Special Issue "Antioxidants and Skin Protection"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Enrique Barrajon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María Herranz-López
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnologia Sanitaria at Miguel Hernández University, Elche, Spain
Interests: metabolic disorders; inflammation; bioactive compounds; cancer; cell death
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products have a long history of use for skin aliments, to improving the appearance and function of aged skin. Among them, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, plant polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are the most widely used ingredients. In recent decades, they have undergone rigorous testing, resulting in the identification of phytochemical compounds such as antioxidants with important potential for the development of cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Supplementation with these products has been shown to have an effect on the signs of ageing in several human trials.

This Special Issue, “Antioxidants and Skin Protection”, is a collection of original research and review articles on preclinical and clinical benefits of bioactives as antioxidants with a special interest in the skin protection and premature ageing prevention.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect literature that reflects the actual state-of-the-art and increase our knowledge about bioactives and antioxidants and their biological activities.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue, we cordially invite researchers from all around the world to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles and review papers according to their expertise.

Dr. Enrique Barrajon
Dr. María Herranz-López
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidants;
  • Polyphenolic extracts;
  • Natural compounds;
  • Inflammation;
  • Skin aging;
  • Photodamage;
  • Photoaging;
  • Cosmetics;
  • Topical formulation;
  • Oral administration;
  • Nutraceuticals.

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Antioxidants and Skin Protection
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9080704 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Natural products have a long history of use for skincare and the improvement of the appearance and function of aged and/or damaged skin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)

Research

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Article
Sweet Cherry Byproducts Processed by Green Extraction Techniques as a Source of Bioactive Compounds with Antiaging Properties
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9050418 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
In the cosmetic industry, there is a continuous demand for new and innovative ingredients for product development. In the context of continual renovation, both cosmetic companies and customers are particularly interested in compounds derived from natural sources due to their multiple benefits. In [...] Read more.
In the cosmetic industry, there is a continuous demand for new and innovative ingredients for product development. In the context of continual renovation, both cosmetic companies and customers are particularly interested in compounds derived from natural sources due to their multiple benefits. In this study, novel and green-extractive techniques (pressurized solvent, supercritical CO2, and subcritical water extractions) were used to obtain three new extracts from sweet cherry stems, a byproduct generated by the food industry. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and 57 compounds, mainly flavonoids but also organic and phenolic acids, fatty acids, and terpenes, were identified. After analytical characterization, a multistep screening approach, including antioxidant, enzymatic, and photoprotective cellular studies, was used to select the best extract according to its benefits of interest to the cosmetics industry. The extract obtained with supercritical CO2 presented the best characteristics, including a wide antioxidant capacity, especially against lipid peroxyl and OH free radicals, as well as relevant photoprotective action and antiaging properties, making it a potential new ingredient for consideration in the development of new cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Protection against Ultraviolet A-Induced Skin Apoptosis and Carcinogenesis through the Oxidative Stress Reduction Effects of N-(4-bromophenethyl) Caffeamide, A Propolis Derivative
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9040335 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Ultraviolet A (UVA) is a major factor in skin aging and damage. Antioxidative materials may ameliorate this UV damage. This study investigated the protective properties of N-(4-bromophenethyl) caffeamide (K36H) against UVA-induced skin inflammation, apoptosis and genotoxicity in keratinocytes. The protein expression or biofactor [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet A (UVA) is a major factor in skin aging and damage. Antioxidative materials may ameliorate this UV damage. This study investigated the protective properties of N-(4-bromophenethyl) caffeamide (K36H) against UVA-induced skin inflammation, apoptosis and genotoxicity in keratinocytes. The protein expression or biofactor concentration related to UVA-induced skin damage were identified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. K36H reduced UVA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 translocation into the nucleus to upregulate the expression of heme oxygenase-1, an intrinsic antioxidant enzyme. K36H inhibited UVA-induced activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, reduced the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 and elevated the expression of the metalloproteinase-1 tissue inhibitor. Moreover, K36H inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun and downregulated c-Fos expression. K36H attenuated UVA-induced Bax and caspase-3 expression and upregulated antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 expression. K36H reduced UVA-induced DNA damage. K36H also downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 expression as well as the subsequent generation of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide. We observed that K36H ameliorated UVA-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and antiphotocarcinogenic activity. K36H can potentially be used for the development of antiphotodamage and antiphotocarcinogenic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Fucoxanthin for Topical Administration, a Phototoxic vs. Photoprotective Potential in a Tiered Strategy Assessed by In Vitro Methods
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9040328 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Fucoxanthin possesses a well-described antioxidant activity that might be useful for human skin photoprotection. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding its properties when applied onto human skin. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the photoprotective and [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin possesses a well-described antioxidant activity that might be useful for human skin photoprotection. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding its properties when applied onto human skin. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the photoprotective and phototoxicity potential of fucoxanthin based on its ultraviolet (UVB 280–320 nm; UVA 320–400 nm) and visible (VIS 400–700 nm) absorption, photostability, phototoxicity in 3T3 mouse fibroblast culture vs. full-thickness reconstructed human skin (RHS), and its ability to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation that is induced by UVA on HaCaT keratinocytes. Later, we evaluated the antioxidant properties of the sunscreen formulation plus 0.5% fucoxanthin onto RHS to confirm its bioavailability and antioxidant potential through the skin layers. The compound was isolated from the alga Desmarestia anceps. Fucoxanthin, despite presenting chemical photo-instability (dose 6 J/cm2: 35% UVA and 21% VIS absorbance reduction), showed acceptable photodegradation (dose 27.5 J/cm2: 5.8% UVB and 12.5% UVA absorbance reduction) when it was added to a sunscreen at 0.5% (w/v). In addition, it increased by 72% of the total sunscreen UV absorption spectra, presenting UV-booster properties. Fucoxanthin presented phototoxic potential in 3T3 fibroblasts (mean photo effect 0.917), but it was non-phototoxic in the RHS model due to barrier function that was provided by the stratum corneum. In addition, it showed a significant inhibition of ROS formation at 0.01% (p < 0.001), in HaCat, and in a sunscreen at 0.5% (w/v) (p < 0.001), in RHS. In conclusion, in vitro results showed fucoxanthin protective potential to the skin that might contribute to improving the photoprotective potential of sunscreens in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Rhus coriaria L. Fruit Extract Prevents UV-A-Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Injury in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9040292 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is a small plant widely diffused in the Mediterranean region. Its fruit are often consumed as a spice but are also present in traditional medicine of several countries. Recently, interest in this plant has increased and many scientific works [...] Read more.
Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is a small plant widely diffused in the Mediterranean region. Its fruit are often consumed as a spice but are also present in traditional medicine of several countries. Recently, interest in this plant has increased and many scientific works reported its beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Plant extracts can be successfully used against ultraviolet rays, which are able to reach and damage the human skin; however, sumac extracts were never applied to this usage. Thus, in this study, we used a macerated ethanol extract of Rhus coriaria L. dried fruit (mERC) to demonstrate its preventive role against the damage induced by ultraviolet-A rays (UV-A) on microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In vitro effects of the extract pre-treatment and UV-A exposure were evaluated in detail. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant activity measurement. Genoprotective effects of mERC were investigated as well. Our findings indicate that the extract acts as a cell cycle inhibitor or apoptosis inducer, according to the level of damage. The present work provides new insights into the usage of Rhus coriaria extracts against skin injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Effects of Microwave-Assisted Opuntia humifusa Extract in Inhibiting the Impacts of Particulate Matter on Human Keratinocyte Skin Cell
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9040271 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important factors causing serious skin diseases, due to its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) over the course of long-term exposure. As a source of natural antioxidants, Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) is a [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important factors causing serious skin diseases, due to its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) over the course of long-term exposure. As a source of natural antioxidants, Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) is a potential candidate for the design of advanced formulations to prevent PM’s harmful effects. Unfortunately, its high viscosity does not allow it to be utilized in these formulations. In this present study, a new approach to the extract of O. humifusa using high-power microwave treatment, namely microwave-assisted O. humifusa extract (MA-OHE), was investigated. The results indicated that MA-OHE not only is a reasonable viscosity extract, but also enhances O. humifusa’s antioxidant properties. Additionally, this study also found that MA-OHE exhibited outstanding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in eliminating PM’s effects, due to suppression of AhR degradation, ROS production, and COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes. It is believed that MA-OHE is a potential cosmeceutical ingredient that could be utilized to prevent PM-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Rosemary Diterpenes and Flavanone Aglycones Provide Improved Genoprotection against UV-Induced DNA Damage in a Human Skin Cell Model
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9030255 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Overexposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major cause of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancers. UVB radiation (290–320 nm) causes multiple forms of DNA damage, p53 induction, protein and lipid oxidation, and the generation of harmful [...] Read more.
Overexposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major cause of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancers. UVB radiation (290–320 nm) causes multiple forms of DNA damage, p53 induction, protein and lipid oxidation, and the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, botanicals containing polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as skin photoprotective agents have emerged. This study evaluated the protective effects of two formulations against UVB-induced damage in a skin cell model. One of the formulations (F2) contained a combination of citrus and olive extracts and the other one (F1) also contained a rosemary extract. The antioxidant capacity of both formulations was estimated by different in vitro methods, and the cell viability, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and DNA damage were studied in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes. Both formulations exerted photoprotective effects on skin cells and decreased mitochondrial depolarization and DNA damage. F1 which contained iridoids, rosemary diterpenes, glycosides and aglycones of citrus flavanones, and monohydroxylated flavones exhibited higher cellular photoprotective effects and mitochondrial membrane potential restoration, as well as an enhanced capacity to decrease DNA double strand breaks and the DNA damage response. In contrast, F2, which contained mostly iridoids, citrus flavanone aglycones, and mono- and dihydroxylated flavones, exhibited a higher capacity to decrease intracellular ROS generation and radical scavenging capacity related to metal ion chelation. Both formulations showed a similar capability to decrease the number of apoptotic cells upon UVB radiation. Based on our results and those of others, we postulate that the stronger capacity of F1 to protect against UVB-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes is related to the presence of rosemary diterpenes and citrus flavanone aglycones. Nevertheless, the presence of the dihydroxylated flavones in F2 may contribute to inhibiting the generation of metal-related free radicals. To confirm the efficacy of these formulations as potential candidates for oral/topical photoprotection, human trials are required to circumvent the limitations of the cellular model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Germinated Riceberry Rice Enhanced Protocatechuic Acid and Vanillic Acid to Suppress Melanogenesis through Cellular Oxidant-Related Tyrosinase Activity in B16 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9030247 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The anti-melanogenic bioactivities of phytophenolic compounds have been well recognized. Riceberry rice contains a rich source of phenolic compounds that act as melanin inhibitors through their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties. Germination has been shown to be an effective process to improve targeted phenolic [...] Read more.
The anti-melanogenic bioactivities of phytophenolic compounds have been well recognized. Riceberry rice contains a rich source of phenolic compounds that act as melanin inhibitors through their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties. Germination has been shown to be an effective process to improve targeted phenolic compounds. In this study, germinated riceberry rice extract was tested for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was determined while the tyrosinase inhibitory effect was screened by the in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. Cytotoxicity of germinated riceberry rice extract was investigated in B16 cells before evaluating its activities on cellular tyrosinase, melanogenesis, melanin excretion, morphological appearance, and cellular oxidants. Germinated riceberry rice extract showed increased potency of antioxidants and was also twice as effective for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition when compared with ungerminated riceberry rice extract. In B16 cells, the extract inhibited cellular tyrosinase, melanogenesis, and cellular oxidants in a dose-dependent manner when compared with untreated cells. Germinated riceberry rice extract also displayed an effect on B16 cells morphology by reducing the number of melanin- containing cells and their dendriticity. Additionally, the germination of riceberry rice dominantly enhanced two phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, which have the potential for antioxidant-associated hyperpigmentation control. Thus, the restricted germination of riceberry rice tended to promote protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, which dominantly displayed antioxidants and tyrosinase-related melanogenic inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
The Possibility of Using Genotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Blood Biomarkers to Predict the Occurrence of Late Cutaneous Side Effects after Radiotherapy
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9030220 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Despite the progresses performed in the field of radiotherapy, toxicity to the healthy tissues remains a major limiting factor. The aim of this work was to highlight blood biomarkers whose variations could predict the occurrence of late cutaneous side effects. Two groups of [...] Read more.
Despite the progresses performed in the field of radiotherapy, toxicity to the healthy tissues remains a major limiting factor. The aim of this work was to highlight blood biomarkers whose variations could predict the occurrence of late cutaneous side effects. Two groups of nine patients treated for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) were established according to the grade of late skin toxicity after adjuvant irradiation for MCC: grade 0, 1 or 2 and grade 3 or 4 of RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group)/EORTC (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer). To try to discriminate these 2 groups, biomarkers of interest were measured on the different blood compartments after ex vivo irradiation. In lymphocytes, cell cycle, apoptosis and genotoxicity were studied. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the determination of the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced and oxidized glutathione) as well as degradation products (protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation). Inflammation was assessed in the plasma by the measurement of 14 cytokines. The most radiosensitive patients presented a decrease in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione and carbonyls; and an increase in TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor α), IL-8 (Interleukin 8) and TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor β1) levels. These findings have to be confirmed on a higher number of patients and before radiotherapy and could allow to predict the occurrence of late skin side effects after radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Fragaria vesca L. Extract: A Promising Cosmetic Ingredient with Antioxidant Properties
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9020154 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Fragaria vesca L. (F. vesca), popularly known as wild strawberry, is a plant from the Rosaceae family, found in temperate and subtropical areas of the northern hemisphere. F. vesca leaves have been shown to have antiseptic, emollient, and dermatological protection properties, [...] Read more.
Fragaria vesca L. (F. vesca), popularly known as wild strawberry, is a plant from the Rosaceae family, found in temperate and subtropical areas of the northern hemisphere. F. vesca leaves have been shown to have antiseptic, emollient, and dermatological protection properties, due to the presence of bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In this study, a F. vesca extract was obtained by an optimized extraction process, and was characterized by HPLC, ROS scavenging activity, cytotoxicity assays in HaCaT cells, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity determination. The most active extract was then incorporated in a hydrogel with hydroxyethylcellulose at 2% (w/w), which was characterized at the physicochemical, stability, cytotoxicity, and ROS scavenging activity levels to evaluate its quality, safety, and efficacy. In vivo studies, human repeat insult patch testing, and an assay to determine their antioxidant efficacy, were also performed. The results showed that the Fragaria vesca extracts had antioxidant activity and that the F. vesca extract-based hydrogel exhibited cutaneous compatibility, acceptability and antioxidant efficacy, being stable, and suitable for topical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
1,2-Bis[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethane-1,2-Dicarboxylic Acid Reduces UVB-Induced Photodamage In Vitro and In Vivo
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox8100452 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of 1,2-bis[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (S4), a sesamin derivative, on anti-inflammation and antiphotoaging in vitro and in vivo. Human skin fibroblasts were treated with S4 and did not show cytotoxicity under concentrations of 5–50 µM. In addition, S4 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of 1,2-bis[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (S4), a sesamin derivative, on anti-inflammation and antiphotoaging in vitro and in vivo. Human skin fibroblasts were treated with S4 and did not show cytotoxicity under concentrations of 5–50 µM. In addition, S4 also reduced ultraviolet (UV)B-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, S4 inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) overexpression. Furthermore, S4 also inhibited UVB-induced Smad7 protein expression and elevated total collagen content in human dermal fibroblasts. For anti-inflammatory activity, S4 inhibited UVB-induced nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression and inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB) translocation into the nucleus. S4 ameliorated UVB-induced erythema and wrinkle formation in hairless mice. On histological observation, S4 also ameliorated UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia and collagen degradation. S4 reduced UVB-induced MMP-1, interleukin (IL)-6, and NF-ĸB expression in the mouse skin. The results indicated that S4 had antiphotoaging and anti-inflammatory activities, protecting skin from premature aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Hydroxytyrosyl Oleate: Improved Extraction Procedure from Olive Oil and By-Products, and In Vitro Antioxidant and Skin Regenerative Properties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox8070233 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Recently, we identified hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle) in the by-products of olive oil, pomace and olive mill waste water (OMWW). Herein, we report that HtyOle is more accurately quantified by extracting the phenolic fraction from both matrices by using aqueous methanol (80%). By applying [...] Read more.
Recently, we identified hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle) in the by-products of olive oil, pomace and olive mill waste water (OMWW). Herein, we report that HtyOle is more accurately quantified by extracting the phenolic fraction from both matrices by using aqueous methanol (80%). By applying this method, HtyOle was also detected in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Since olive oil is used in the preparation of many cosmetic formulations, we explored the antioxidant capacity of HtyOle in human keratinocytes. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as activity of Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were decreased by HtyOle. In addition to that, microRNAs (miRs) involved in both redox status balance and skin regeneration potential were also tested. The following miRs, hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-29a, were increased while has-miR-34a was not affected by HtyOle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Article
Sesamol Inhibited Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Hyperpigmentation and Damage in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox8070207 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Melanin is synthesized through a series of oxidative reactions initiated with tyrosine and catalyzed by melanogenesis-related proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), dopachrome tautomerase (TRP-2), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Our previous study demonstrated that sesamol inhibited melanin synthesis through the inhibition [...] Read more.
Melanin is synthesized through a series of oxidative reactions initiated with tyrosine and catalyzed by melanogenesis-related proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), dopachrome tautomerase (TRP-2), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Our previous study demonstrated that sesamol inhibited melanin synthesis through the inhibition of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R)/MITF/tyrosinase pathway in B16F10 cells. In this study, sesamol was applied to C57BL/6 mouse skin to understand its activity with respect to skin pigmentation. The results indicated that ultraviolet (UV) B-induced hyperpigmentation in the C57BL/6 mouse skin was significantly reduced by topical application of sesamol for 4 weeks. Sesamol reduced the melanin index and melanin content of the skin. In addition, sesamol elevated the brightness (L* value) of the skin. Sesamol also reduced UVB-induced hyperplasia of epidermis and collagen degradation in dermis. In immunohistochemical staining, topical application of sesamol reduced UVB-induced tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF expression in the epidermis of the skin. These results demonstrated that sesamol is a potent depigmenting agent in the animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Review

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Review
Collagen Hydrolysates for Skin Protection: Oral Administration and Topical Formulation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9020181 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5100
Abstract
Antioxidants are molecules that delay or inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Its use significantly increased in recent years in the diet of people. Natural antioxidants are replacing the use of synthetic antioxidant ingredients due to their safety, nutritional, and therapeutic values. Hydrolyzed [...] Read more.
Antioxidants are molecules that delay or inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Its use significantly increased in recent years in the diet of people. Natural antioxidants are replacing the use of synthetic antioxidant ingredients due to their safety, nutritional, and therapeutic values. Hydrolyzed collagen (HC) is a popular ingredient considered to be an antioxidant. This low molecular weight protein has been widely utilized due to its excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. It is a safe cosmetic biomaterial with good moisturizing properties on the skin. The antioxidant properties of HC are conditioned to the size of the molecule: the lower the molecular weight of peptides, the greater the ability to donate an electron or hydrogen to stabilize radicals. The antioxidant capacity of HC is mostly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide. The exact mechanism of peptides acting as antioxidants is not clearly known but some aromatic amino acids and histidine are reported to play an important role in the antioxidant activity. Oral ingestion of HC increases the levels of collagen-derived peptides in the blood torrent and improves the skin properties such as elasticity, skin moisture, and transepidermal water loss. Additionally, daily intakes of HC protect the skin against UV melasma, enhances the fibroblast production and extracellular matrix of the skin. HC has been identified as a safe cosmetic ingredient for topical formulations with good moisturizing properties at the stratum corneum layer of the skin. It reduces the effects of skin aging (dryness, laxity, and wrinkles). The use of HC as a principal ingredient in safe formulations for skin protection was reviewed and compared when it is used by topical and/or oral administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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