Special Issue "Advancements in Biomonitoring and Remediation Treatments of Pollutants in Aquatic Environments"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Elida Nora Ferri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Interests: bioanalytical chemistry; bio and chemiluminescence; bacterial and microalgae biotoxicity tests; environmental biomonitoring by honeybees; bacterial and particulate matter air contamination; photodegradation processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface and underground aquatic ecosystems endure the effects of contamination caused by large industrial, agricultural, port activities, urbanization processes, dumping of wastes, and wastewater discharges. This high anthropogenic pressure leads to a continuous habitat deterioration and decreases the water quality in the environment. Effective remediation in aquatic systems is a major issue worldwide, since the importance of good water quality for human health, in addition to the protection of environmental equilibrium, is now a firm public conviction. For this purpose, in recent decades, great effort has been focused on the development of unconventional monitoring tools combining chemical analysis, bioassays, and genomic technologies to obtain a complete insight into pollutants and their effects on organisms, as well as in proposing active or passive remediation treatments, including nanomaterials. Nevertheless, this is not an easy challenge. Aquatic organisms of different trophic levels have diverse life strategies, metabolism pathways, and consequently, they have a different response to pollutant pressure. About 14 million chemicals are already detected and characterized, and every day, new compounds are synthesized. “Emerging” pollutants like microplastics are the subject of great interest, while others can be considered for specialized use only, such as the tons of all kinds of warfare material intentionally dumped or lost in sea. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to collect the most recent studies on both biomonitoring strategies and remediation activity effective in ensuring “good ecological status” of water.

Dr. Elida Nora Ferri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • adsorbents
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • advanced DNA technologies
  • agrochemicals residues
  • anthropogenic wastes
  • aquatic organisms
  • biomarkers
  • bioaccumulation
  • bioassays
  • bioremediation
  • biosorbents
  • chemometric analysis
  • coastal water
  • emerging pollutants
  • genotoxic and cytotoxic effects
  • groundwater pollution
  • heavy metals
  • industrial sewage sludge
  • inland water
  • microplastics
  • organic pollutants sediments
  • passive treatments
  • photodegradation
  • photocatalysts
  • pollutants extraction and analysis
  • remediation processes
  • waterfarms
  • wastewater treatments

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects of Virgin Microplastics on Growth, Intestinal Morphology and Microbiota on Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112411921 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs), classified as plastic debris less than 5 mm in size, are widely found in various aquatic environments. However, there have been few studies regarding their potential threat under aquaculture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the general health, [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs), classified as plastic debris less than 5 mm in size, are widely found in various aquatic environments. However, there have been few studies regarding their potential threat under aquaculture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the general health, intestinal morphology and microbiota of virgin polypropylene MPs (3–4 mm) on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) over a 28-d exposure period. Four groups were divided according to whether the MPs were added in water or in food. The results disproved the hypothesis that MPs expose may adversely affect the growth of fish. Largemouth bass expelled MPs with minimal harm to the organism. MPs exposure had no significant effect on the community composition or diversity of intestinal microbial, although it could partly influence intestinal morphology, and the recombination process of the intestinal microbial community. Fish may be more sensitive to answer MPs exposure in water than in feed. Proteobacteria could potentially be pathogenic bacteria phylum in fish gut when affected by MPs. This research represents an innovative attempt to investigate the impact of virgin MPs on largemouth bass using a manipulative feeding experiment. The results could provide new insight on commercial fish health when challenged with MPs pollution. Full article
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Article
In Situ Bioremediation of a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Plume: A Superfund Site Field Pilot Test
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10005; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110005 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The North Railroad Avenue Plume, discovered in 1989, contained chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes extending over 23.5 hectares (58 acres) and three hydrostratigraphic units. The source contaminant, tetrachloroethene, stemmed from release at a dry cleaner/laundromat business. The anaerobic biodegradation byproducts trichloroethene, isomers of dichloroethene [...] Read more.
The North Railroad Avenue Plume, discovered in 1989, contained chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes extending over 23.5 hectares (58 acres) and three hydrostratigraphic units. The source contaminant, tetrachloroethene, stemmed from release at a dry cleaner/laundromat business. The anaerobic biodegradation byproducts trichloroethene, isomers of dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride were detected in groundwater samples collected prior to remedial action. The impacted aquifers are the sole source drinking water aquifers for the communities near the site. Following the remedial investigation and feasibility study, the selected alternative for full-scale remedial action at the site was enhanced reductive dichlorination (ERD) focused on four treatment areas: the shallow source zone, the shallow hotspot area, the shallow downgradient area, and the deep zone. Pilot testing, which was conducted in the source zone and hotspot areas, is the subject of this paper. The primary objectives of the pilot test were to obtain the necessary information to select an ERD treatment formulation, dose, and frequency of dosing for use during full-scale remedial action, as well as to refine the site’s hydrogeologic conceptual site model and design parameters. Four (4) test cells, each of which contained well pairs of injection and downgradient extraction wells, were used to test ERD bio-amendment formulations: ethyl lactate, dairy whey, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), and a combination of EVO and a hydrogen gas infusion. A conservative tracer, bromide, was added to the recirculation flow to record tracer breakthrough, peak, and dissipation at extraction wells. The results of these dipole tracer tests were used to reassess the hydraulic conductivity and hydrodynamic dispersity used in the remedial design. In addition to water quality analyses of contaminants and substrates, groundwater samples were also analyzed for biological analyses before, during, and after the addition of bioamendment. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts from fresh groundwater samples informed decisions on the capacity for complete ERD without DCE stalling and tracked the shifts in the bacterial and archaeal taxonomy and phylogeny stemming from the addition of bioamendments. The pilot test concluded that EVO was the most suitable, considering (1) support of the native microbial consortia for ERD, (2) mechanics and hydraulics of the remediation system, and (3) sustainability/retention of the substrate in the subsurface. Along with EVO, the addition of a nutrient broth derived from brewery waste accelerated and sustained the desired conditions and microbial diversity and population levels. The pilot test results were also used to assess the utilization kinetics of the injected substrates based on total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations measured in the groundwater. After determining that substrate utilization followed Monod kinetics, a TOC threshold at 300 milligrams per liter, equivalent to approximately twice its half-saturation constant was established. Full scale treatment dosing and dose frequency were designed around this threshold, assuming the maximum substrate utilization would yield optimum ERD. Full article
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Article
Prediction and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution in a Dynamic and Complex Hydrologic Environment of an Illegal Waste Dumping Site
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11199229 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The characteristics of groundwater pollution caused by illegal waste dumping and methods for predicting and remediating it are still poorly understood. Serious 1,4-dioxane groundwater pollution—which has multiple sources—has been occurring at an illegal waste dumping site in the Tohoku region of Japan. So [...] Read more.
The characteristics of groundwater pollution caused by illegal waste dumping and methods for predicting and remediating it are still poorly understood. Serious 1,4-dioxane groundwater pollution—which has multiple sources—has been occurring at an illegal waste dumping site in the Tohoku region of Japan. So far, anti-pollution countermeasures have been taken including the installation of an impermeable wall and the excavation of soils and waste as well as the monitoring of contamination concentrations. The objective of this numerical study was to clarify the possibility of predicting pollutant transport in such dynamic and complex hydrologic environments, and to investigate the characteristics of pollutant transport under both naturally occurring and artificially induced groundwater flow (i.e., pumping for remediation). We first tried to reproduce the changes in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in groundwater observed in monitoring wells using a quasi-3D flow and transport simulation considering the multiple sources and spatiotemporal changes in hydrologic conditions. Consequently, we were able to reproduce the long-term trends of concentration changes in each monitoring well. With the predicted pollutant distribution, we conducted simulations for remediation such as pollutant removal using pumping wells. The results of the prediction and remediation simulations revealed the highly complex nature of 1,4-dioxane transport in the dumping site under both naturally occurring and artificially induced groundwater flows. The present study suggests possibilities for the prediction and remediation of pollution at illegal waste dumping sites, but further extensive studies are encouraged for better prediction and remediation. Full article
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Article
Application of Combined In Situ Chemical Reduction and Enhanced Bioremediation to Accelerate TCE Treatment in Groundwater
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11188374 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Groundwater at trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated sites lacks electron donors, which prolongs TCE’s natural attenuation process and delays treatment. Although adding electron donors, such as emulsified oil, accelerates TCE degradation, it also causes the accumulation of hazardous metabolites such as dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride [...] Read more.
Groundwater at trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated sites lacks electron donors, which prolongs TCE’s natural attenuation process and delays treatment. Although adding electron donors, such as emulsified oil, accelerates TCE degradation, it also causes the accumulation of hazardous metabolites such as dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). This study combined in situ chemical reduction using organo-iron compounds with enhanced in situ bioremediation using emulsified oil to accelerate TCE removal and minimize the accumulation of DCE and VC in groundwater. A self-made soybean oil emulsion (SOE) was used as the electron donor and was added to liquid ferrous lactate (FL), the chemical reductant. The combined in situ chemical reduction and enhanced in situ bioremediation achieved favorable results in a laboratory microcosm test and in an in situ biological field pilot test. Both tests revealed that SOE+FL accelerated TCE degradation and minimized the accumulation of DCE and VC to a greater extent than SOE alone after 160 days of observation. When FL was added in the microcosm test, the pH value decreased from 6.0 to 5.5; however, during the in situ biological pilot test, the on-site groundwater pH value did not exhibit obvious changes. Given the geology of the in situ pilot test site, the SOE+FL solution that was injected underground continued to be released for at least 90 days, suggesting that the solution’s radius of influence was at least 5 m. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Test on the Sensitivity of Freshwater and Marine Microalgae to Benzo-Sulfonamides, -Thiazoles and -Triazoles
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7800; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11177800 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The evaluation of the ecotoxicological effects of water pollutants is performed by using different aquatic organisms. The effects of seven compounds belonging to a class of widespread contaminants, the benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles, on a group of simple organisms employed in reference ISO tests [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the ecotoxicological effects of water pollutants is performed by using different aquatic organisms. The effects of seven compounds belonging to a class of widespread contaminants, the benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles, on a group of simple organisms employed in reference ISO tests on water quality (unicellular algae and luminescent bacteria) have been assessed to ascertain their suitability in revealing different contamination levels in the water, wastewater, and sediments samples. Representative compounds of benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles, and benzenesulfonamides, were tested at a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg L−1. In particular, our work was focused on the long-term effects, for which little information is up to now available. Species-specific sensitivity for any whole family of pollutants was not observed. On average, the strongest growth rate inhibition values were expressed by the freshwater Raphidocelis subcapitata and the marine Phaeodactylum tricornutum algae. R. subcapitata was the only organism for which growth was affected by most of the compounds at the lowest concentrations. The tests on the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri gave completely different results, further underlining the need for an appropriate selection of the best biosensors to be employed in biotoxicological studies. Full article
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Article
Insights into the Restoration of Tributyltin Contaminated Environments Using Marine Bacteria from Portuguese Fishing Ports
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11146411 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin chemical mainly used as biocide in marine antifouling paints. Despite the restrictions and prohibitions on its use, TBT is still an environmental problem due to its extensive application and subsequent release into the environment, being regarded as one [...] Read more.
Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin chemical mainly used as biocide in marine antifouling paints. Despite the restrictions and prohibitions on its use, TBT is still an environmental problem due to its extensive application and subsequent release into the environment, being regarded as one of the most toxic chemicals released into the marine ecosystems. Microorganisms inhabiting impacted sites are crucial for their restoration since they have developed mechanisms to tolerate and break down pollutants. Nonetheless, transformation products resulting from the degradation process may still be toxic or, sometimes, even more toxic than the parent compound. The determination of the parent and degradation products by analytical methods, although necessary, may not be ecologically relevant since no information is provided regarding their ecotoxicity. In this study, marine bacteria collected from seven Portuguese fishing ports were isolated and grown in the presence of TBT. Bacteria that exhibited higher growth were used to bioremediate TBT-contaminated waters. The potential of these bacteria as bioremediation agents was evaluated through ecotoxicological assays using the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis as model organism. Data suggested that some TBT-tolerant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas putida, can reduce the toxicity of TBT contaminated environments. This work contributes to the knowledge of TBT-degrading bacteria. Full article
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Article
Metal Bioaccumulation by Carp and Catfish Cultured in Lake Chapala, and Weekly Intake Assessment
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6087; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11136087 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Aquaculture offers great potential for fish production in Lake Chapala, but reports of heavy metal contamination in fish have identified a main concern for this activity. In the present study, cultures of the species Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus punctatus were grown in a [...] Read more.
Aquaculture offers great potential for fish production in Lake Chapala, but reports of heavy metal contamination in fish have identified a main concern for this activity. In the present study, cultures of the species Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus punctatus were grown in a net cage in Lake Chapala. The patterns of heavy metal accumulation (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, As) in muscle and liver were monitored in order to evaluate the level of metal incorporation in the fish. Estimates of weekly metal intake (EWI) were made based on the results of the concentrations in edible parts of fish of commercial size. The patterns of metal bioaccumulation between tissues and species showed that liver had a higher concentrating capacity for Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb. In contrast, similar concentrations of Hg and As were found in the liver and muscle tissue. According to the EWI estimates, the heavy metals in these cultured fish do not represent a risk for human consumption. Full article
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Article
Influencing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for the Removal of Ismate Violet 2R Dye from Wastewater: Isotherm, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4786; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11114786 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was synthesized and used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ismate violet 2R dye from contaminated water. The morphology and structure of the synthesized adsorbent were examined via the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray [...] Read more.
In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was synthesized and used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ismate violet 2R dye from contaminated water. The morphology and structure of the synthesized adsorbent were examined via the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of an MWCNT on the removal of IV2R were examined via a batch method using different factors such as pH, agitation time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and initial dye concentration. The results showed that, at the acidic pH 4, 0.08 g of an MWCNT with 10 mg L−1 at 120 min realized the favorable removal of IV2R dye using an MWCNT. Under these operation conditions, the maximum elimination efficiency for real wastewater reached 88.2%. This process benefits from the ability to remove a large amount of dye (approximately 85.9%) in as short as 10 min using 0.005 g of MWCNTs. Moreover, the investigational isotherm data were examined by different models. The equations of error functions were used in the isotherm model to show the most appropriate isotherm model. The highest adsorption capacity for the removal of the dye was 76.92 mg g−1 for the MWCNT. Moreover, the regression data indicated that the adsorption kinetics were appropriate with a pseudo-second order and an R2 of 0.999. The thermodynamic study showed that the removal of IV2R is an endothermic, spontaneous, and chemisorption process. The MWCNT compound appears to be a new, promising adsorbent in water treatment, with 91.71% regeneration after three cycles. Full article
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Article
Physico-Chemical Parameters and Health Risk Analysis of Groundwater Quality
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4775; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11114775 - 23 May 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Groundwater pollution is a very common problem worldwide, as it poses a serious threat to both the environment and the economic and social development and consequently generates several types of costs. The analysis of pollution control involves a permanent comparison between pollution costs [...] Read more.
Groundwater pollution is a very common problem worldwide, as it poses a serious threat to both the environment and the economic and social development and consequently generates several types of costs. The analysis of pollution control involves a permanent comparison between pollution costs and the costs associated with various methods of pollution reduction. An environmental policy based on economic instruments is more effective than an environmental policy focused on command and control tools. In this respect, the present paper provides a case study showing how anthropogenic factors such as wastewater, industrial, agricultural, and natural factors are able to change the physical and chemical parameters of groundwater in the study area, thus endangering their quality. In order to monitor the groundwater quality in the region of Dobrudja, an analysis of physico-chemical parameters was performed. The content of heavy metals was analyzed and the health risk index was taken into account and analyzed, in order to set a better correctness of the metal content from the underground waters. Studies on groundwater quality control have shown that, in many parts of the world, water has different degrees of quality depending on the natural and anthropogenic factors acting on the pertaining environment. This is why more attention should be paid to the prevention of groundwater pollution and the immediate remediation of accidents. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Multivariate Biomarker Indexes Application in Ecotoxicity Tests with Marine Diatoms Exposed to Emerging Contaminants
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3878; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11093878 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
Worldwide anthropogenic activities result in the production and release of potentially damaging toxic pollutants into ecosystems, thereby jeopardizing their health and continuity. Research studies and biomonitoring programs attend to this emerging problematic by applying and developing statistically relevant indexes that integrate complex biomarker [...] Read more.
Worldwide anthropogenic activities result in the production and release of potentially damaging toxic pollutants into ecosystems, thereby jeopardizing their health and continuity. Research studies and biomonitoring programs attend to this emerging problematic by applying and developing statistically relevant indexes that integrate complex biomarker response data to provide a holistic approach, reflecting toxically induced alterations at the organism or population level. Ultimately, indexes allow simple result communications, enhancing policy makers understanding, and contributing to better resource and environmental managing policies. In this study three indexes, the integrated biomarker response index (IBR), the bioeffects assessment index (BAI) and principal components analysis (PCA), were evaluated for their sensitivity in revealing toxically induced stress patterns in cells of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under contaminant exposure. The set of biomarkers selected for index construction comprised the anti-oxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD, and the lipid peroxidation marker TBARS. Several significant correlations with the applied concentration gradients were noticed for all indexes, although IBR excelled for its reliability in delivering statistically significant dose-response patterns for four out of the five tested compounds. Full article
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Article
A Simple Device for the On-Site Photodegradation of Pesticide Mixes Remnants to Avoid Environmental Point Pollution
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083593 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
The worldwide increase in the number and use of agrochemicals impacts nearby soil and freshwater ecosystems. Beyond the excess in applications and dosages, the inadequate management of remnants and the rinsing water of containers and application equipment worsen this problem, creating point sources [...] Read more.
The worldwide increase in the number and use of agrochemicals impacts nearby soil and freshwater ecosystems. Beyond the excess in applications and dosages, the inadequate management of remnants and the rinsing water of containers and application equipment worsen this problem, creating point sources of pollution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photocatalytic and photo-oxidation processes have been successfully applied in degrading organic pollutants. We developed a simple prototype to be used at farms for quickly degrading pesticides in water solutions by exploiting a UV–H2O2-mediated AOP. As representative compounds, we selected the insecticide imidacloprid, the herbicide terbuthylazine, and the fungicide azoxystrobin, all in their commercial formulation. The device efficiency was investigated through the disappearance of the parent molecule and the degree of mineralization. The toxicity of the pesticide solutions, before and during the treatment, was assessed by Vibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata inhibition assays. The results obtained have demonstrated a cost-effective, viable alternative for detoxifying the pesticide solutions before their disposal into the environment, even though the compounds, or their photoproducts, showed different sensitivities to physicochemical degradation. The bioassays revealed changes in the inhibitory effects on the organisms in agreement with the analytical data. Full article
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Article
Human Health Impact Analysis of Contaminant in IoT-Enabled Water Distributed Networks
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083394 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
This paper aims to assess and analyze the health impact of consuming contaminated drinking water in a water distributed system (WDS). The analysis was based on qualitative simulation performed in two different models named hydraulic and water quality in a WDS. The computation [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess and analyze the health impact of consuming contaminated drinking water in a water distributed system (WDS). The analysis was based on qualitative simulation performed in two different models named hydraulic and water quality in a WDS. The computation focuses on quantitative analysis for chemically contaminated water impacts by analyzing the dose level in various locations in the water network and the mass of the substance that entered the human body. Several numerical experiments have been applied to evaluate the impact of water pollution on human life. They analyzed the impact on human life according to various factors, including the location of the injected node (pollution occurrence) and the ingested dose level. The results show a significant impact of water contaminant on human life in multiple areas in the water network, and the level of this impact changed from one location to another in WDSs based on several factors such as the location of the pollution occurrence, the contaminant concentration, and the dose level. In order to reduce the impact of this contaminant, water quality sensors have been used and deployed on the water network to help detect this contaminant. The sensors were optimally deployed based on the time-detection of water contamination and the volume of polluted water consumed. Numerical experiments were carried out to compare water pollution’s impact with and without using water quality sensors. The results show that the health impact was reduced by up to 98.37% by using water quality sensors. Full article
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Article
TiO2-Photocatalyzed Water Depollution, a Strong, yet Selective Depollution Method: New Evidence from the Solar Light Induced Degradation of Glucocorticoids in Freshwaters
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11062486 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
The photodegradation of the most prescribed glucocorticoids (GCs) was studied under relevant environmental conditions in the presence of suspended TiO2. The considered drugs included cortisone (CORT), hydrocortisone (HCORT), betamethasone (BETA), dexamethasone (DEXA), prednisone (PRED), prednisolone (PREDLO), and triamcinolone (TRIAM). The experiments [...] Read more.
The photodegradation of the most prescribed glucocorticoids (GCs) was studied under relevant environmental conditions in the presence of suspended TiO2. The considered drugs included cortisone (CORT), hydrocortisone (HCORT), betamethasone (BETA), dexamethasone (DEXA), prednisone (PRED), prednisolone (PREDLO), and triamcinolone (TRIAM). The experiments were carried out at concentrations (50 µg L−1) close to the real ones in freshwater samples (tap and river) under simulated and natural sunlight, and their decomposition took place very efficiently under natural sunlight. The reactions were monitored by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). According to a pseudo-first-order decay, all drugs underwent degradation within 15 min, following different paths with respect to the direct photolysis. The observed kinetic constants, slightly lower in river than in tap water, varied from 0.29 to 0.61 min−1 with modest differences among GCs in the same matrix. Among main matrix macro-constituents, humic acids (HAs) were the most interfering species involved in GCs degradation. The photogenerated primary products were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, allowing to elucidate the general photochemical path of GCs. Finally, a comparison with literature data obtained using different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) highlights the treatment efficiency with TiO2/solar light for removing such persistent aquatic contaminants. Full article
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Article
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Methiocarb Electrochemical Oxidation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10217435 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
The ecotoxicity of methiocarb aqueous solutions treated by electrochemical oxidation was evaluated utilizing the model organism Daphnia magna. The electrodegradation experiments were performed using a boron-doped diamond anode and the influence of the applied current density and the supporting electrolyte (NaCl or [...] Read more.
The ecotoxicity of methiocarb aqueous solutions treated by electrochemical oxidation was evaluated utilizing the model organism Daphnia magna. The electrodegradation experiments were performed using a boron-doped diamond anode and the influence of the applied current density and the supporting electrolyte (NaCl or Na2SO4) on methiocarb degradation and toxicity reduction were assessed. Electrooxidation treatment presented a remarkable efficiency in methiocarb complete degradation and a high potential for reducing the undesirable ecological effects of this priority substance. The reaction rate followed first-order kinetics in both electrolytes, being more favorable in a chloride medium. In fact, the presence of chloride increased the methiocarb removal rate and toxicity reduction and favored nitrogen removal. A 200× reduction in the acute toxicity towards D. magna, from 370.9 to 1.6 toxic units, was observed for the solutions prepared with NaCl after 5 h treatment at 100 A m−2. An increase in the applied current density led to an increase in toxicity towards D. magna of the treated solutions. At optimized experimental conditions, electrooxidation offers a suitable solution for the treatment and elimination of undesirable ecological effects of methiocarb contaminated industrial or agricultural wastewaters, ensuring that this highly hazardous pesticide is not transferred to the aquatic environment. Full article
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