Special Issue "Antioxidants and Skin Protection II"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Extraction and Industrial Applications of Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Enrique Barrajon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vicente Micol
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnologia Sanitaria at Miguel Hernández University, Elche, Spain
Interests: natural compounds; polyphenols; metabolic disorders; obesity; cancer; antimicrobial; skin; cosmetics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. María Herranz-López
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnologia Sanitaria at Miguel Hernández University, Elche, Spain
Interests: metabolic disorders; inflammation; bioactive compounds; cancer; cell death
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Currently, society has an increasing interest in skin care products based on natural products and/or extracts. Natural products have several advantages over synthetic compounds that make them more attractive to the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, as society assumes that synthetic compounds can have harmful effects. In fact, natural products have a long history of use for skin benefits and have been used since ancient times.

After the first volume of the Special Issue about “Antioxidants and Skin Protection”, the aim of this new volume is to deepen in the use of natural compounds to treat or prevent skin alterations, including aging.

Manuscript related to the development of cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, or nutraceuticals are also within the scope of this Special Issue when they include natural compounds in their formula.

Studies using whole natural extracts or complex mixtures are also welcome if they include a clear characterization of their components using analytical techniques.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue, we cordially invite researchers from all around the world to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles and review papers according to their expertise.

Dr. Enrique Barrajon
Prof. Dr. Vicente Micol
Prof. María Herranz-López
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Polyphenolic extracts
  • Natural extracts
  • Natural compounds
  • Inflammation
  • Skin aging
  • Photodamage
  • Photoaging
  • Cosmetics
  • Topical formulation
  • Oral administration
  • Nutraceuticals

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Topically Applied Taurine Chloramine Protects against UVB-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Mouse Skin
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 867; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10060867 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Excessive exposure to solar light, especially its UV component, is a principal cause of photoaging, dermatitis, and photocarcinogenesis. In searching for candidate substances that can effectively protect the skin from photodamage, the present study was conducted with taurine chloramine (TauCl), formed from taurine [...] Read more.
Excessive exposure to solar light, especially its UV component, is a principal cause of photoaging, dermatitis, and photocarcinogenesis. In searching for candidate substances that can effectively protect the skin from photodamage, the present study was conducted with taurine chloramine (TauCl), formed from taurine in phagocytes recruited to inflamed tissue. Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB) of 180 mJ/cm2 intensity caused oxidative damage and apoptotic cell death in the murine epidermis. These events were blunted by topically applied TauCl, as evidenced by the lower level of 4-hydroxynonenal-modified protein, reduced proportions of TUNEL-positive epidermal cells, and suppression of caspase-3 cleavage. In addition, the expression of two prototypic inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and transcription of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnf, Il6, Il1b, Il10) were significantly lower in TauCl-treated mice than vehicle-treated control mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of TauCl was associated with inhibition of STAT3 activation and induction of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, through activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Haplopine Ameliorates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice and TNF-α/IFN-γ-Induced Inflammation in Human Keratinocyte
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050806 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of haplopine, which is one of the active components in D. dasycarpus. Haplopine (12.5 and 25 μM) inhibited the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF, and G-CSF and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of haplopine, which is one of the active components in D. dasycarpus. Haplopine (12.5 and 25 μM) inhibited the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF, and G-CSF and the protein expressions of IL-6 and GM-CSF in TNF-α/INF-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells. In H2O2-induced Jukat T cells, haplopine (25 and 50 μM) suppressed the productions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and COX-2) and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of oxidative stress defense enzymes (SOD, CAT, and HO-1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, haplopine significantly attenuated the development of AD symptoms in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-stimulated Balb/c mice, as evidenced by reduced clinical dermatitis scores, skin thickness measurements, mast cell infiltration, and serum IgE concentrations. These findings demonstrate that haplopine should be considered a novel anti-atopic agent with the potential to treat AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Therapeutic Effects of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus with High Antioxidative Activity Against UV-Induced Photoaging of NHDF Cells and Nude Mice
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 791; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050791 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extracts of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (MED) against UV-induced photoaging, we assessed for alterations in the antioxidant activity, anti-apoptotic effects, ECM modulation, skin appearances, and anti-inflammatory response in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells and nude mice [...] Read more.
To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extracts of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (MED) against UV-induced photoaging, we assessed for alterations in the antioxidant activity, anti-apoptotic effects, ECM modulation, skin appearances, and anti-inflammatory response in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells and nude mice orally treated with MED. High levels of tannin content and high free radical scavenging activity to DPPH were determined in MED, while seven active components, namely, gallic acid, bergenin, ellagic acid, ε-viniferin, asiatic acid, oleanolic acid, and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid, were identified using LC–MS analyses. UV-induced alterations in the NO concentration, SOD activity, and Nrf2 expression were remarkably recovered in MED-treated NHDF cells. Moreover, the decreased number of apoptotic cells and G2/M phase arrest were observed in the UV + MED-treated groups. Similar recoveries were detected for β-galactosidase, MMP-2/9 expression, and intracellular elastase activity. Furthermore, MED treatment induced suppression of the COX-2-induced iNOS mediated pathway, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and inflammasome activation in UV-radiated NHDF cells. The anti-photoaging effects observed in NHDF cells were subsequently evaluated and validated in UV + MED-treated nude mice through skin phenotypes and histopathological structure analyses. Taken together, these results indicate that MED exerts therapeutic effects against UV-induced photoaging and has the potential for future development as a treatment for photoaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Protective Effect of Anthocyanin-Enriched Polyphenols from Hibiscus syriacus L. (Malvaceae) against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10040584 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Anthocyanin-enriched polyphenols from the flower petals of H. syriacus L. (Malvaceae, AHs) possess anti-septic shock, anti-oxidant, and anti-melanogenic properties. However, whether AHs positively or negatively regulate ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated photoaging and photodamage remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin-enriched polyphenols from the flower petals of H. syriacus L. (Malvaceae, AHs) possess anti-septic shock, anti-oxidant, and anti-melanogenic properties. However, whether AHs positively or negatively regulate ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated photoaging and photodamage remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of AHs against UVB-induced damage. We examined the photoprotective effects of AHs on UVB-induced apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). AHs prevented UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by inhibiting caspase activation and ROS production. Moreover, AHs restored the survival rate and the hatchability of UVB-irradiated zebrafish larvae without any abnormalities. Furthermore, AHs inhibited UVB-induced ER stress, resulting in a decrease in mtROS production via the stabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that AHs inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis by downregulating total cytosolic ROof cytosolic CaS and ER-mediated mitoROS production in both HaCaT keratinocytes and zebrafish larvae. These findings provide evidence for the applications of AHs to protect skin from UVB-induced photodamage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Effects of Natural Antioxidants on Phospholipid and Ceramide Profiles of 3D-Cultured Skin Fibroblasts Exposed to UVA or UVB Radiation
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10040578 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the primary factors responsible for disturbances in human skin cells phospholipid metabolism. Natural compounds that are commonly used to protect skin, due to their lipophilic or hydrophilic nature, show only a narrow range of cytoprotective activity, which [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the primary factors responsible for disturbances in human skin cells phospholipid metabolism. Natural compounds that are commonly used to protect skin, due to their lipophilic or hydrophilic nature, show only a narrow range of cytoprotective activity, which prompts research on their combined application. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of ascorbic acid and rutin on the phospholipid and ceramide profiles in UV-irradiated fibroblasts cultured in a three-dimensional system that approximates the culture conditions to the dermis. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for phospholipid and ceramide profiling. As a result of UVA and UVB cells irradiation, upregulation of phosphatidylcholines, ceramides, and downregulation of sphingomyelins were observed, while treatment with ascorbic acid and rutin of UVA/UVB-irradiated fibroblast promoted these changes to provide cells a stronger response to stress. Moreover, an upregulation of phosphatidylserines in cells exposed to UVB and treated with both antioxidants suggests the stimulation of UV-damaged cells apoptosis. Our findings provide new insight into action of rutin and ascorbic acid on regulation of phospholipid metabolism, which improves dermis fibroblast membrane properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Dieckol, an Algae-Derived Phenolic Compound, Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Its Underlying Mechanisms
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10030352 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered to be the primary environmental factor that causes skin damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of dieckol (DK), a compound isolated from the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava, against UVB-induced skin damage in human [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered to be the primary environmental factor that causes skin damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of dieckol (DK), a compound isolated from the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava, against UVB-induced skin damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cells). The results indicated that DK effectively inhibited the activity of collagenase. DK remarkably reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and improved the viability of UVB-irradiated HDF cells. Besides, DK significantly and dose-dependently improved collagen synthesis and inhibited intracellular collagenase activity in UVB-irradiated HDF cells. In addition, DK markedly reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Further analyses revealed that these processes were mediated through the regulation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the UVB-irradiated HDF cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that DK possesses strong in vitro photoprotective effects and therefore has the potential to be used as an ingredient in the cosmeceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Fucoidan Fractionated from Sargassum coreanum via Step-Gradient Ethanol Precipitation Indicate Promising UVB-Protective Effects in Human Keratinocytes
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10030347 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and receive significant attention in functional food and cosmetic research. Industrial applications of fucoidan are limited partially due to high extraction and purification costs. The present study implements an enzyme-assisted extraction and step-gradient ethanol precipitation for [...] Read more.
Fucoidans exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and receive significant attention in functional food and cosmetic research. Industrial applications of fucoidan are limited partially due to high extraction and purification costs. The present study implements an enzyme-assisted extraction and step-gradient ethanol precipitation for fractionating fucoidan from Sargassum coreanum based on its charge and molecular weight and evaluation of ultraviolet B (UVB) protective effects in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The fucoidan fraction SCOC4 indicated higher fucose and sulfate contents with Fourier-transform infrared and 1H NMR spectral patterns resembling fucoidans. SCOC4 dose-dependently abated UVB-induced keratinocyte damage via suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species, apoptotic body formation, DNA damage via suppressing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. UVB-protective effects of SCOC4 were further attributable to the augmentation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 mediated cellular antioxidant defense enzymes. Step-gradient ethanol precipitation was a convenient approach of fractionating fucoidans based on molecular weight and charge (depend on the degree of sulfation). Further evaluation of seasonal variations, biocompatibility parameters, efficacy, and shelf life may widen the use of S. coreanum fucoidans in developing UVB-protective cosmetics and functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Olive Fruit and Leaf Wastes as Bioactive Ingredients for Cosmetics—A Preliminary Study
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10020245 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Olea europaea cultivar, native in the Mediterranean basin, has expanded worldwide, mainly due to the olive oil industry. This expansion is attributed to the benefits of olive oil consumption, since this product is rich in nutritional and bioactive compounds. However, the olive industry [...] Read more.
Olea europaea cultivar, native in the Mediterranean basin, has expanded worldwide, mainly due to the olive oil industry. This expansion is attributed to the benefits of olive oil consumption, since this product is rich in nutritional and bioactive compounds. However, the olive industry generates high amounts of wastes, which could be related to polluting effects on soil and water. To minimize the environmental impact, different strategies of revalorization have been proposed. In this sense, the aim of this work was to develop high cosmetic value added oleuropein-enriched extracts (O20 and O30), a bioactive compound from olive byproducts, performing a comprehensive characterization using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluate their bioactivity by in vitro assays. A total of 49 compounds were detected, with oleuropein and its derivatives widely found in O30 extract, whereas iridoids were mainly detected in O20 extract. Moreover, 10 compounds were detected for the first time in olive leaves. Both extracts demonstrated strong antioxidant and antiradical activities, although O30 showed higher values. In addition, radical oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging and enzyme inhibition values were higher in O30, with the exception of HOCl and hyaluronidase inhibition assays. Regarding cell viability, olive byproduct extracts did not lead to a decrease in keratinocytes viability until 100 µg/mL. All data reported by the present study reflect the potential of industrial byproducts as cosmetic ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
Potential Anti-Skin Aging Effect of (-)-Catechin Isolated from the Root Bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 981; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9100981 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during skin aging, including intrinsic (chronologic aging) and extrinsic aging (photoaging). Therefore, antioxidants that inhibit ROS generation can delay skin aging. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-skin aging effect of (-)-phenolic compounds isolated from the [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during skin aging, including intrinsic (chronologic aging) and extrinsic aging (photoaging). Therefore, antioxidants that inhibit ROS generation can delay skin aging. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-skin aging effect of (-)-phenolic compounds isolated from the root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica. We preferentially investigated the possible preventive effects of isolates against the degradation of skin extracellular matrix. Among the isolates, (-)-catechin suppressed the activity of collagenase MMP-1, and reversed the degradation of collagen induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in normal human dermal fibroblast. This action mechanism of (-)-catechin was validated by the suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced accumulation of ROS and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The proinflammatory cytokines upregulate inflammatory reactions, and ultimately promote aging-related reactions. In this milieu, we demonstrated that (-)-catechin decreased the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, (-)-catechin is a candidate to ameliorate both intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Article
The Potential of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from the Brown Seaweed Ecklonia maxima in Cosmetics: Antioxidant, Anti-melanogenesis, and Photoprotective Activities
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 724; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9080724 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides prepared from marine algae are potential ingredients in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries. In the present study, the antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and photoprotective effects of sulfated polysaccharides obtained from Ecklonia maxima (EMC) were investigated to evaluate their potential in cosmetic. EMC was [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides prepared from marine algae are potential ingredients in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries. In the present study, the antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and photoprotective effects of sulfated polysaccharides obtained from Ecklonia maxima (EMC) were investigated to evaluate their potential in cosmetic. EMC was successfully prepared through Celluclast-assisted extraction and ethanol precipitation, and it contained 79.88% of sulfated polysaccharides that with 69.37% carbohydrates and 10.51% sulfate. EMC effectively suppressed 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in vitro in Vero cells and in vivo in zebrafish. Furthermore, EMC significantly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase and reduced melanin synthesis in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 cells. In addition, EMC remarkably attenuated photodamage induced by UVB irradiation in vitro in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and in vivo in zebrafish. Furthermore, EMC effectively inhibited wrinkle-related enzymes and improved collagen synthesis in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cells). These results indicate that EMC possesses strong antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and photoprotective activities, and suggest that EMC may be an ideal ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Review

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Review
Antioxidant Properties of Plant-Derived Phenolic Compounds and Their Effect on Skin Fibroblast Cells
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 726; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050726 - 05 May 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Plants are rich sources of a diverse range of chemicals, many of which have significant metabolic activity. One large group of secondary compounds are the phenolics, which act as inter alia potent reactive oxygen scavengers in cells, including fibroblasts. These common dermis residue [...] Read more.
Plants are rich sources of a diverse range of chemicals, many of which have significant metabolic activity. One large group of secondary compounds are the phenolics, which act as inter alia potent reactive oxygen scavengers in cells, including fibroblasts. These common dermis residue cells play a crucial role in the production of extracellular matrix components, such as collagen, and maintaining the integrity of connective tissue. Chronic wounds or skin exposure to UV-irradiation disrupt fibroblast function by the generation of reactive oxygen species, which may damage cell components and modify various signaling pathways. The resulting imbalance may be reversed by the antioxidant activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the impact of phenolics on fibroblast functionality under oxidative stress conditions. It examines a range of compounds in extracts from various species, as well as single specific plant-derived compounds. Phenolics are a good candidate for eliminating the causes of skin damage including wounds and aging and acting as skin care agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Review
Exploring Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) as Safe and Natural Protective Agents against UV-Induced Skin Damage
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox10050683 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Prolonged exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can induce many chronic or acute skin disorders in humans. To protect themselves, many people have started to apply cosmetic products containing UV-screening chemicals alone or together with physical sunblocks, mainly based on titanium–dioxide (TiO2 [...] Read more.
Prolonged exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can induce many chronic or acute skin disorders in humans. To protect themselves, many people have started to apply cosmetic products containing UV-screening chemicals alone or together with physical sunblocks, mainly based on titanium–dioxide (TiO2) or zinc-oxide (ZnO2). However, it has now been shown that the use of chemical and physical sunblocks is not safe for long-term application, so searches for the novel, natural UV-screening compounds derived from plants or bacteria are gaining attention. Certain photosynthetic organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria have evolved to cope with exposure to UVR by producing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These are promising substitutes for chemical sunscreens containing commercially available sunblock filters. The use of biopolymers such as chitosan for joining MAAs together or with MAA-Np (nanoparticles) conjugates will provide stability to MAAs similar to the mixing of chemical and physical sunscreens. This review critically describes UV-induced skin damage, problems associated with the use of chemical and physical sunscreens, cyanobacteria as a source of MAAs, the abundance of MAAs and their biotechnological applications. We also narrate the effectiveness and application of MAAs and MAA conjugates on skin cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Review
Antioxidants as an Epidermal Stem Cell Activator
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9100958 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Antioxidants may modulate the microenvironment of epidermal stem cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species or by regulating the expression of extracellular matrix protein. The extracellular membrane is an important component of the stem cell niche, and microRNAs regulate extracellular membrane-mediated [...] Read more.
Antioxidants may modulate the microenvironment of epidermal stem cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species or by regulating the expression of extracellular matrix protein. The extracellular membrane is an important component of the stem cell niche, and microRNAs regulate extracellular membrane-mediated basal keratinocyte proliferation. In this narrative review, we will discuss several antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, plant extracts, peptides and hyaluronic acid, and their effect on the epidermal stem cell niche and the proliferative potential of interfollicular epidermal stem cells in 3D skin equivalent models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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Review
Natural Nrf2 Modulators for Skin Protection
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 812; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox9090812 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Since the discovery of antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which are commonly found in the promoter of the Phase II metabolism/antioxidant enzymes, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the transcription factor that binds to ARE, the study conducted in this field has [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which are commonly found in the promoter of the Phase II metabolism/antioxidant enzymes, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the transcription factor that binds to ARE, the study conducted in this field has expanded remarkably over the decades, and the Nrf2-mediated pathway is now recognized to occupy a central position in cell defense mechanisms. Induction of the Phase II metabolism/antioxidant enzymes through direct activation of Nrf2 can be a promising strategy for preventing degenerative diseases in general, but a dark side of this strategy should be considered, as Nrf2 activation can enhance the survival of cancer cells. In this review, we discuss the historical discovery of Nrf2 and the regulatory mechanism of the Nrf2-mediated pathway, focusing on the interacting proteins and post-translational modifications. In addition, we discuss the latest studies that examined various natural Nrf2 modulators for the protective roles in the skin, in consideration of their dermatological and cosmetic applications. Studies are reviewed in the order of time of research as much as possible, to help understand how and why such studies were conducted under the circumstances of that time. We hope that this review can serve as a steppingstone in conducting more advanced research by providing a scientific basis for researchers newly entering this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection II)
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