Special Issue "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship in Remote Areas – an One Health Perspective"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Albert Figueras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Consultant (medicines use, safety and policies)
2. Former Professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: antimicrobial use; rational use of medicines; pharmacovigilance; drug utilization studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The inappropriate use of antimicrobials is the most important root cause of the increasing bacterial resistance threat Worldwide. It is well known that the problem goes far beyond the consumption of antibiotics by humans, so the One Health approach lead by WHO, FAO and OIE tries to link human, animal and environmental health efforts in antimicrobial stewardship activities.

Although most researches in the use of antibiotics and the results of stewardship programmes have been conducted in developed countries, inappropriate utilization and resistance can appear everywhere and easily spread from the remotest place in the forest to the most crowded city just in a few days prompted by quick communications around the Globe. So, an early identification of these problems is the basis to design ad-hoc stewardship actions which could benefit at local and global level.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding of antimicrobial consumption and stewardship initiatives in remote places, highlighting clinical, cultural and geographical difficulties and peculiarities. Submissions taking into account the One Health perspective are especially encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Albert Figueras
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial consumption
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • one-health
  • AWaRe classification
  • drug utilization studies
  • animal health
  • environmental health
  • human health
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • anthropological studies

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli from Humans and Pigs at Farms at Different Levels of Intensification
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100662 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The overall aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) antibiotic resistance in bacteria were more frequent in clinically health pigs in intensified company owned, medium-scale farms (MSFs) (100–500 sows) than in pigs in family-owned, small-scale farms (SSFs) (1–50 [...] Read more.
The overall aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) antibiotic resistance in bacteria were more frequent in clinically health pigs in intensified company owned, medium-scale farms (MSFs) (100–500 sows) than in pigs in family-owned, small-scale farms (SSFs) (1–50 sows) and (ii) that farmers working at the MSFs were more prone to attain antibiotic resistant bacteria than farmers working at SSFs. The study was conducted in North-Eastern Thailand, comprising fecal Escherichia coli isolates from pigs, farmers working with the pigs (contact humans) and persons living in the same household as the farmer (non-contact humans) at 51 MSFs and 113 SSFs. Samples from all farms were also screened for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which was not detected in pig samples, but was found in one human sample. Susceptibility was tested by disc-diffusion for seven antibiotics commonly used in the study area. Resistance in pig isolates from MSFs were more frequent for chloramphenicol which (P < 0.001), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.001) and gentamicin (P < 0.05) compared with isolates from SSFs, whereas the opposite was true for tetracycline (P < 0.01). Resistance in the human isolates was lower than those in the isolates from pigs for tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol (P < 0.001). The frequency of resistance in the contact human samples from SSFs and MSFs did not differ. There was no difference between isolates from contact and non-contact humans for any of the tested antibiotics. Multidrug resistance in isolates from pigs was 26%, significantly higher (P < 0.01) than the 13% from humans. The data indicate that (i) resistance to antibiotics, including those critical and highly important for human medicine, were more common in fecal E. coli from pigs at the MSFs than at the SSFs, whereas (ii) the resistance in fecal E. coli from pig farmers seemed not to be influenced by the level of intensification of the farm they were working at. Full article
Article
Longitudinal Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption in Russian Hospitals: Results of the Global-PPS Project
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 446; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080446 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the key issues limiting the successful treatment of infectious diseases and associated with adverse medical, social and economic consequences on a global scale. The present study aims to evaluate antimicrobials prescribing patterns and assess progress in quality indicators [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the key issues limiting the successful treatment of infectious diseases and associated with adverse medical, social and economic consequences on a global scale. The present study aims to evaluate antimicrobials prescribing patterns and assess progress in quality indicators in Russian multidisciplinary hospitals using three repetitive point prevalence studies (PPSs) over 4 years (Global-PPS 2015, 2017 and 2018). Out of 13,595 patients from 21 hospitals surveyed over the three time points, 3542 (26.14%) received antimicrobials, predominantly third-generation cephalosporins (44.7% in 2015, 34.1% in 2017 and 41.8% in 2018). Compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines was 74.8%, 66.8% and 74.3%, respectively. Indication for treatment was recorded in 72.6%, 84.1% and 82.6%, while stop/review date was documented only in 40.5%, 46.5% and 61.1% of cases. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis exceeded 1 day in 92%, 84% and 81% of cases. Targeted therapy rate at all time points did not exceed 15.1%, treatment based on the biomarkers rate—19.9%. For the part of PPS-2017 and 2018 analyzed in dynamics, no prominent trends were noted. The results of the project provide the basis for the development of appropriate antimicrobial stewardship programs tailored according to local practices for each hospital in the project. Full article
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Article
Prescription of Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin in Select Hospitals in Uganda: A Pilot Study to Assess Guideline Concordance
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080439 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Background: In Uganda, national tuberculosis (TB) treatment guidelines were revised to include the newer generation fluoroquinolones among the second-line treatment options for multidrug-resistant TB. This study was designed to analyze if the prescription of these quinolones is compliant with country recommendations. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: In Uganda, national tuberculosis (TB) treatment guidelines were revised to include the newer generation fluoroquinolones among the second-line treatment options for multidrug-resistant TB. This study was designed to analyze if the prescription of these quinolones is compliant with country recommendations. Methods: This was an observational retrospective study of consumption data for 2017 and 2018 across four selected regional referral hospitals. The sources of consumption data were hospital pharmacy stock cards and the dispensing register. The medical files of patients who had been prescribed fluoroquinolones were also assessed to study compliance with the Uganda Clinical Guidelines and the British National Formulary (BNF). Results: None of the 371 levofloxacin prescriptions analyzed complied with the Uganda Clinical Guidelines, although 250 (67.3%) were prescribed for indications included in the BNF. According to WHO prescription indicators, only 220 (59.3%) prescriptions were appropriate. Conclusion: The prescription of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin increased in the hospitals studied, but in a high proportion of cases, they were not compliant with country recommendations. The findings call for the strengthening of national antimicrobial stewardship programs. Full article
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Article
Day 10 Post-Prescription Audit Optimizes Antibiotic Therapy in Patients with Bloodstream Infections
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080437 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 553
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the clinical and organizational impact of an active re-evaluation (on day 10) of patients on antibiotic treatment diagnosed with bloodstream infections (BSIs). A prospective, single center, pre-post quasi-experimental study was performed. Patients were enrolled at the time of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the clinical and organizational impact of an active re-evaluation (on day 10) of patients on antibiotic treatment diagnosed with bloodstream infections (BSIs). A prospective, single center, pre-post quasi-experimental study was performed. Patients were enrolled at the time of microbial BSI confirmation. In the pre-intervention phase (August 2014–August 2015), clinical status and antibiotic regimen were re-evaluated at day 3. In the intervention phase (January 2016–January 2017), clinical status and antibiotic regimen were re-evaluated at day 3 and day 10. Primary outcomes were rate of optimal therapy, duration of antibiotic therapy, length of hospitalization, and 30-day mortality. A total of 632 patients were enrolled (pre-intervention period, n = 303; intervention period, n = 329). Average duration of therapy reduced from 18.1 days (standard deviation (SD), 11.4) in the pre-intervention period to 16.8 days (SD, 12.7) in the intervention period (p < 0.001). Similarly, average length of hospitalization decreased from 24.1 days (SD, 20.8) to 20.6 days (SD, 17.7) (p = 0.001). No inter-group difference was found for the rate of 30-day mortality. In patients with BSI, re-evaluation of clinical status and antibiotic regimen at day 3 and 10 after microbiological diagnosis was correlated with a reduction in the duration of antibiotic therapy and hospital stay. The intervention is simple and has a low impact on overall costs. Full article
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Article
Substandard Quality of the Antimicrobials Sold in the Street Markets in Haiti
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070407 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
This pilot study was conducted to analyze the quality of the antimicrobials sold in the street markets in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A total of 258 packs containing antimicrobials were bought in 28 street markets in Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Tablets and contents of capsules included in [...] Read more.
This pilot study was conducted to analyze the quality of the antimicrobials sold in the street markets in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A total of 258 packs containing antimicrobials were bought in 28 street markets in Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Tablets and contents of capsules included in 196 packs were analyzed using a Raman handheld spectrometer (NanoRAM of BWTEK, Model: BWS456-785) during the first quarter of 2019. Three out of 11 antimicrobials (Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, and Cotrimoxazole) had a high spectral match with an HQI ≥ 90 to the respective authentic medicine for more than 95% of their tablets/capsules. For six antimicrobials (Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Cloxacillin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and the combination Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid) none of their tablets/capsules showed a sufficient spectral match with the authentic medicine. This finding indicates that these products sold in the markets did not contain the labeled drug and/or contained a degraded drug. In addition to the fact that prescription antimicrobials can be purchased in street markets, the present field study found that for most of them (including “Watch” antimicrobials according to the AWaRe classification) were substandard, which contributes to the present antimicrobials resistance epidemic. Full article
Article
Patterns of Antibiotic Prescription in Colombia: Are There Differences between Capital Cities and Municipalities?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 389; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070389 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
The use of antibiotics is the most important modifiable risk factor for the development of microorganism resistance. A cross-sectional study of outpatients receiving antibiotic prescriptions registered in a population database in Colombia was conducted. The characteristics of the consumption in capital cities and [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics is the most important modifiable risk factor for the development of microorganism resistance. A cross-sectional study of outpatients receiving antibiotic prescriptions registered in a population database in Colombia was conducted. The characteristics of the consumption in capital cities and small municipalities was studied and the AWaRe classification was used. AWaRe classifies antibiotics into three stewardship groups: Access, Watch and Reserve, to emphasize the importance of their optimal use and potential harms of antimicrobial resistance. A total of 182,397 patients were prescribed an antibiotic; the most common were penicillins (38.6%), cephalosporins (30.2%) and fluoroquinolones (10.9%). ‘Access’ antibiotics (86.4%) were the most frequently prescribed, followed by ‘Watch’ antibiotics (17.0%). Being 18 or older, being male, living in a municipality, having one or more comorbidities and urinary, respiratory or gastrointestinal disorders increased the probability of receiving ‘Watch’ or ‘Reserve’ antibiotics. Penicillin and urinary antiseptic prescriptions predominated in cities, while cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone prescriptions predominated in municipalities. This analysis showed that the goal set by the WHO Access of mainly using Access antibiotics is being met, although the high use of Watch antibiotics in municipalities should be carefully studied to determine if it is necessary to design specific campaigns to improve antibiotics use. Full article
Article
Prevalence of Multi-Resistant Microorganisms and Antibiotic Stewardship among Hospitalized Patients Living in Residential Care Homes in Spain: A Cross-Sectional Study
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9060324 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health problem. Patients living in care homes are a vulnerable high-risk population colonized by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). We identified a case series of 116 residents of care homes from a cohort of 540 consecutive patients admitted to [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health problem. Patients living in care homes are a vulnerable high-risk population colonized by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). We identified a case series of 116 residents of care homes from a cohort of 540 consecutive patients admitted to the internal medicine service of our hospital. We performed early diagnostic tests of MDRO through anal exudates in our sample. The prevalence of MDRO colonization was 34.5% of residents and 70% of them had not been previously identified in the clinical records. Previous hospitalizations and in-hospital antibiotic administration were significantly associated with the presence of MDRO. Our results emphasize the need to consider care homes in the planning of regional and national infection control measures and for implementing surveillance systems that monitor the spread of antimicrobial resistance in Spain. Systematic early testing upon admission to hospital services with a high prevalence of patients with MDRO colonization (e.g., internal medicine) could contribute to the adoption of adequate prevention measures. Specific educational programs for care home staff should also be implemented to address this increasing problem. Full article
Article
Development of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Mixed-Methods Study in Nigerian Hospitals
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040204 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major concern facing global health today, with the greatest impact in developing countries where the burden of infectious diseases is much higher. The inappropriate prescribing and use of antibiotics are contributory factors to increasing antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major concern facing global health today, with the greatest impact in developing countries where the burden of infectious diseases is much higher. The inappropriate prescribing and use of antibiotics are contributory factors to increasing antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (AMS) are implemented to optimise use and promote behavioural change in the use of antimicrobials. AMS programmes have been widely employed and proven to improve antibiotic use in many high-income settings. However, strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have yet to be successfully implemented in low-resource settings. A recent toolkit for AMS in low- and middle-income countries by the World Health Organisation (WHO) recognizes the importance of local context in the development of AMS programmes. This study employed a bottom-up approach to identify important local determinants of antimicrobial prescribing practices in a low-middle income setting, to inform the development of a local AMS programme. Analysis of prescribing practices and interviews with prescribers highlighted priorities for AMS, which include increasing awareness of antibiotic resistance, development and maintenance of guidelines for antibiotic use, monitoring and surveillance of antibiotic use, ensuring the quality of low-cost generic medicines, and improved laboratory services. The application of an established theoretical model for behaviour change guided the development of specific proposals for AMS. Finally, in a consultation with stakeholders, the feasibility of the plan was explored along with strategies for its implementation. This project provides an example of the design, and proposal for implementation of an AMS plan to improve antibiotic use in hospitals in low-middle income settings. Full article
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Article
Dispensing Antibiotics without a Prescription for Acute Cough Associated with Common Cold at Community Pharmacies in Shenyang, Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040163 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major health issue in China. We aimed to assess nonprescription antibiotic dispensing and assess pharmacy service practice at community pharmacies in Shenyang, northeastern China, and to compare these practices between pediatric and adult cases. A cross-sectional [...] Read more.
The inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major health issue in China. We aimed to assess nonprescription antibiotic dispensing and assess pharmacy service practice at community pharmacies in Shenyang, northeastern China, and to compare these practices between pediatric and adult cases. A cross-sectional study was performed from March to May 2018 using the standardized client method. Two different simulated scenarios were presented at pharmacies, namely, pediatric and adult acute cough associated with a common cold. Of 150 pharmacy visits, 147 visits were completed (pediatric case: 73, adult case: 74). A total of 130 (88.4%) community pharmacies dispensed antibiotics without a prescription, with a significant difference between pediatric and adult cases (pediatric case, 79.5% versus adult case, 97.3%, p = 0.005). Symptoms were asked in most visits (pediatric case: 82.2%, adult case 82.4%). Patients’ previous treatment and history of allergies were both inquired more frequently in the pediatric cases than in the adult cases. Medication advice was provided more often in the adult cases than in pediatric cases. Antibiotics were easily obtained without a prescription in Shenyang, especially for adult patients. Adequate inquiries and counseling had not occurred in most pharmacies. Full article
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Review

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Review
Antibiotic Use in Low and Middle-Income Countries and the Challenges of Antimicrobial Resistance in Surgery
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080497 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a phenomenon resulting from the natural evolution of microbes. Nonetheless, human activities accelerate the pace at which microorganisms develop and spread resistance. AMR is a complex and multidimensional problem, threatening not only human and animal health, but also regional, [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a phenomenon resulting from the natural evolution of microbes. Nonetheless, human activities accelerate the pace at which microorganisms develop and spread resistance. AMR is a complex and multidimensional problem, threatening not only human and animal health, but also regional, national, and global security, and the economy. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, and poor infection prevention and control strategies are contributing to the emergence and dissemination of AMR. All healthcare providers play an important role in preventing the occurrence and spread of AMR. The organization of healthcare systems, availability of diagnostic testing and appropriate antibiotics, infection prevention and control practices, along with prescribing practices (such as over-the-counter availability of antibiotics) differs markedly between high-income countries and low and middle-income countries (LMICs). These differences may affect the implementation of antibiotic prescribing practices in these settings. The strategy to reduce the global burden of AMR includes, among other aspects, an in-depth modification of the use of existing and future antibiotics in all aspects of medical practice. The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery has instituted an interdisciplinary working group including healthcare professionals from different countries with different backgrounds to assess the need for implementing education and increasing awareness about correct antibiotic prescribing practices across the surgical pathways. This article discusses aspects specific to LMICs, where pre-existing factors make surgeons’ compliance with best practices even more important. Full article
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Review
Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9080473 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most complex global health challenges today: decades of overuse and misuse in human medicine, animal health, agriculture, and dispersion into the environment have produced the dire consequence of infections to become progressively untreatable. Infection control and [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most complex global health challenges today: decades of overuse and misuse in human medicine, animal health, agriculture, and dispersion into the environment have produced the dire consequence of infections to become progressively untreatable. Infection control and prevention (IPC) procedures, the reduction of overuse, and the misuse of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine are the cornerstones required to prevent the spreading of resistant bacteria. Purified drinking water and strongly improved sanitation even in remote areas would prevent the pollution from inadequate treatment of industrial, residential, and farm waste, as all these situations are expanding the resistome in the environment. The One Health concept addresses the interconnected relationships between human, animal, and environmental health as a whole: several countries and international agencies have now included a One Health Approach within their action plans to address AMR. Improved antimicrobial usage, coupled with regulation and policy, as well as integrated surveillance, infection control and prevention, along with antimicrobial stewardship, sanitation, and animal husbandry should all be integrated parts of any new action plan targeted to tackle AMR on the Earth. Since AMR is found in bacteria from humans, animals, and in the environment, we briefly summarize herein the current concepts of One Health as a global challenge to enable the continued use of antibiotics. Full article
Review
Antimicrobial Stewardship: From Bedside to Theory. Thirteen Examples of Old and More Recent Strategies from Everyday Clinical Practice
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070398 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
“Antimicrobial stewardship” is a strategy that promotes the responsible use of antimicrobials. The objective of this paper is to focus on consolidated and more recent improvements in clinical strategies that should be adopted in hospitalized patients to ameliorate their infectious diseases’ outcome and [...] Read more.
“Antimicrobial stewardship” is a strategy that promotes the responsible use of antimicrobials. The objective of this paper is to focus on consolidated and more recent improvements in clinical strategies that should be adopted in hospitalized patients to ameliorate their infectious diseases’ outcome and to reduce the antibiotic resistance risk through judicious use of antibiotics. We present 13 common clinical scenarios, the respective suggested interventions and the explanations of the supporting evidence, in order to help clinicians in their decision-making process. Strategies including the choice of antibiotic and dose optimization, antibiotic spectrum narrowing (de-escalation), shortening of duration, shift to oral route or outpatient parenteral antibiotic (including elastomeric pumps), and biomarkers are described and discussed. Full article
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Review
Drivers of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission in Low- and Middle-Income Countries from a “One Health” Perspective—A Review
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070372 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is an ecosystem problem threatening the interrelated human-animal-environment health under the “One Health” framework. Resistant bacteria arising in one geographical area can spread via cross-reservoir transmission to other areas worldwide either by direct exposure or through the food chain and the [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is an ecosystem problem threatening the interrelated human-animal-environment health under the “One Health” framework. Resistant bacteria arising in one geographical area can spread via cross-reservoir transmission to other areas worldwide either by direct exposure or through the food chain and the environment. Drivers of antibiotic resistance are complex and multi-sectoral particularly in Lower- and Middle-income countries. These include inappropriate socio-ecological behaviors; poverty; overcrowding; lack of surveillance systems; food supply chain safety issues; highly contaminated waste effluents; and loose rules and regulations. In order to examine the drivers of antibiotic resistance from a “one health” perspective, a literature review was conducted on three databases including PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. A total of 485 studies of potential relevance were selected, out of which 182 were included in this review. Results have shown that the aforementioned market failures are the leading cause for the negative externality of antibiotic resistance that extends in scope from the individual to the global ecosystem. Incremental and sustainable global actions can make the change, however, the problem will continue to prevail if governments do not prioritize the “One health” approach and if individual’s accountability is still denied in a world struggling with profound socio-economic problems. Full article
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