Special Issue "Antibiotics and Environment"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Rosa Alduina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
Interests: Antibiotic biosynthesis and Actinomycetes; antibiotic resistance; microbiome; resistome; glycopeptides; regulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last century the use of antibiotics has become routine practice in case of bacterial infections of all kinds.

60% of all antibiotics are produced by cultured microorganisms isolated from the environment, especially from the soil, and the lion’s share belongs to the Streptomyces genus. The search for new natural products generally starts from yet unexplored habitats with the aim to discover new strains and new molecules to overcome the rapidly emerging problem of antibiotic resistance.

The environment is also an obvious source of antibiotic resistance genes since antibiotic producing bacteria have the appropriate machinery to protect themselves from the action of their own products and they have evolved many sophisticated mechanisms of defense.

The use of metagenomic approaches applied to diverse environmental microbial communities has led to the identification of new strains and antibiotic molecules. Metagenomics has also contributed in parallel to the discovery of novel genes that confer resistance to diverse classes of antibiotics.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions on the relationship between the environment and new antibacterial activities as well as the spread of antibacterial resistance. All submission types, such as original research manuscripts, short communications, reviews, and case reports are appreciated.

  • Potential topics include, but are not limited to:
  • Discovery of new classes of antibiotics and natural products from the environment
  • Biodiversity of producer microorganisms
  • Antibiotic resistance genes in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and their mechanisms of dissemination in the environment
  • Resistome
  • Environmental DNA

Dr. Rosa Alduina
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Discovery of new classes of antibiotics and natural products from environment
  • Microbial biodiversity
  • Antibiotic resistance genes and mechanisms of their dissemination in environment
  • Resistome

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Antibiotics and Environment
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040202 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Since the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928, the use of antibiotics has become the golden standard in the treatment of bacterial infections of all kinds [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Environmental Dissemination of Selected Antibiotics from Hospital Wastewater to the Aquatic Environment
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070431 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The environmental dissemination of selected antibiotics from hospital wastewater into municipal wastewater and lastly to a receiving water body was investigated. Selected antibiotics (azithromycin (AZM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin (CDM), doxycycline (DXC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)) present in effluents of academic hospital wastewater, influents, sewage [...] Read more.
The environmental dissemination of selected antibiotics from hospital wastewater into municipal wastewater and lastly to a receiving water body was investigated. Selected antibiotics (azithromycin (AZM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin (CDM), doxycycline (DXC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)) present in effluents of academic hospital wastewater, influents, sewage sludge, and effluents of municipal wastewater, receiving water, and its benthic sediment samples were quantified using the Acquity® Waters Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography System hyphenated with a Waters Synapt G2 coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The overall results showed that all assessed antibiotics were found in all matrices. For solid matrices, river sediment samples had elevated concentrations with mean concentrations of 34,834, 35,623, 50,913, 55,263, and 41,781 ng/g for AZM, CIP, CDM, DXC, and SMZ, respectively, whereas for liquid samples, hospital wastewater and influent of wastewater had the highest concentrations. The lowest concentrations were observed in river water, with mean concentrations of 11, 97, 15, and 123 ng/L, except for CDM, which was 18 ng/L in the effluent of wastewater. The results showed that the highest percentages of antibiotics removed was SMZ with 90%, followed by DXC, AZM and CIP with a removal efficiency of 85%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. The antibiotic that showed the lowest removal percentage was CDM with 66%. However, the calculated environmental dissemination analysis through the use of mass load calculations revealed daily release of 15,486, 14,934, 1526, 922, and 680 mg/d for SMZ, CIP, AZM, DXC, and CDM, respectively, indicating a substantial release of selected antibiotics from wastewater to the river system, where they are possibly adsorbed in the river sediment. Further research into the efficient removal of antibiotics from wastewater and the identification of antibiotic sources in river sediment is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Detection of Carbapenem-Resistance Genes in Klebsiella Species Recovered from Selected Environmental Niches in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070425 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been heavily linked to hospital acquired infections (HAI) thereby leading to futility of antibiotics in treating infections and this have complicated public health problems. There is little knowledge about carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella spp. (CPK) in South Africa. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been heavily linked to hospital acquired infections (HAI) thereby leading to futility of antibiotics in treating infections and this have complicated public health problems. There is little knowledge about carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella spp. (CPK) in South Africa. This study aimed at determining the occurrence of CPK in different samples collected from selected environmental niches (hospitals, wastewater treatment plants, rivers, farms) in three district municipalities located in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Molecular identification and characterization of the presumptive isolates were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isolates that exhibited phenotypic carbapenem resistance were further screened for the possibility of harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes. One hundred (43%) of the 234 confirmed Klebsiella spp. isolates harboured carbapenem-resistance genes; 10 isolates harboured blaOXA-48-like; 17 harboured blaKPC; and 73 isolates harboured blaNDM-1. The emergence of blaKPC, blaOXA-48-like, and blaNDM-1 carbapenem-resistance genes in Klebsiella species associated with environmental sources is of great concern to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Public Hospital Pharmacists’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Multicenter Survey
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9060311 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) has been implemented in major public hospitals in Malaysia, with pharmacists playing a key role in ensuring the appropriate use of antibiotics. This survey aimed to assess the practices, perceptions, and knowledge of public hospital pharmacists on antibiotic use [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) has been implemented in major public hospitals in Malaysia, with pharmacists playing a key role in ensuring the appropriate use of antibiotics. This survey aimed to assess the practices, perceptions, and knowledge of public hospital pharmacists on antibiotic use and resistance. A cross-sectional survey involving pharmacists from six public hospitals in Penang was conducted using a self-administered validated questionnaire. The majority of pharmacists perceived that polypharmacy (92%, n = 270) and overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics (85%, n = 252) can potentially induce resistance of microorganisms and that ensuring the rational use of antibiotics is a shared responsibility between clinicians and pharmacists (94%, n = 278). A large majority of the pharmacists think that formal training in infectious disease should be a pre-requisite for pharmacists in ASP (93%, n = 273). In terms of antibiotic selection, the availability of antibiotics in hospital (81%, n = 234) and patient’s clinical condition (68%, n = 196) are more of a concern to the pharmacists. A total of 65% of the respondents (n = 192) demonstrated good levels of knowledge with a mean knowledge score of 10.1 out of 13 (95% CI: 9.95; 10.31). Pharmacists from the managerial level, ward pharmacy, in-patient, and medication therapy adherence clinic (MTAC) unit had better knowledge of antibiotics compared to pharmacists from other units (p < 0.001). Antibiotic knowledge gap had been identified among pharmacists in different work settings, and longer years of service does not warrant good antibiotic knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Article
Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria from Wild Captured Loggerhead Sea Turtles
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040162 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Sea turtles have been proposed as health indicators of marine habitats and carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, for their longevity and migratory lifestyle. Up to now, a few studies evaluated the antibacterial resistant flora of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) [...] Read more.
Sea turtles have been proposed as health indicators of marine habitats and carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, for their longevity and migratory lifestyle. Up to now, a few studies evaluated the antibacterial resistant flora of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and most of them were carried out on stranded or recovered animals. In this study, the isolation and the antibiotic resistance profile of 90 Gram negative bacteria from cloacal swabs of 33 Mediterranean wild captured loggerhead sea turtles are described. Among sea turtles found in their foraging sites, 23 were in good health and 10 needed recovery for different health problems (hereafter named weak). Isolated cloacal bacteria belonged mainly to Enterobacteriaceae (59%), Shewanellaceae (31%) and Vibrionaceae families (5%). Although slight differences in the bacterial composition, healthy and weak sea turtles shared antibiotic-resistant strains. In total, 74 strains were endowed with one or multi resistance (up to five different drugs) phenotypes, mainly towards ampicillin (~70%) or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (more than 30%). Hence, our results confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant strains also in healthy marine animals and the role of the loggerhead sea turtles in spreading antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Antibiotic-Free Chicken Farms
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030120 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Rising concern about the use of antibiotics in food production has resulted in many studies on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal-associated bacterial communities. There are few baseline data on the abundance of ARGs on farms where chickens are intensively [...] Read more.
Rising concern about the use of antibiotics in food production has resulted in many studies on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal-associated bacterial communities. There are few baseline data on the abundance of ARGs on farms where chickens are intensively raised with little or no use of antibiotics. This study used a high-throughput quantitative PCR array to survey two antibiotic-free chicken farms for the occurrence of ARGs and mobile genetic elements known to enhance the spread of ARGs. No antibiotics had been used on the study farms for five years prior to this study. The results provide a baseline for the occurrence of resistance genes in the chicken production system without direct selective pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotic Resistance in Marine Microbial Communities Proximal to a Florida Sewage Outfall System
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030118 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Water samples were collected at several wastewater treatment plants in southeast Florida, and water and sediment samples were collected along and around one outfall pipe, as well as along several transects extending both north and south of the respective outfall outlet. Two sets [...] Read more.
Water samples were collected at several wastewater treatment plants in southeast Florida, and water and sediment samples were collected along and around one outfall pipe, as well as along several transects extending both north and south of the respective outfall outlet. Two sets of samples were collected to address potential seasonal differences, including 38 in the wet season (June 2018) and 42 in the dry season (March 2019). Samples were screened for the presence/absence of 15 select antibiotic resistance gene targets using the polymerase chain reaction. A contrast between seasons was found, with a higher frequency of detections occurring in the wet season and fewer during the dry season. These data illustrate an anthropogenic influence on offshore microbial genetics and seasonal flux regarding associated health risks to recreational users and the regional ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Is Caretta Caretta a Carrier of Antibiotic Resistance in the Mediterranean Sea?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030116 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Sea turtles can be considered a sentinel species for monitoring the health of marine ecosystems, acting, at the same time, as a carrier of microorganisms. Indeed, sea turtles can acquire the microbiota from their reproductive sites and feeding, contributing to the diffusion of [...] Read more.
Sea turtles can be considered a sentinel species for monitoring the health of marine ecosystems, acting, at the same time, as a carrier of microorganisms. Indeed, sea turtles can acquire the microbiota from their reproductive sites and feeding, contributing to the diffusion of antibiotic-resistant strains to uncontaminated environments. This study aims to unveil the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in (i) loggerhead sea turtles stranded along the coast of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), (ii) unhatched and/or hatched eggs, (iii) sand from the turtles’ nest and (iv) seawater. Forty-four bacterial strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The Gram-negative Aeromonas and Vibrio species were mainly found in sea turtles and seawater samples, respectively. Conversely, the Gram-positive Bacillus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus strains were mostly isolated from eggs and sand. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates revealed that these strains were resistant to cefazolin (95.5%), streptomycin (43.2%), colistin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (34.1%). Moreover, metagenome analysis unveiled the presence of both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes, as well as the mobile element class 1 integron at an alarming percentage rate. Our results suggest that Caretta caretta could be considered a carrier of antibiotic-resistant genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Strain Competition on Bacterial Resistance in Immunocompromised Populations
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030114 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Despite the risk of emerging drug resistance that occurs with the frequent use of antimicrobial agents, targeted and prophylactic antibiotics have been considered crucial to opportunistic infection management among the HIV/AIDS-immunocompromised. As we recently demonstrated, the disrupted selective pressures that occur in AIDS-prevalent [...] Read more.
Despite the risk of emerging drug resistance that occurs with the frequent use of antimicrobial agents, targeted and prophylactic antibiotics have been considered crucial to opportunistic infection management among the HIV/AIDS-immunocompromised. As we recently demonstrated, the disrupted selective pressures that occur in AIDS-prevalent host populations increase the probability of novel emergence. This effect is concerning, given that bacterial strains unresponsive to first-line antibiotics can be particularly dangerous to hosts whose immune response is insufficient to fight infection in the absence of antibiotic support. While greater host susceptibility within a highly immunocompromised population may offer a fitness advantage to drug-resistant bacterial strains, this advantage could be mitigated by increased morbidity and mortality among the AIDS-immunocompromised. Using a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) epidemiological model parameterized to reflect conditions in an AIDS-prevalent host population, we examine the evolutionary relationship between drug-sensitive and -resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We explore this relationship when the fitness of the resistant strain is varied relative to that of the sensitive strain to investigate the likely long-term multi-strain dynamics of the AIDS-mediated increased emergence of drug resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Manure Compost Is a Potential Source of Tetracycline-Resistant Escherichia coli and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Japanese Farms
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020076 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Manure compost has been thought of as a potential important route of transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) from livestock to humans. To clarify the abundance of ARB and ARGs, ARB and ARGs were quantitatively determined in tetracycline-resistant Escherichia [...] Read more.
Manure compost has been thought of as a potential important route of transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) from livestock to humans. To clarify the abundance of ARB and ARGs, ARB and ARGs were quantitatively determined in tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli (harboring the tetA gene)-spiked feces in simulated composts. In the simulated composts, the concentration of spiked E. coli decreased below the detection limit at day 7. The tetA gene remained in manure compost for 20 days, although the levels of the gene decreased. Next, to clarify the field conditions of manure compost in Japan, the quantities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, tetracycline resistance genes, and residual tetracyclines were determined using field-manure-matured composts in livestock farms. Tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in 54.5% of tested matured compost (6/11 farms). The copy number of the tetA gene and the concentrations of residual tetracyclines in field manure compost were significantly correlated. These results suggest that the use of antimicrobials in livestock constitutes a selective pressure, not only in livestock feces but also in manure compost. The appropriate use of antimicrobials in livestock and treatment of manure compost are important for avoiding the spread of ARB and ARGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
IncI1 Plasmid Associated with blaCTX-M-2 Transmission in ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Thoroughbred Racehorse, Japan
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020070 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
In our previous study, extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) were isolated from healthy Thoroughbred racehorse feces samples in Japan. Some ESBL genes were predicted to be located on the conjugative plasmid. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) is a useful method to monitor [...] Read more.
In our previous study, extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) were isolated from healthy Thoroughbred racehorse feces samples in Japan. Some ESBL genes were predicted to be located on the conjugative plasmid. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) is a useful method to monitor and detect the association of replicons with specific plasmid-borne resistant genes. This study aimed to evaluate the plasmid replicon associated with ESBLEC isolated from healthy Thoroughbred racehorses at Japan Racing Association Training Centers in Japan. A total of 24 ESBLECs isolated from 23 (10.8%) individual Thoroughbred racehorse feces samples were used in this study. ESBL gene transfer was performed using a conjugation assay. Then, replicon types of ESBLEC isolates and their transconjugants were determined using PBRT. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to look at the clonality of the ESBLECs isolates. ESBLECs were detected from 10.8% of healthy Thoroughbred racehorses. The blaCTX-M-2 was identified as the dominant type of ESBL gene, followed by blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM-116. In this study, only the blaCTX-M-2 and the IncI1 plasmid were transferred to transconjugants. The PFGE results showed that ESBL genes were distributed in diversity of ESBLECs. This finding suggested that the IncI1 plasmid was associated with the dissemination of blaCTX-M-2 in Thoroughbred racehorses in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Pig Slurry Used to Fertilize Agricultural Fields
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9010034 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Pig manure may contain antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or pathogens, which may reach the environment upon fertilization. During this study, 69 antibiotic residues belonging to 12 classes were quantified in 89 pig slurry samples. These samples were also studied for the presence of [...] Read more.
Pig manure may contain antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or pathogens, which may reach the environment upon fertilization. During this study, 69 antibiotic residues belonging to 12 classes were quantified in 89 pig slurry samples. These samples were also studied for the presence of Salmonella and for E. coli resistant to meropenem, colistin, ciprofloxacin, or cefotaxim. The obtained isolates were further tested for antibacterial susceptibility. No antibiotic residues were detected in four samples, whereas in the other samples, up to 12 antibiotics were found. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues were doxycycline, sulfadiazine, and lincomycin. Doxycycline was found in the highest concentration with a mean of 1476 µg/kg manure (range: 18–13632 µg/kg). Tylosin and oxytetracycline were found with mean concentrations of 784 µg/kg (range: 17–5599 µg/kg) and 482 µg/kg (range: 11–3865 µg/kg), respectively. Lincomycin, had a mean concentration of 177 µg/kg manure (range: 9–3154 µg/kg). All other 18 antibiotic residues were found with mean concentrations of less than 100 µg/kg manure. Fifty-one slurry samples harbored Salmonella; 35% of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to a panel of 14 antibiotics, whereas the other 65% were resistant up to five antibiotics. For E. coli, 52 manure samples contained E. coli isolates which were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 22 resistant to cefotaxime. All ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime-resistant isolates were multi-resistant, with resistance up to nine and eight antibiotics, respectively. This research indicates that pig slurry used for fertilization often contains antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Inc FII Plasmid and its Contribution in the Transmission of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Egypt
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics8040266 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
The emergence of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae represents a great problem in many Egyptian hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to Assiut University Hospital were identified by an API20E kit. Carbapenemase-producing K. [...] Read more.
The emergence of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae represents a great problem in many Egyptian hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to Assiut University Hospital were identified by an API20E kit. Carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) was detected by the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), the EDTA-modified carbapenem inactivation method (eCIM), and an E-test. Based on the polymerase chain reaction, all isolates were negative for bla-VIM-1 and bla-IMP-1, fifteen of these isolates were positive for both blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1, two isolates were positive for blaKPC-2 only, and twenty-eight isolates were positive for bla-NDM-1 only. Although one isolate was positive for the string test, all CPKP isolates were negative for capsular genes. Only 71.1% of CPKP transferred their plasmids to their corresponding transconjugants (E. coli J53). The resistance patterns of the clinical isolates and their transconjugates were similar, except for 12 isolates, which showed differences with their transconjugates in the resistance profile of four antibiotics. Molecular typing of the plasmids based on replicon typing showed that Inc FIIK and FII plasmids predominated in isolates and their transconjugants carrying blaKPC-2 and/or blaNDM-1. Conjugative Inc FII plasmids play an important role in the spread of CPKP, and their recognition is essential to limit their spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Lineages in Wild Animals in Europe: A Review
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030122 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunist pathogen that is responsible for numerous types of infections. S. aureus is known for its ability to easily acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of infections both in humans and animals and [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunist pathogen that is responsible for numerous types of infections. S. aureus is known for its ability to easily acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of infections both in humans and animals and is usually associated with a multidrug-resistant profile. MRSA dissemination is increasing due to its capability of establishing new reservoirs and has been found in humans, animals and the environment. Despite the fact that the information on the incidence of MRSA in the environment and, in particular, in wild animals, is scarce, some studies have reported the presence of these strains among wildlife with no direct contact with antibiotics. This shows a possible transmission between species and, consequently, a public health concern. The aim of this review is to better understand the distribution, prevalence and molecular lineages of MRSA in European free-living animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Staphylococcus aureus Epidemiology in Wildlife: A Systematic Review
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020089 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterial colonizer of humans and a variety of animal species. Many strains have zoonotic potential, moving between humans and animals, including livestock, pets, and wildlife. We examined publications reporting on S. aureus presence in a variety of wildlife [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterial colonizer of humans and a variety of animal species. Many strains have zoonotic potential, moving between humans and animals, including livestock, pets, and wildlife. We examined publications reporting on S. aureus presence in a variety of wildlife species in order to more cohesively review distribution of strains and antibiotic resistance in wildlife. Fifty-one studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. The most common types documented included ST398, ST425, ST1, ST133, ST130, and ST15. A mix of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible strains were noted. A number of molecular types were identified that were likely to be found in wildlife species, including those that are commonly found in humans or other animal species (including livestock). Additional research should include follow-up in geographic areas that are under-sampled in this study, which is dominated by European studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Concerted Efforts Are Needed to Control and Mitigate Antibiotic Pollution in Coastal Waters of China
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9020088 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Antibiotics have been applied for decades and antibiotic pollution is of great concern due to the risk for promoting resistant genes. Human activities such as mariculture and land-based discharge can lead to the antibiotic pollution in coastal area and it is of importance [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have been applied for decades and antibiotic pollution is of great concern due to the risk for promoting resistant genes. Human activities such as mariculture and land-based discharge can lead to the antibiotic pollution in coastal area and it is of importance to assess the pollution and risks of antibiotics in this area. In this mini-review, the pollution status of antibiotics in Chinese coastal waters is summarized and some perspectives are put forward for future efforts to mitigate the pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bacteriocins, Potent Antimicrobial Peptides and the Fight against Multi Drug Resistant Species: Resistance Is Futile?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9010032 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 3139
Abstract
Despite highly specialized international interventions and policies in place today, the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacterial species continue to occur globally, threatening the longevity of antibiotics in the medical sector. In particular, problematic nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens [...] Read more.
Despite highly specialized international interventions and policies in place today, the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacterial species continue to occur globally, threatening the longevity of antibiotics in the medical sector. In particular, problematic nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens present as a major burden to both patients and healthcare systems, with annual mortality rates incrementally rising. Bacteriocins, peptidic toxins produced by bacteria, offer promising potential as substitutes or conjugates to current therapeutic compounds. These non-toxic peptides exhibit significant potency against certain bacteria (including multidrug-resistant species), while producer strains remain insusceptible to the bactericidal peptides. The selectivity and safety profile of bacteriocins have been highlighted as superior advantages over traditional antibiotics; however, many aspects regarding their efficacy are still unknown. Although active at low concentrations, bacteriocins typically have low in vivo stability, being susceptible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. Another major drawback lies in the feasibility of large-scale production, with these key features collectively limiting their current clinical application. Though such limitations require extensive research, the concept of expanding bacteriocins from food preservation to human health opens many fascinating doors, including novel drug delivery systems and anticancer treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Back to TopTop