Special Issue "Redox Systems, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Defences in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria A. Livrea
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo UNIPA, Palermo, Italy
Interests: phytochemicals; betalains; oxidative stress; inflammation; cancer; eryptosis; nutrition; redox signaling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) play a key role in the regulation of cell survival. While adequate levels of RONS are essential to sustain cell proliferation and survival, disruption of endocellular redox state induces cell dysfunction and death. Indeed, under physiological conditions, a balance between generation and elimination of RONS ensures the proper function of redox-sensitive signaling proteins. Conversely, alterations of the redox homeostasis may disrupt the function of key transcription factors, signal-transduction pathways, and cell-death regulators. Along these lines, understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular redox homeostasis may help to develop nutraceutical and/or pharmacological tools to counteract the development of a wide number of redox-dependent pathologies, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, inflammatory-based diseases and cancer.

The aim of this Issue is to bring together updated research concerning the activity and control of redox-regulated cell systems in physiological processes and pathological conditions. This can include both in vitro and in vivo studies aiming to explore molecular mechanisms as well as cell and body response. In addition, the role of phytochemicals, nutraceuticals, and dietary patterns in the control of redox-dependent pathophysiological conditions will be considered.

Prof. Dr. Maria A. Livrea
Prof. Dr. Mario Allegra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant defenses
  • Phytochemicals
  • Redox-dependent signaling
  • Oxidative stress
  • Disease

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Redox Systems, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Defences in Health and Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(12), 1955; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10121955 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) play a key role in the regulation of cell survival [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Gossypetin on Abnormal Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10091357 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
Gossypetin (GTIN), known as 3,5,7,8,3′,4′-hexahydroxyflavone, has been demonstrated to exert anti-atherosclerotic potential against apoptotic injury in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-incubated endothelial cells, and atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed rabbits. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of GTIN on abnormal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation [...] Read more.
Gossypetin (GTIN), known as 3,5,7,8,3′,4′-hexahydroxyflavone, has been demonstrated to exert anti-atherosclerotic potential against apoptotic injury in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-incubated endothelial cells, and atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed rabbits. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of GTIN on abnormal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration, a major event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, is still unknown. In this study, non-cytotoxic doses of GTIN abolished the VSMCs A7r5 proliferation and cell-cycle S phase distribution. The GTIN-arrested G0/G1 phase might be performed by increasing the expressions of phosphorylated p53 and its downstream molecules that inhibit the activation of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2, blocking retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and the subsequent dissociation of Rb/transcription factor E2F1 complex. In addition, the results indicated that GTIN inhibited VSMCs wound-healing and migratory abilities through reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and expression, as well as down-regulating protein kinase B (PKB)/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling. GTIN also revealed potential in diminishing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These findings suggested the inhibitory effects of GTIN on VSMCs dysfunction could likely lead to the containment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular illness. Full article
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Article
Exogenous Antioxidants Impact on UV-Induced Changes in Membrane Phospholipids and the Effectiveness of the Endocannabinoid System in Human Skin Cells
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10081260 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Natural antioxidants effectively counteract changes caused by UV radiation in human skin cells. However, their action is limited due to their lipo/hydrophilicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the mutual protective action of hydrophilic ascorbic acid and partially lipophilic rutin [...] Read more.
Natural antioxidants effectively counteract changes caused by UV radiation in human skin cells. However, their action is limited due to their lipo/hydrophilicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the mutual protective action of hydrophilic ascorbic acid and partially lipophilic rutin against UVA/UVB-induced changes in membranes phospholipid and endocannabinoid system in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Obtained results clearly showed that, despite the stronger antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid, the lipid membranes were more effectively protected against UV-induced oxidation by rutin, including changes in phospholipid fatty acid levels, prevention against reactive aldehydes formation and endocannabinoids degradation. Ascorbic acid more strongly prevented UV-induced endocannabinoid receptors expression in fibroblasts, especially CB1. However, the combined action of used antioxidants resulted in the greatest cytoprotective effect, which was evident in the inflammatory marker TNFα down-regulation and increased cell viability following cell irradiation. The applied mixture of antioxidants showed a stronger protective in relation to membrane phospholipids in keratinocytes and in the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts. In conclusion, it can be suggested that combined antioxidant capacities of ascorbic acid and rutin protects against lipid peroxidation but also decreases the UV-induced inflammation by direct interaction with the endocannabinoid system, thus increasing skin cell viability. Full article
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Article
Usnic Acid and Usnea barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg. Dry Extracts Promote Apoptosis and DNA Damage in Human Blood Cells through Enhancing ROS Levels
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10081171 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Nowadays, numerous biomedical studies performed on natural compounds and plant extracts aim to obtain highly selective pharmacological activities without unwanted toxic effects. In the big world of medicinal plants, Usnea barbata (L) F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) and usnic acid (UA) are [...] Read more.
Nowadays, numerous biomedical studies performed on natural compounds and plant extracts aim to obtain highly selective pharmacological activities without unwanted toxic effects. In the big world of medicinal plants, Usnea barbata (L) F.H. Wigg (U. barbata) and usnic acid (UA) are well-known for their therapeutical properties. One of the most studied properties is their cytotoxicity on various tumor cells. This work aims to evaluate their cytotoxic potential on normal blood cells. Three dry U. barbata extracts in various solvents: ethyl acetate (UBEA), acetone (UBA), and ethanol (UBE) were prepared. From UBEA we isolated usnic acid with high purity by semipreparative chromatography. Then, UA, UBA, and UBE dissolved in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted in four concentrations were tested for their toxicity on human blood cells. The blood samples were collected from a healthy non-smoker donor; the obtained blood cell cultures were treated with the tested samples. After 24 h, the cytotoxic effect was analyzed through the mechanisms that can cause cell death: early and late apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity, nuclear apoptosis, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and DNA damage. Generally, the cytotoxic effect was directly proportional to the increase of concentrations, usnic acid inducing the most significant response. At high concentrations, usnic acid and U. barbata extracts induced apoptosis and DNA damage in human blood cells, increasing ROS levels. Our study reveals the importance of prior natural products toxicity evaluation on normal cells to anticipate their limits and benefits as potential anticancer drugs. Full article
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Article
Changes in Hepatic Phospholipid Metabolism in Rats under UV Irradiation and Topically Treated with Cannabidiol
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10081157 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The liver is a key metabolic organ that is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, including UV radiation. As UV radiation induces oxidative stress and inflammation, natural compounds are under investigation as one method to counteract these consequences. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
The liver is a key metabolic organ that is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, including UV radiation. As UV radiation induces oxidative stress and inflammation, natural compounds are under investigation as one method to counteract these consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topical application of phytocannabinoid-cannabidiol (CBD) on the skin of nude rats chronically irradiated with UVA/UVB, paying particular attention to its impact on the liver antioxidants and phospholipid metabolism. The results of this study indicate that CBD reaches the rat liver where it is then metabolized into decarbonylated cannabidiol, 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol and cannabidiol-glucuronide. CBD increased the levels of GSH and vitamin A after UVB radiation. Moreover, CBD prevents the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F levels in UVA-irradiated rats. As a consequence of reductions in phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases activity following UV irradiation, CBD upregulates the level of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and downregulates prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4. Finally, CBD enhances decreased level of 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 after UVB radiation and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid after UVA radiation. These data show that CBD applied to the skin prevents ROS- and enzyme-dependent phospholipid metabolism in the liver of UV-irradiated rats, suggesting that it may be used as an internal organ protector. Full article
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Article
Blood Pressure-Lowering Effect of Wine Lees Phenolic Compounds Is Mediated by Endothelial-Derived Factors: Role of Sirtuin 1
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1073; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10071073 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 900
Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of wine lees powder (WLPW) from a Cabernet grape variety was related to its high content in flavanols and anthocyanins compounds. This study investigates the involvement of endothelial-derived factors and SIRT1 in its bioactivity. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were orally [...] Read more.
The antihypertensive effect of wine lees powder (WLPW) from a Cabernet grape variety was related to its high content in flavanols and anthocyanins compounds. This study investigates the involvement of endothelial-derived factors and SIRT1 in its bioactivity. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were orally administered water or WLPW (125 mg/kg bw). Posteriorly, both groups were intraperitoneally administered saline, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, a prostacyclin synthesis inhibitor, or sirtinol, an inhibitor of sirtuins. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded before and 6 h after WLPW administration. In an additional experiment, SHR were administered water or WLPW and endothelial expressions of eNos, Sirt1, Nox4, and Et1 were determined. The BP-lowering properties of WLPW were abolished by L-NAME and partially reduced by indomethacin, demonstrating that WLPW antihypertensive effect was mediated by changes in NO availability, although prostacyclin also contributed to this activity. Moreover, BP-lowering effect was reduced by sirtinol, indicating that WLPW decreased BP in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Furthermore, WLPW upregulated eNos and Sirt1 and downregulated Nox4 and Et1 endothelial gene expression. These results evidence the vasoprotective effect of WLPW and show that its antihypertensive effect in SHR is endothelium dependent and mediated by SIRT1. Full article
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Article
Hidrox® and Endometriosis: Biochemical Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Pain
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050720 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Endometriosis is a gynecological and painful condition affecting women of reproductive age. It is characterized by dysfunctional endometrium-like implants outside of the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Hidrox®, an aqueous extract of olive [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a gynecological and painful condition affecting women of reproductive age. It is characterized by dysfunctional endometrium-like implants outside of the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Hidrox®, an aqueous extract of olive pulp containing hydroxytyrosol, on endometriotic lesions associated with pro-oxidative alterations and pain-like behaviors. Endometriosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of uterine fragments, and Hidrox® was administered daily. At the end of the 14-day treatment, behavioral alterations were assessed and hippocampal tissues were collected. Laparotomy was performed, and the endometrial implants were harvested for histological and biochemical analysis. Hidrox® treatment reduced endometriotic implant area, diameter and volumes. Vehicle-treated rats showed lesional fibrosis, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and fibroblast–myofibroblast transdifferentiation, angiogenesis and pro-oxidative alterations in the peritoneal cavity. Hidrox® treatment reduced the aniline blue-stained area, α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) and CD34 positive expressions. Moreover, it reduced mast cell recruitment into the lesions, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione levels in the endometrial explants. In the peritoneal fluid, Hidrox® treatment reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL2, IL6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) levels increased by the disease. Hidrox® administration also reduced peripheral and visceral sensibility as shown by the behavioral tests (open field test, hot plate test, elevated plus maze test and acetic-acid-induced abdominal contractions). Animals treated with Hidrox® also showed reduced blood–brain barrier permeability and mast cell infiltration in the hippocampus, as well as astrocyte and microglia activation and brain oxidative status restoring brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression and increasing Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nfr2) nuclear translocation. In conclusion, Hidrox® displayed potential ameliorative effects on endometriotic implants and related pain-induced behaviors due to its potent antioxidative properties. Full article
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Article
Protective Effects of Taurine Chloramine on Experimentally Induced Colitis: NFκB, STAT3, and Nrf2 as Potential Targets
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10030479 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Taurine chloramine (TauCl) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory substance which is derived from taurine, a semi-essential sulfur-containing β-amino acid found in some foods including meat, fish, eggs and milk. In general, TauCl as well as its parent compound taurine downregulates production of tissue-damaging proinflammatory [...] Read more.
Taurine chloramine (TauCl) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory substance which is derived from taurine, a semi-essential sulfur-containing β-amino acid found in some foods including meat, fish, eggs and milk. In general, TauCl as well as its parent compound taurine downregulates production of tissue-damaging proinflammatory mediators, such as chemokines and cytokines in many different types of cells. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of TauCl on experimentally induced colon inflammation. Oral administration of TauCl protected against mouse colitis caused by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). TauCl administration attenuated apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-treated mice. This was accompanied by reduced expression of an oxidative stress marker, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and proinflammatory molecules including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse colon. TauCl also inhibited activation of NFκB and STAT3, two key transcription factors mediating proinflammatory signaling. Notably, the protective effect of TauCl on oxidative stress and inflammation in the colon of TNBS-treated mice was associated with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target genes encoding heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and glutathione S-transferase. Taken together, these results suggest that TauCl exerts the protective effect against colitis through upregulation of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective gene expression while blocking the proinflammatory signaling mediated by NFκB and STAT3. Full article
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Article
The Aqueous Extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®) Regulates Opsin 3 and Prevents Photooxidation of Melanin Precursors on Skin Cells Exposed to Blue Light Emitted from Digital Devices
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10030400 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The effects of sun exposure on the skin and specifically those related to pigmentation disorders are well known. It has recently been shown that blue light leads to the induction of oxidative stress and long-lasting pigmentation. The protective effect of an aqueous extract [...] Read more.
The effects of sun exposure on the skin and specifically those related to pigmentation disorders are well known. It has recently been shown that blue light leads to the induction of oxidative stress and long-lasting pigmentation. The protective effect of an aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®) is known. Our aim was to investigate the action mechanism of Fernblock® against pigmentation induced by blue light from digital devices. Human fibroblasts (HDF) and murine melanocytes (B16-F10) were exposed to artificial blue light (a 400–500 nm LED lamp). Cell viability, mitochondrial morphology, and the expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, known markers involved in the melanogenesis pathway, were evaluated. The activation of Opsin-3, a membrane protein sensitive to blue light that triggers the activation of the enzyme tyrosinase responsible for melanogenesis in melanocytes, was also analyzed. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with Fernblock® prevents cell death, alteration of mitochondrial morphology, and phosphorylation of p38 in HDF exposed to blue light. In addition, Fernblock® significantly reduced the activation of Opsin-3 in melanocytes and the photo-oxidation of melanin, preventing its photodegradation. In sum, Fernblock® exerts beneficial effects against the detrimental impact of blue light from digital devices and could prevent early photoaging, while maintaining skin homeostasis. Full article
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Article
ROS-Induced SIRT2 Upregulation Contributes to Cisplatin Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9111137 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
Cisplatin resistance remains a significant obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that cisplatin is an important inducer of intracellullar reactive oxygen species (ROS), triggering cancer cell death. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a member of class III [...] Read more.
Cisplatin resistance remains a significant obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that cisplatin is an important inducer of intracellullar reactive oxygen species (ROS), triggering cancer cell death. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a member of class III NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs), has been reported to be involved in regulating cancer hallmarks including drug response. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of SIRT2 in oxidative stress and cisplatin response in cancer. Two ovarian cancer cell lines featuring different sensitivities to cisplatin were used in this study. We found different expression patterns of SIRT2 in cisplatin-sensitive (A2780/S) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780/CP) cancer cells with cisplatin treatment, where SIRT2 expression was augmented only in A2780/S cells. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced ROS generation was responsible for the upregulation of SIRT2 in A2780/S cells, whereas overexpression of SIRT2 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant counterpart cells to cisplatin. Our study proposes that targeting SIRT2 may provide new strategies to potentiate platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. Full article
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Article
Gd-Complex of a Rosmarinic Acid Conjugate as an Anti-Inflammatory Theranostic Agent via Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 744; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9080744 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Rosmarinic acid (RosA), an important polyphenol, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its application in theranostics has been rarely reported. Therefore, a new single-molecule anti-inflammatory theranostic compound containing RosA would be of great interest. A gadolinium (Gd) complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic [...] Read more.
Rosmarinic acid (RosA), an important polyphenol, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its application in theranostics has been rarely reported. Therefore, a new single-molecule anti-inflammatory theranostic compound containing RosA would be of great interest. A gadolinium (Gd) complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid (DO3A) and RosA (Gd(DO3A-RosA)(H2O)) was synthesized and examined for use as a single-molecule theranostic agent. Its kinetic stability is comparable to that of clinically used macrocyclic magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. In addition, its relaxivity is higher than that of structurally analogous Gd-BT-DO3A. This agent was evaluated for inflammatory targeting magnetic resonance contrast and showed strong and prolonged enhancement of imaging in inflamed tissues of mice. The theranostic agent also possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as evidenced by reactive oxygen species scavenging, superoxide dismutase activity, and inflammatory factors. The novel RosA-conjugated Gd complex is a promising theranostic agent for the imaging of inflamed tissues, as well as for the treatment of inflammation and oxidative stress. Full article
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Article
Methanol Extract of Usnea barbata Induces Cell Killing, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage against Oral Cancer Cells through Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9080694 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Some lichens provide the resources of common traditional medicines and show anticancer effects. However, the anticancer effect of Usnproliea barbata (U. barbata) is rarely investigated, especially for oral cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell killing [...] Read more.
Some lichens provide the resources of common traditional medicines and show anticancer effects. However, the anticancer effect of Usnproliea barbata (U. barbata) is rarely investigated, especially for oral cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell killing function of methanol extracts of U. barbata (MEUB) against oral cancer cells. MEUB shows preferential killing against a number of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, OECM-1, CAL 27, HSC3, and SCC9) but rarely affects normal oral cell lines (HGF-1). Ca9-22 and OECM-1 cells display the highest sensitivity to MEUB and were chosen for concentration effect and time course experiments to address its cytotoxic mechanisms. MEUB induces apoptosis of oral cancer cells in terms of the findings from flow cytometric assays and Western blotting, such as subG1 accumulation, annexin V detection, and pancaspase activation as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. MEUB induces oxidative stress and DNA damage of oral cancer cells following flow cytometric assays, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS)/mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depletion as well as overexpression of γH2AX and 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). All MEUB-induced changes in oral cancer cells were triggered by oxidative stress which was validated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, MEUB causes preferential killing of oral cancer cells and is associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Full article
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Review

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Review
Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration: Interconnected Processes in PolyQ Diseases
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1450; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10091450 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Neurodegenerative polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are caused by trinucleotide repeat expansions within the coding region of disease-causing genes. PolyQ-expanded proteins undergo conformational changes leading to the formation of protein inclusions which are associated with selective neuronal degeneration. Several lines of evidence indicate that these [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders are caused by trinucleotide repeat expansions within the coding region of disease-causing genes. PolyQ-expanded proteins undergo conformational changes leading to the formation of protein inclusions which are associated with selective neuronal degeneration. Several lines of evidence indicate that these mutant proteins are associated with oxidative stress, proteasome impairment and microglia activation. These events may correlate with the induction of inflammation in the nervous system and disease progression. Here, we review the effect of polyQ-induced oxidative stress in cellular and animal models of polyQ diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the interplay between oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation using as an example the well-known neuroinflammatory disease, Multiple Sclerosis. Finally, we review some of the pharmaceutical interventions which may delay the onset and progression of polyQ disorders by targeting disease-associated mechanisms. Full article
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Review
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): Impacts on Human Health
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 967; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10060967 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a medicine widely used to treat paracetamol overdose and as a mucolytic compound. It has a well-established safety profile, and its toxicity is uncommon and dependent on the route of administration and high dosages. Its remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a medicine widely used to treat paracetamol overdose and as a mucolytic compound. It has a well-established safety profile, and its toxicity is uncommon and dependent on the route of administration and high dosages. Its remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity is the biochemical basis used to treat several diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. The primary role of NAC as an antioxidant stems from its ability to increase the intracellular concentration of glutathione (GSH), which is the most crucial biothiol responsible for cellular redox imbalance. As an anti-inflammatory compound, NAC can reduce levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) by suppressing the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Despite NAC’s relevant therapeutic potential, in several experimental studies, its effectiveness in clinical trials, addressing different pathological conditions, is still limited. Thus, the purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medicinal effects and applications of NAC to human health based on current therapeutic evidence. Full article
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Review
Serum Albumin Redox States: More Than Oxidative Stress Biomarker
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10040503 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Serum albumin is the most abundant circulating protein in mammals including humans. It has three isoforms according to the redox state of the free cysteine residue at position 34, named as mercaptalbumin (reduced albumin), non-mercaptalbumin-1 and -2 (oxidized albumin), respectively. The serum albumin [...] Read more.
Serum albumin is the most abundant circulating protein in mammals including humans. It has three isoforms according to the redox state of the free cysteine residue at position 34, named as mercaptalbumin (reduced albumin), non-mercaptalbumin-1 and -2 (oxidized albumin), respectively. The serum albumin redox state has long been viewed as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress, as the redox state shifts to a more oxidized state in response to the severity of the pathological condition in various diseases such as liver diseases and renal failures. However, recent ex vivo studies revealed oxidized albumin per se could aggravate the pathological conditions. Furthermore, the possibility of the serum albumin redox state as a sensitive protein nutrition biomarker has also been demonstrated in a series of animal studies. A paradigm shift is thus ongoing in the research field of the serum albumin. This article provides an updated overview of analytical techniques for serum albumin redox state and its association with human health, focusing on recent findings. Full article
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Review
Post-Translational S-Nitrosylation of Proteins in Regulating Cardiac Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1051; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9111051 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Like other post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, S-nitrosylation has been considered a key regulatory mechanism of multiple cellular functions in many physiological and disease conditions. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that S-nitrosylation plays a crucial role in regulating redox homeostasis in the stressed heart, [...] Read more.
Like other post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, S-nitrosylation has been considered a key regulatory mechanism of multiple cellular functions in many physiological and disease conditions. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that S-nitrosylation plays a crucial role in regulating redox homeostasis in the stressed heart, leading to discoveries in the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of heart diseases and cardiac protection. In this review, we summarize recent studies in understanding the molecular and biological basis of S-nitrosylation, including the formation, spatiotemporal specificity, homeostatic regulation, and association with cellular redox status. We also outline the currently available methods that have been applied to detect S-nitrosylation. Additionally, we synopsize the up-to-date studies of S-nitrosylation in various cardiac diseases in humans and animal models, and we discuss its therapeutic potential in cardiac protection. These pieces of information would bring new insights into understanding the role of S-nitrosylation in cardiac pathogenesis and provide novel avenues for developing novel therapeutic strategies for heart diseases. Full article
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