Special Issue "Extraction of Antioxidants: Innovative and Intensification Methods, Activity Enhancement and Degradations"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Université d´Avignon et des Pays du Vaucluse, 84029 Avignon, France
Interests: green extraction; alternative solvents; innovative technologies; original procedures; microwave; ultrasound; intensification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Maryline Abert-Vian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Green Extraction Team, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, INRA, CEDEX, Avignon, France
Interests: green extraction; alternative solvent; natural products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, we cannot find a production process of antioxidants, in pure or formulated form, in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, bio fuel, or fine chemicals industries, which do not use extraction processes, such as maceration, percolation, steam or hydro-distillation, pressing, decoction, infusion, and Soxhlet extraction. Recent trends in extraction techniques have largely focused on finding solutions that minimize the use of raw plant material, energy, solvents, and processing.

This Special Issue of Antioxidants has the aim of describing existing studies and applications of conventional and innovative extraction techniques, solvents, and procedures of antioxidants. There is a need for comprehension if these conventional, innovative, and intensified techniques will enhance the extraction of antioxidants in term of yield, purity and activities. Another important point is regarding the degradation, desired or not, of antioxidants, caused by extraction techniques.

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Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
Dr. Maryline Abert-Vian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • extraction
  • innovative techniques
  • valorization of byproducts
  • intensification
  • antioxidant activity
  • degradation mechanisms

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox6030064 - 12 Aug 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3346
Abstract
Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, [...] Read more.
Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a great potential for use in both the food and the nutraceuticals and cosmetic field. Full article
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Communication
Antioxidant Compound Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol] Stuntz) Berries: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox6010010 - 02 Feb 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol), solvent concentration and extraction [...] Read more.
The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol), solvent concentration and extraction time over total antioxidant capacity by using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The D-optimal design considered 42 experiments including 10 central point replicates. A second-order polynomial model showed that more than 89% of the variation is explained with a satisfactory prediction (78%). ORAC values are higher when acetone was used as a solvent at lower concentrations, and the extraction time range studied showed no significant influence on ORAC values. The optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction obtained were 29% of acetone for 159 min under agitation. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the given predictive model describes an antioxidant extraction process from maqui berry. Full article
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Article
RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox5040038 - 21 Oct 2016
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 3942
Abstract
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass [...] Read more.
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. Full article
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Article
Pharmacognostic and Antioxidant Properties of Dracaena sanderiana Leaves
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox5030028 - 20 Aug 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents [...] Read more.
Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. The classes of secondary metabolites were evaluated through pharmacognostic studies, and active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). All ethanol-water extracts and D. sanderiana leaf powder were positive for tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, and quinones. Flavonoids were present in 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% ethanol extracts (E100, E80, E60, and E40). E100 showed the highest total flavonoid content, whereas E60 extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. GC-MS revealed the presence of glycerol, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one, n-dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoid acid, (n-) hexadecanoid acid, and n-octadecanoic acid in the E60 extract. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox5030026 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3385
Abstract
Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching [...] Read more.
Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. Full article
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