Special Issue "The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Martin J. Woodward
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK
Interests: veterinary microbiology (bacteriology); vaccine development; novel approaches to treating gastro-intestinal diseases; antibiotic treatment and replacement with alternative and supporting therapies; use of gut models to simulate infection and control; metagenomics of the gut and host metabolomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of antibiotics in farmed animal production is an essential tool to combat production diseases, improve animal welfare and safeguard food entering the human food chain. However, there are overriding concerns regarding their use in both animals and particularly humans where the spectre of highly resistant pathogens defy treatment have emerged. There has been a focus upon the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry with resistance in farm animal production finding its way into the food chain and the environment, and measures such as limiting the range of antibiotics used in animals, the ban of antibiotic growth promotion in the EU in 2006, and withdrawal periods before food can enter the food chain have been imposed. This Special Issue of Antibiotics is dedicated to the topic of "The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals" which will contribute and lead the debate on use of antibiotics in animal production. Primary research manuscripts and review articles dealing with antibiotic treatment and emerging resistance in are invited. Submitted manuscripts will be peer-reviewed to ensure that the issue contains high quality contributions.

Prof. Dr. Martin J Woodward
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics5010004 - 13 Jan 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3303
Abstract
The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) [...] Read more.
The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
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Article
Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 480-494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040480 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4199
Abstract
In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among [...] Read more.
In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli) and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40)) (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test). Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p < 0.01). The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
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Article
Learning Processes and Trajectories for the Reduction of Antibiotic Use in Pig Farming: A Qualitative Approach
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 435-454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040435 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
Since 2011, French public policy has been encouraging a reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal farming. The aim of this article is to look at how some farms have already managed to lower their consumption of antibiotics, and to highlight the [...] Read more.
Since 2011, French public policy has been encouraging a reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal farming. The aim of this article is to look at how some farms have already managed to lower their consumption of antibiotics, and to highlight the levers of change in farming health practices. Our research uses a qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with farmers and veterinarians in the French pig-farming sector. We use the notion of “trajectory of change” to examine, over time, the intersection of the technical, economic, social and organisational determinants which affect the reduced use of antibiotics. The “learning process” concept makes it possible to take account of the way in which the actors assimilate, appropriate and implement new health practices. We have identified three interdependent levels of learning: technical learning, cognitive learning and organisational learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)

Review

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Review
Co-Selection of Resistance to Antibiotics, Biocides and Heavy Metals, and Its Relevance to Foodborne Pathogens
by and
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 567-604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040567 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 160 | Viewed by 7852
Abstract
Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to biocides used as disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives, and to heavy metals (particularly copper and zinc) used as growth promoters and therapeutic agents for some livestock species. There [...] Read more.
Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to biocides used as disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives, and to heavy metals (particularly copper and zinc) used as growth promoters and therapeutic agents for some livestock species. There is indeed experimental and observational evidence that exposure to these non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents can induce or select for bacterial adaptations that result in decreased susceptibility to one or more antibiotics. This may occur via cellular mechanisms that are protective across multiple classes of antimicrobial agents or by selection of genetic determinants for resistance to non-antibiotic agents that are linked to genes for antibiotic resistance. There may also be relevant effects of these antimicrobial agents on bacterial community structure and via non-specific mechanisms such as mobilization of genetic elements or mutagenesis. Notably, some co-selective adaptations have adverse effects on fitness in the absence of a continued selective pressure. The present review examines the evidence for the significance of these phenomena, particularly in respect of bacterial zoonotic agents that commonly occur in livestock and that may be transmitted, directly or via the food chain, to human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
Review
Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans
Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 521-543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4040521 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 149 | Viewed by 8447
Abstract
During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of [...] Read more.
During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to livestock was obviously associated with several genetic changes. Reversion of the genetic changes and readaptation to humans bears a potential health risk and requires tight surveillance. Although most LA-MRSA (>80%) is resistant to several antibiotics, there are still sufficient treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
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Other

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Hypothesis
Can Clays in Livestock Feed Promote Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Pathogenic Bacteria?
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 299-308; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics4030299 - 16 Jul 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3861
Abstract
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has long been associated with the appearance of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor determinants. Nonetheless, the number of cases of human infection involving resistant or virulent microorganisms that originate in farms is increasing. While many antibiotics [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has long been associated with the appearance of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor determinants. Nonetheless, the number of cases of human infection involving resistant or virulent microorganisms that originate in farms is increasing. While many antibiotics have been banned as dietary supplements in some countries, other additives thought to be innocuous in terms of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance are used as growth promoters. In fact, several clay materials are routinely added to animal feed with the aim of improving growth and animal product quality. However, recent findings suggest that sepiolite, a clay additive, mediates the direct transfer of plasmids between different bacterial species. We therefore hypothesize that clays present in animal feed facilitate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants in the digestive tract of farm animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
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