Special Issue "Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Novel Antimicrobial Agents".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alan J. Hibbitts
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: nanoparticle-based solutions; small molecule drug and gene therapy approaches; MDR-TB; MRSA
Dr. Sofia A. Papadimitriou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Prolepsis-institute of Preventive Medicines Environment and Occupational, Health, Athens, Greece
2. National School of Professional Training, Volos, Greece
Interests: pharmaceutical nanotechnology; aliphatic polyesters; biopolymers; biodegradable polymers; nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobials in general, and their extended use in particular, which creates resistance, are presently one of the most serious battles we face worldwide. The ability of microorganisms to resist antimicrobial treatments has a direct impact on the level of public health and consequently carries a heavy economic burden. Nanotechnology provides an innovative tool to address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Nanovehicles which are able to shield antibiotics from enzyme deactivation and consequently increase the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug are introduced as a one novel approach.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to bring forward new attempts through the use of nanotechnology, and therefore new materials, in the detection and treatment of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic organisms, either by targeted delivery of the drug or through the use of specific functionalized nanoparticles as weapons of dealing with pathogens or targeting virulent factors.

Dr. Sofia A. Papadimitriou
Dr. Alan John Hibbitts
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biopolymers
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug Delivery
  • Antimicrobials
  • Targeted Delivery
  • Antimicrobial Resistance

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Synergistic Effect of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Phage ZCSE2 as a Novel Approach to Combat Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 678; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060678 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The emergence and evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is considered a public health concern. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that cause high mortality and morbidity rates in humans, animals, and poultry annually. In this work, we developed a combination of silver [...] Read more.
The emergence and evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is considered a public health concern. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that cause high mortality and morbidity rates in humans, animals, and poultry annually. In this work, we developed a combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with bacteriophage (phage) as an antimicrobial agent to control microbial growth. The synthesized AgNPs with propolis were characterized by testing their color change from transparent to deep brown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The phage ZCSE2 was found to be stable when combined with AgNPs. Both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated for AgNPs, phage, and their combination. The results indicated that MIC and MBC values were equal to 23 µg/mL against Salmonella bacteria at a concentration of 107 CFU/mL. The combination of 0.4× MIC from AgNPs and phage with Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) 0.1 showed an inhibitory effect. This combination of AgNPs and phage offers a prospect of nanoparticles with significantly enhanced antibacterial properties and therapeutic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Targeting Internalized Staphylococcus aureus Using Vancomycin-Loaded Nanoparticles to Treat Recurrent Bloodstream Infections
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050581 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections, where patients often suffer from relapse despite antibiotic therapy. Traditional anti-staphylococcal drugs display reduced effectivity against internalised bacteria, but nanoparticles conjugated with antibiotics can overcome these challenges. In the present study, [...] Read more.
The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections, where patients often suffer from relapse despite antibiotic therapy. Traditional anti-staphylococcal drugs display reduced effectivity against internalised bacteria, but nanoparticles conjugated with antibiotics can overcome these challenges. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the internalisation and re-emergence of S. aureus from human endothelial cells and construct a new formulation of nanoparticles that target intracellular bacteria. Using an in vitro infection model, we demonstrated that S. aureus invades and persists within endothelial cells, mediated through bacterial extracellular surface adhesion, Fibronectin-binding protein A/B. After internalising, S. aureus localises to vacuoles as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Viable S. aureus emerges from endothelial cells after 48 h, supporting the notion that intracellular persistence contributes to infection relapses during bloodstream infections. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles were formulated using a water-in-oil double emulsion method, which loaded 10% vancomycin HCl with 82.85% ± 12 encapsulation efficiency. These non-toxic nanoparticles were successfully taken up by cells and demonstrated a biphasic controlled release of 91 ± 4% vancomycin. They significantly reduced S. aureus intracellular growth within infected endothelial cells, which suggests future potential applications for targeting internalised bacteria and reducing mortality associated with bacteraemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Denture-Soaking Solution Containing Piper betle Extract-Loaded Polymeric Micelles; Inhibition of Candida albicans, Clinical Study, and Effects on Denture Base Resin
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 440; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040440 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 353
Abstract
Candida albicans is a common overgrowth in people wearing dentures. Long-term use of antifungal chemicals carries a risk of toxic side effects. This study focused on the edible Piper betle extract because of its safety. The broth dilution method was applied for antifungal [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is a common overgrowth in people wearing dentures. Long-term use of antifungal chemicals carries a risk of toxic side effects. This study focused on the edible Piper betle extract because of its safety. The broth dilution method was applied for antifungal determination of the ethyl acetate fractionated extract (fEA) and fEA-loaded polymeric micelles (PMF). The PMF was prepared by thin-film hydration using poloxamer 407 as a polymer base. The results found that the weight ratio of fEA to polymer is the main factor to obtain PMF system as a clear solution, nanoparticle sizes, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and high entrapment efficiency. The activity of PMF against C. albicans is significantly higher than fEA alone, with a minimum fungicidal concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. PMF from 1:3 ratio of fEA to polymer is used to develop a denture-soaking solution contained 1.5 mg fEA/mL (PMFS). A clinical study on dentures of 15 volunteers demonstrated an 86.1 ± 9.2% reduction of C. albicans after soaking the dentures in PMFS daily for 14 days. Interestingly, PMFS did not change the hardness and roughness of the denture base resins. The developed PMFS may serve as a potential natural denture-soaking solution against candidiasis in denture wearers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Promising Antibiofilm Agents: Recent Breakthrough against Biofilm Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9100667 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Multidrug resistant (MDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a superbug pathogen that causes serious diseases. One of the main reasons for the lack of the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy against infections caused by this resistant pathogen is the recalcitrant nature of MRSA biofilms, [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a superbug pathogen that causes serious diseases. One of the main reasons for the lack of the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy against infections caused by this resistant pathogen is the recalcitrant nature of MRSA biofilms, which results in an increasingly serious situation worldwide. Consequently, the development of innovative biofilm inhibitors is urgently needed to control the biofilm formation by this pathogen. In this work, we thus sought to evaluate the biofilm inhibiting ability of some promising antibiofilm agents such as zinc oxide nanoparticles (Zno NPs), proteinase K, and hamamelitannin (HAM) in managing the MRSA biofilms. Different phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to identify the biofilm producing MDR MRSA isolates and the antibiofilm/antimicrobial activities of the used promising agents. Our study demonstrated strong antibiofilm activities of ZnO NPs, proteinase K, and HAM against MRSA biofilms along with their transcriptional modulation of biofilm (intercellular adhesion A, icaA) and quorum sensing (QS) (agr) genes. Interestingly, only ZnO NPs showed a powerful antimicrobial activity against this pathogen. Collectively, we observed overall positive correlations between the biofilm production and the antimicrobial resistance/agr genotypes II and IV. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between the toxin genes and the biofilm production. The ZnO NPs were recommended to be used alone as potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents against MDR MRSA and their biofilm-associated diseases. On the other hand, proteinase-K and HAM can be co-administrated with other antimicrobial agents to manage such types of infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Capacity of Chitosan Nanoparticles against Wild Type Strain of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Milk of Cows Diagnosed with Bovine Mastitis
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090551 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Bovine mastitis (BM) is the most prevalent bacterial infection in the livestock sector, affecting the dairy industry greatly. The prevention and treatment of this disease is mainly made via antibiotics, but the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogens has affected the efficiency of conventional [...] Read more.
Bovine mastitis (BM) is the most prevalent bacterial infection in the livestock sector, affecting the dairy industry greatly. The prevention and treatment of this disease is mainly made via antibiotics, but the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogens has affected the efficiency of conventional drugs. Pseudomonas sp. is one of the pathogens involved in this infection. The therapeutic rate of cure for this environmental mastitis-causing pathogen is practically zero, regardless of treatment. Biofilm formation has been one of the main virulence mechanisms of Pseudomonas hence presenting resistance to antibiotic therapy. We have manufactured chitosan nanoparticles (NQo) with tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionotropic gelation. These NQo were confronted against a Pseudomonas sp. strain isolated from milk samples of cows diagnosed with BM, to evaluate their antimicrobial and antibiofilm capacity. The NQo showed great antibacterial effect in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and disk diffusion assays. Using sub lethal concentrations, NQo were tested for inhibition of biofilm formation. The results show that the nanoparticles exhibited biofilm inhibition and were capable of eradicate pre-existing mature biofilm. These findings indicate that the NQo could act as a potential alternative to antibiotic treatment of BM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Treated Bacteria against other Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens in Their Environment
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9040181 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Silver is a potent antimicrobial agent against a variety of microorganisms and once the element has entered the bacterial cell, it accumulates as silver nanoparticles with large surface area causing cell death. At the same time, the bacterial cell becomes a reservoir for [...] Read more.
Silver is a potent antimicrobial agent against a variety of microorganisms and once the element has entered the bacterial cell, it accumulates as silver nanoparticles with large surface area causing cell death. At the same time, the bacterial cell becomes a reservoir for silver. This study aims to test the microcidal effect of silver-killed E. coli O104: H4 and its supernatant against fresh viable cells of the same bacterium and some other species, including E. coli O157: H7, Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Silver-killed bacteria were examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Agar well diffusion assay was used to test the antimicrobial efficacy and durability of both pellet suspension and supernatant of silver-killed E. coli O104:H4 against other bacteria. Both silver-killed bacteria and supernatant showed prolonged antimicrobial activity against the tested strains that extended to 40 days. The presence of adsorbed silver nanoparticles on the bacterial cell and inside the cells was verified by TEM. Silver-killed bacteria serve as an efficient sustained release reservoir for exporting the lethal silver cations. This promotes its use as a powerful disinfectant for polluted water and as an effective antibacterial which can be included in wound and burn dressings to overcome the problem of wound contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Article
Biogenic Gold Nanoparticles as Potent Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Nano-Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9030100 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Abstract: Plant-based synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles has widespread applications in many fields, including medicine. Biofilm—a shield for pathogenic microorganisms—once formed, is difficult to destroy with antibiotics, making the pathogen resistant. Here, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the stem of an [...] Read more.
Abstract: Plant-based synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles has widespread applications in many fields, including medicine. Biofilm—a shield for pathogenic microorganisms—once formed, is difficult to destroy with antibiotics, making the pathogen resistant. Here, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the stem of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, Tinospora cordifolia, and studied the action of AuNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy. The AuNPs were spherically shaped with an average size of 16.1 nm. Further, the subminimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AuNPs (50, 100, and 150 µg/mL) greatly affected the biofilm-forming ability of P. aeruginosa, as observed by crystal violet assay and SEM, which showed a decrease in the number of biofilm-forming cells with increasing AuNP concentration. This was further justified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which showed irregularities in the structure of the biofilm at the sub-MIC of AuNPs. Further, the interaction of AuNPs with PAO1 at the highest sub-MIC (150 µg/mL) showed the internalization of the nanoparticles, probably affecting the tendency of PAO1 to colonize on the surface of the nanoparticles. This study suggests that green-synthesized AuNPs can be used as effective nano-antibiotics against biofilm-related infections caused by P. aeruginosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Review

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Review
Carbon Quantum Dots Derived from Different Carbon Sources for Antibacterial Applications
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 623; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060623 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Nanoparticles possess unique features due to their small size and can be composed of different surface chemistries. Carbon quantum dots possess several unique physico-chemical and antibacterial activities. This review provides an overview of different methods to prepare carbon quantum dots from different carbon [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles possess unique features due to their small size and can be composed of different surface chemistries. Carbon quantum dots possess several unique physico-chemical and antibacterial activities. This review provides an overview of different methods to prepare carbon quantum dots from different carbon sources in order to provide guidelines for choosing methods and carbon sources that yield carbon quantum dots with optimal antibacterial efficacy. Antibacterial activities of carbon quantum dots predominantly involve cell wall damage and disruption of the matrix of infectious biofilms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to cause dispersal of infecting pathogens that enhance their susceptibility to antibiotics. Quaternized carbon quantum dots from organic carbon sources have been found to be equally efficacious for controlling wound infection and pneumonia in rodents as antibiotics. Carbon quantum dots derived through heating of natural carbon sources can inherit properties that resemble those of the carbon sources they are derived from. This makes antibiotics, medicinal herbs and plants or probiotic bacteria ideal sources for the synthesis of antibacterial carbon quantum dots. Importantly, carbon quantum dots have been suggested to yield a lower chance of inducing bacterial resistance than antibiotics, making carbon quantum dots attractive for large scale clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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Review
Nanomaterials in Wound Healing and Infection Control
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050473 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Wounds continue to be a serious medical concern due to their increasing incidence from injuries, surgery, burns and chronic diseases such as diabetes. Delays in the healing process are influenced by infectious microbes, especially when they are in the biofilm form, which leads [...] Read more.
Wounds continue to be a serious medical concern due to their increasing incidence from injuries, surgery, burns and chronic diseases such as diabetes. Delays in the healing process are influenced by infectious microbes, especially when they are in the biofilm form, which leads to a persistent infection. Biofilms are well known for their increased antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the development of novel wound dressing drug formulations and materials with combined antibacterial, antibiofilm and wound healing properties are required. Nanomaterials (NM) have unique properties due to their size and very large surface area that leads to a wide range of applications. Several NMs have antimicrobial activity combined with wound regeneration features thus give them promising applicability to a variety of wound types. The idea of NM-based antibiotics has been around for a decade at least and there are many recent reviews of the use of nanomaterials as antimicrobials. However, far less attention has been given to exploring if these NMs actually improve wound healing outcomes. In this review, we present an overview of different types of nanomaterials explored specifically for wound healing properties combined with infection control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles-Based Antimicrobials)
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