribing. Inpatients (n = 68) who received at least one APC dose during hospitalization over a 13 month pre-intervention period were compared to inpatients who received an APC during the 15 month post-intervention period (n = 59) for documented APC indications and β-lactam allergy history. APC initiations were measured and corrected per 1000 patient-days; interrupted time-series analysis was performed to assess changes in use before and after implementation. Aggregate monthly APC initiations decreased from 7.01 to 6.14 per 1000 patient-days after the implementation (p = 0.03). Post-intervention APC initiations for patients with low-risk β-lactam histories decreased from 92% to 83% (p = 0.17). No adverse events were observed in patients with low-risk β-lactam histories. The intervention was associated with a reduction in APC initiations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Controversies in Antimicrobial Stewardship: Focus on New Rapid Diagnostic Technologies and Antimicrobials
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010006 - 14 Jan 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3920
Abstract
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are challenged with ensuring appropriate antimicrobial use while minimizing expenditures. ASPs have consistently demonstrated improved patient outcomes and significant cost reductions but are continually required to justify the costs of their existence and interventions due to the silo mentality [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are challenged with ensuring appropriate antimicrobial use while minimizing expenditures. ASPs have consistently demonstrated improved patient outcomes and significant cost reductions but are continually required to justify the costs of their existence and interventions due to the silo mentality often adopted by hospital administrators. As new technologies and antimicrobials emerge, ASPs are in a constant tug-of-war between providing optimal clinical outcomes and ensuring cost containment. Additionally, robust data on cost-effectiveness of new rapid diagnostic technologies and antimicrobials with subsequent ASP interventions to provide justification are lacking. As the implementation of an ASP will soon be mandatory for acute care hospitals in the United States, ASPs must find ways to justify novel interventions to align themselves with healthcare administrators. This review provides a framework for the justification of implementing a rapid diagnostic test or adding a new antimicrobial to formulary with ASP intervention, reviews approaches to demonstrating cost-effectiveness, and proposes methods for which ASPs may reduce healthcare expenditures via alternative tactics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Article
Cost Reduction of Inhaled Tobramycin by Use of Preservative-Free Intravenous Tobramycin Given via Inhalation
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010002 - 29 Dec 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
This study evaluates drug cost outcomes related to automatic therapeutic substitution of branded tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI®) with inhaled generic preservative-free intravenous tobramycin (PFIT). A retrospective single-center evaluation of inhaled tobramycin use from 2008 through 2012 was performed. Number of [...] Read more.
This study evaluates drug cost outcomes related to automatic therapeutic substitution of branded tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI®) with inhaled generic preservative-free intravenous tobramycin (PFIT). A retrospective single-center evaluation of inhaled tobramycin use from 2008 through 2012 was performed. Number of doses dispensed and acquisition costs were obtained. Hourly wage data was acquired, pharmacy production costs were estimated and total cost-savings calculated. Days of therapy (DOTs) were determined for each year. Quality assurance and safety data was collected. In 2008, TOBI® drug costs and doses dispensed were $118,665 and 1769, respectively. Following implementation of the interchange in May 2009, TOBI® utilization ceased. PFIT costs in 2010 through 2012 averaged $34,775 annually and TOBI® cost-avoidance exceeded $94,000 annually when accounting for pharmacy production costs, which were determined to be at most $5.28 per dose. The maximum estimated pharmacy production cost ranged from $8812 to $11,299 annually. PFIT doses dispensed exceeded 1650 each year and annual DOTs ranged from 815 to 1069. The 40-month savings were calculated to be $374,706. Quality assurance and safety data identified one patient who refused PFIT due to odor complaints and one patient who was inappropriately administered a dose orally. Therapeutic substitution of TOBI® with PFIT can produce immediate and sustained savings with an acceptable safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support Alert for the Management of Clostridium difficile Infection
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 667-674; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040667 - 21 Dec 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
Clostridium difficile infections are common in hospitalized patients and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. It is imperative to optimize the management of C. difficile infections to help minimize disease complications. Antimicrobial stewardship techniques including guidelines, order sets and other clinical decision [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile infections are common in hospitalized patients and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. It is imperative to optimize the management of C. difficile infections to help minimize disease complications. Antimicrobial stewardship techniques including guidelines, order sets and other clinical decision support functionalities may be utilized to assist with therapy optimization. We implemented a novel alert within our electronic medical record to direct providers to the C. difficile order set in order to assist with initiating therapy consistent with institutional guideline recommendations. The alert succeeded in significantly increasing order set utilization, but guideline compliance was unchanged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulations to Optimize Institutional Empiric Antipseudomonal Therapy
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 643-652; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4040643 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to a limited arsenal of antibiotics. Monte Carlo simulation provides antimicrobial stewardship teams with an additional tool to guide empiric therapy. We modeled empiric therapies with antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic regimens [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to a limited arsenal of antibiotics. Monte Carlo simulation provides antimicrobial stewardship teams with an additional tool to guide empiric therapy. We modeled empiric therapies with antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic regimens to determine which were most likely to achieve probability of target attainment (PTA) of ≥90%. Microbiological data for P. aeruginosa was reviewed for 2012. Antibiotics modeled for intermittent and prolonged infusion were aztreonam, cefepime, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from institution-specific isolates, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters from previously published studies, a 10,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each regimen to determine PTA. MICs from 272 isolates were included in this analysis. No intermittent infusion regimens achieved PTA ≥90%. Prolonged infusions of cefepime 2000 mg Q8 h, meropenem 1000 mg Q8 h, and meropenem 2000 mg Q8 h demonstrated PTA of 93%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Prolonged infusions of piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g Q6 h and aztreonam 2 g Q8 h failed to achieved PTA ≥90% but demonstrated PTA of 81% and 73%, respectively. Standard doses of β-lactam antibiotics as intermittent infusion did not achieve 90% PTA against P. aeruginosa isolated at our institution; however, some prolonged infusions were able to achieve these targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Remote Antimicrobial Stewardship in Community Hospitals
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 605-616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040605 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3385
Abstract
Antimicrobial stewardship has become standard practice at university medical centers, but the practice is more difficult to implement in remote community hospitals that lack infectious diseases trained practitioners. Starting in 2011, six community hospitals within the Vidant Health system began an antimicrobial stewardship [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial stewardship has become standard practice at university medical centers, but the practice is more difficult to implement in remote community hospitals that lack infectious diseases trained practitioners. Starting in 2011, six community hospitals within the Vidant Health system began an antimicrobial stewardship program utilizing pharmacists who reviewed charts remotely from Vidant Medical Center. Pharmacists made recommendations within the electronic medical record (EMR) to streamline, discontinue, or switch antimicrobial agents. Totals of charts reviewed, recommendations made, recommendations accepted, and categories of intervention were recorded. Linear regression was utilized to measure changes in antimicrobial use over time. For the four larger hospitals, recommendations for changes were made in an average of 45 charts per month per hospital and physician acceptance of the pharmacists’ recommendations varied between 83% and 88%. There was no significant decrease in total antimicrobial use, but much of the use was outside of the stewardship program’s review. Quinolone use decreased by more than 50% in two of the four larger hospitals. Remote antimicrobial stewardship utilizing an EMR is feasible in community hospitals and is generally received favorably by physicians. As more community hospitals adopt EMRs, there is an opportunity to expand antimicrobial stewardship beyond the academic medical center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Article
Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention and Feedback to Infectious Disease Specialists: A Case Study in High-Dose Daptomycin
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 309-320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4030309 - 24 Jul 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
Infectious Diseases specialists have used high-dose daptomycin (≥6 mg/kg/day) in select patients with difficult to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections to optimize outcomes. Antimicrobial stewardship programs enforce antimicrobial formulary restrictions; however, interventions specifically aimed at Infectious Disease specialists [...] Read more.
Infectious Diseases specialists have used high-dose daptomycin (≥6 mg/kg/day) in select patients with difficult to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections to optimize outcomes. Antimicrobial stewardship programs enforce antimicrobial formulary restrictions; however, interventions specifically aimed at Infectious Disease specialists can be particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to create a high-dose daptomycin algorithm for Infectious Disease specialists that are consistent with best-practices. Daptomycin prescribing habits pre- and post-daptomycin algorithm implementation were evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Patients were included if ≥18 years of age and received daptomycin for ≥48 h. Patients were excluded if daptomycin was initiated on an outpatient setting. During the 12-month pre-intervention phase, 112 patients were included, with 73 patients in the 12-month post-intervention phase. A statistically significant decrease in the mean daptomycin dose from 9.01 mg/kg to 7.51 mg/kg (p < 0.005) was observed, resulting in an annual drug cost-savings of over $75,000 without adversely affecting readmission rates due to infection. Creation of a daptomycin algorithm with consideration of pathogen, disease state, and prior treatment, is an effective means of influencing prescribing habits of Infectious Disease specialists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
A Review of Quality Measures for Assessing the Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Hospitals
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010005 - 13 Jan 2016
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5528
Abstract
The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has led to calls for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) to control antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Key strategies include prospective audit with feedback and intervention, and formulary restriction and preauthorization. Education, guidelines, clinical pathways, de-escalation, and [...] Read more.
The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has led to calls for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) to control antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Key strategies include prospective audit with feedback and intervention, and formulary restriction and preauthorization. Education, guidelines, clinical pathways, de-escalation, and intravenous to oral conversion are also part of some programs. Impact and quality of ASP can be assessed using process or outcome measures. Outcome measures are categorized as microbiological, patient or financial outcomes. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of quality measures for assessing ASP and the reported impact of ASP in peer-reviewed studies, focusing particularly on patient outcomes. A literature search of papers published in English between 1990 and June 2015 was conducted in five databases using a combination of search terms. Primary studies of any design were included. A total of 63 studies were included in this review. Four studies defined quality metrics for evaluating ASP. Twenty-one studies assessed the impact of ASP on antimicrobial utilization and cost, 25 studies evaluated impact on resistance patterns and/or rate of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thirteen studies assessed impact on patient outcomes including mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates. Six of these 13 studies reported non-significant difference in mortality between pre- and post-ASP intervention, and five reported reductions in mortality rate. On LOS, six studies reported shorter LOS post intervention; a significant reduction was reported in one of these studies. Of note, this latter study reported significantly (p < 0.001) higher unplanned readmissions related to infections post-ASP. Patient outcomes need to be a key component of ASP evaluation. The choice of metrics is influenced by data and resource availability. Controlling for confounders must be considered in the design of evaluation studies to adequately capture the impact of ASP and it is important for unintended consequences to be considered. This review provides a starting point toward compiling standard outcome metrics for assessing ASP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Review
Examining the Clinical Effectiveness of Non-Carbapenem β-Lactams for the Treatment of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 653-666; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040653 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Treatment options for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are limited. Piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime represent potential alternative treatment options; however, large prospective studies are lacking. This review evaluates the current literature regarding use of piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrobial stewardship [...] Read more.
Treatment options for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are limited. Piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime represent potential alternative treatment options; however, large prospective studies are lacking. This review evaluates the current literature regarding use of piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can play a key role in guiding the best practices for the management of these challenging infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Review
Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 467-479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040467 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4098
Abstract
Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the [...] Read more.
Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the development and spread of resistance and to this end it has three strategic aims, namely to improve knowledge and understanding of resistance, to conserve and steward the effectiveness of existing treatments and to stimulate the development of new antibiotics, diagnostics and novel therapies. This article reviews the antimicrobial stewardship activities included in the strategy and describes their implementation and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop