Special Issue "Climate Change Impact on Viticulture and Potential Adaptation Strategies"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Daniel Molitor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Belvaux, Luxembourg
Interests: viticulture; climate change impact; climate change adaptation; grape diseases; phenology
Prof. Dr. Joao Carlos Andrade dos Santos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: climate variability and extremes; climate change projections; impact and risk assessment on agriculture and forests
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Grapevines are representing an economically important crop in many parts of the world. Since grapevines are highly sensitive towards changes in climatic conditions, projected climate change is supposed to significantly alter grapevine physiology as well as wine typicity and, consequently, have an impact on the economic status of the viticultural sector.

The current Special Issue focuses on the impact of climatic conditions, such as temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration, extreme weather events/constellations, as well as of climate change on viticulture (including wine and table grapes) and enology, including grape physiology, grape nutrition, grape phenology, vineyard terroir, wine styles, and wine typicity. Furthermore, manuscripts dealing with potential adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change, covering, e.g., vineyard site selection, selection of planting material, alternative training systems, crop cultural measures, irrigation, and enological measures, are highly invited.

In addition, Clim4Vitis (Climate Change Impact Mitigation for European Viticulture) is a three-year Horizon 2020 project funded by the European Union Research and Innovation programme. Coordinated by UTAD (Portugal), with the support of PIK (Germany), UNIFI (Italy), LIST (Luxembourg) and SPI (Portugal), the project aims to encourage S&T capacity and performance in grapevine modelling with a vision to implement methods and tools for assessing climate change impacts on European viticulture. First edition of the project Newsletter can be found here.

In July 2019, Clim4Vitis became an affiliated project to the journal Applied Sciences. As part of this collaboration, all affiliated Clim4Vitis members are highly welcome to published articles in Applied Sciences, to Special Issue “Climate Change Impact on Viticulture and Potential Adaptation Strategies”.

Dr. Daniel Molitor
Prof. Joao Carlos Andrade dos Santos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • climate change impact
  • climate change adaptation
  • viticulture
  • climate modeling
  • crop modeling
  • wine style
  • wine typicity
  • terroir

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Impact of Different Yield Regulation Approaches on Vegetative and Generative Development, Maturity Progress and Grape Quality in Riesling
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083304 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 540
Abstract
The training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) blends features of traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning-type (VSP) trellising systems with the concept of minimal pruning. While saving labor, this training system results in relatively high crop load and a poor leaf area to fruit weight-ratio (LFR), [...] Read more.
The training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) blends features of traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning-type (VSP) trellising systems with the concept of minimal pruning. While saving labor, this training system results in relatively high crop load and a poor leaf area to fruit weight-ratio (LFR), and thus, needs to be able to ripen grapes in a cool to moderate climate. For these reasons the impact of yield regulation strategies, including (i) shoot thinning (Darwin-Rotor), (ii) biotechnological thinning (Gibberellic acid), and (iii) bunch thinning (harvest machine) were trialed in a three year study at Geisenheim, Germany between 2017 and 2019 using Riesling (Vitis vinifera L.). The average yield per vine in SMPH (5.34 ± 1.10 kg) was 61.1% higher with a narrower LFR (14.01 cm2 g−1), compared with VSP (3.32 ± 1.02 kg, LFR: 16.99 cm2 g−1). The yield was successfully reduced and LFR simultaneously increased with shoot thinning (−33.1%, LFR: 19.04 cm2 g−1), biotechnological thinning (−18.3%, LFR: 16.69 cm2 g−1) and bunch thinning (−37.3%, LFR: 21.49 cm2 g−1). Ripening was delayed in SMPH. On average, two maturity thresholds (14.1 °Brix and 18.2 °Brix) were achieved 129 GDD (seven days according to the recorded daily mean temperatures, respectively) and 269 GDD (16 days) later in non-thinned SMPH, compared to VSP. All thinning treatments accelerated maturity progress ranging from 27 GDD (two days) to 58 GDD (three days) for 14.1 °Brix and 59 GDD (three days) to 105 GDD (six days) for 18.2 °Brix. Apart from immediate benefits on the economic efficiency, the adaption of the leaf area to fruit weight ratio using SMPH holds high potential to, (i) produce grapes targeting specific wine profiles and/or (ii) reducing the velocity of ripening under conditions of climatic change. Full article
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Communication
Natural Genetic Variation for Grapevine Phenology as a Tool for Climate Change Adaptation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5573; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10165573 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Grapevine phenology is being modified by climate change, particularly by the increase of temperatures that affect grape attributes for wine production. Besides the existing oenological and viticultural approaches, the thorough exploration of the current intra-cultivar genetic variability to select late-ripening genotypes emerges as [...] Read more.
Grapevine phenology is being modified by climate change, particularly by the increase of temperatures that affect grape attributes for wine production. Besides the existing oenological and viticultural approaches, the thorough exploration of the current intra-cultivar genetic variability to select late-ripening genotypes emerges as an interesting alternative. In the present work, we have analyzed the natural genetic variation for phenology and agronomic traits among 21 ‘Malbec’ clones and we demonstrated that fruiting cuttings are a useful tool for the analysis of such variation in ‘Malbec’. Several clones could be distinguished by agronomic traits like berry number or cluster weight, and mainly by phenology characteristics like the length of the phase between flowering and veraison, which reached more than 16 days between early and late clones. These results support the approach of exploring grapevine clone collections in searching for genotypes with delayed phenology, and thus with the potential to maintain some expected quality characteristics under warm conditions. Full article
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Article
The Interplay between Atmospheric Conditions and Grape Berry Quality Parameters in Portugal
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4943; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10144943 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The atmospheric conditions are a strong modulator of grape berry composition, but further research is required to better understand this relationship, which is particularly pertinent under the context of climate change. The present study assesses the relationship between interannual variability in atmospheric conditions [...] Read more.
The atmospheric conditions are a strong modulator of grape berry composition, but further research is required to better understand this relationship, which is particularly pertinent under the context of climate change. The present study assesses the relationship between interannual variability in atmospheric conditions (mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures and precipitation totals) on grape berry quality attributes in three main Portuguese wine regions—Douro, Dão and Alentejo—and targets two major varieties growing in Portugal (cv. Touriga Nacional and cv. Aragonez/Tempranillo). Berry weight, titratable acidity (TA), pH, potential alcohol (PA), anthocyanins and total phenols index (TPI) data, collected two to three weeks after the end of the veraison until technological maturity, since 1999 in Douro, 2004 in Alentejo and 2008 in Dão, were selected. Meteorological data were obtained from both automatic weather stations and a climatic database defined at a very-high-resolution grid (<1 km) (PTHRES). The influence of daily mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures (November–October) and precipitation totals (April to June and July to September) on the above-mentioned berry quality parameters were first explored to identify the months/periods more influential to grape berry composition. Different statistical approaches were subsequently carried out to explore in greater detail these relationships. At technological maturity, temperature was negatively correlated to berry weight, titratable acidity, anthocyanins and TPI, but was positively correlated to pH and potential alcohol. Moreover, lowest levels of berry weight and TA (and highest levels of pH) were more frequent in warmer regions, while the opposite was seen in the cooler regions. PA, TPI and anthocyanins at maturity did not show a clear trend across regions. In addition, the maturation parameters of each site were grouped into two clusters—years where the maturation parameter is higher (cluster 1) and years where it is lower (cluster 2)—and significant differences in monthly mean temperatures between clusters were found. Overall, temperatures at veraison and maturation periods (June–August) were more influential in determining grape berry composition at harvest. The influence of precipitation was dependent on location and variety. The results also suggested that berry composition in Alentejo is more sensitive to atmospheric variability, while Aragonez seems more resilient than Touriga Nacional. These outcomes are based on a systematized and unprecedentedly large grape berry quality database in Portugal and provided the grounds for the development of grape quality forecast models, either to be used operationally in each vintage or for assessing potential modifications in berry composition in response to changing climates. Full article
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Article
Phenological Model Intercomparison for Estimating Grapevine Budbreak Date (Vitis vinifera L.) in Europe
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3800; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113800 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Budbreak date in grapevine is strictly dependent on temperature, and the correct simulation of its occurrence is of great interest since it may have major consequences on the final yield and quality. In this study, we evaluated the reliability for budbreak simulation of [...] Read more.
Budbreak date in grapevine is strictly dependent on temperature, and the correct simulation of its occurrence is of great interest since it may have major consequences on the final yield and quality. In this study, we evaluated the reliability for budbreak simulation of two modeling approaches, the chilling-forcing (CF), which describes the entire dormancy period (endo- and eco-dormancy) and the forcing approach (F), which only describes the eco-dormancy. For this, we selected six phenological models that apply CF and F in different ways, which were tested on budbreak simulation of eight grapevine varieties cultivated at different latitudes in Europe. Although none of the compared models showed a clear supremacy over the others, models based on CF showed a generally higher estimation accuracy than F where fixed starting dates were adopted. In the latter models, the accurate simulation of budbreak was dependent on the selection of the starting date for forcing accumulation that changes according to the latitude, whereas CF models were independent. Indeed, distinct thermal requirements were found for the grapevine varieties cultivated in Northern and Southern Europe. This implies the need to improve modeling of the dormancy period to avoid under- or over-estimations of budbreak date under different environmental conditions. Full article
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Article
Grapevine Phenology in Four Portuguese Wine Regions: Modeling and Predictions
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10113708 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Phenological models applied to grapevines are valuable tools to assist in the decision of cultural practices related to winegrowers and winemakers. The two-parameter sigmoid phenological model was used to estimate the three main phenological stages of the grapevine development, i.e., budburst, flowering, and [...] Read more.
Phenological models applied to grapevines are valuable tools to assist in the decision of cultural practices related to winegrowers and winemakers. The two-parameter sigmoid phenological model was used to estimate the three main phenological stages of the grapevine development, i.e., budburst, flowering, and veraison. This model was calibrated and validated with phenology data for 51 grapevine varieties distributed in four wine regions in Portugal (Lisboa, Douro, Dão, and Vinhos Verdes). Meteorological data for the selected sites were also used. Hence, 153 model calibrations (51 varieties × 3 phenological stages) and corresponding parameter estimations were carried out based on an unprecedented comprehensive and systematized dataset of phenology in Portugal. For each phenological stage, the centroid of the estimated parameters was subsequently used, and three generalized sigmoid models (GSM) were constructed (budburst: d = −0.6, e = 8.6; flowering: d = −0.6, e = 13.7; veraison: d = −0.5, e = 13.2). Centroid parameters show high performance for approximately 90% of the varieties and can thereby be used instead of variety-specific parameters. Overall, the RMSE (root-mean-squared-error) is < 7 days, while the EF (efficiency coefficient) is > 0.5. Additionally, according to other studies, the predictive capacity of the models for budburst remains lower than for flowering or veraison. Furthermore, the F-forcing parameter (thermal accumulation) was evaluated for the Lisboa wine region, where the sample size is larger, and for the varieties with model efficiency equal to or greater than 0.5. A ranking and categorization of the varieties in early, intermediate, and late varieties was subsequently undertaken on the basis of F values. These results can be used to more accurately monitor and predict grapevine phenology during a given season, thus supporting decision making in the Portuguese wine sector. Full article
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Article
What Is the Impact of Heatwaves on European Viticulture? A Modelling Assessment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3030; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10093030 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Extreme heat events or heatwaves can be particularly harmful to grapevines, posing a major challenge to winegrowers in Europe. The present study is focused on the application of the crop model STICS to assess the potential impacts of heatwaves over some of the [...] Read more.
Extreme heat events or heatwaves can be particularly harmful to grapevines, posing a major challenge to winegrowers in Europe. The present study is focused on the application of the crop model STICS to assess the potential impacts of heatwaves over some of the most renowned winemaking regions in Europe. For this purpose, STICS was applied to grapevines, using high-resolution weather, soil and terrain datasets from 1986 to 2015. To assess the impact of heatwaves, the weather dataset was artificially modified, generating periods with anomalously high temperatures (+5 °C), at specific onset dates and with specific episode durations (from five to nine days). The model was then run with this modified weather dataset, and the results were compared to the original unmodified runs. The results show that heatwaves can have a very strong impact on grapevine yields. However, these impacts strongly depend on the onset dates and duration of the heatwaves. The highest negative impacts may result in a decrease in the yield by up to −35% in some regions. The results show that regions with a peak vulnerability on 1 August will be more negatively impacted than other regions. Furthermore, the geographical representation of yield reduction hints at a latitudinal gradient in the heatwave impact, indicating stronger reductions in the cooler regions of Central Europe than in the warmer regions of Southern Europe. Despite some uncertainties inherent to the current modelling assessment, the present study highlights the negative impacts of heatwaves on viticultural yields in Europe, which is critical information for stakeholders within the winemaking sector for planning suitable adaptation measures. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Elevated CO2 on Berry Development and Bunch Structure of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10072486 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) as one of the main factors driving climate change is known to increase grapevine growth and yield and could, therefore, have an impact on the fruit quality of vines. This study reports the effects of elevated CO2 [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) as one of the main factors driving climate change is known to increase grapevine growth and yield and could, therefore, have an impact on the fruit quality of vines. This study reports the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on berry development and bunch structure of two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon) within the VineyardFACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide enrichment) experiment, using must analysis and non-invasive fluorescence sensor technology. Berry development was examined on five dates over three consecutive years by analyzing total soluble solids (TSS), pH, total acidity, organic acids, nutrition status, and non-invasive Multiplex measurements. Before harvest, secondary bunches were collected to examine bunch and berry parameters. Results showed that eCO2 had little impact on berry composition of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon during berry development, which could be related to bunch structure or single berry weight within single seasons. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) did not result in modified TSS accumulation during ripening but was directly related to the chlorophyll index SFR_R. Higher single berry weights (SBW), higher malic acid (MA), and lower tartaric acid (TAA) were examined at some stages during development of berries under eCO2 levels. Our study provides evidence that eCO2 did alter some bunch and berry parameters without a negative impact on fruit quality. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of the Potential Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options for European Viticulture
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3092; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10093092 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 6005
Abstract
Viticulture and winemaking are important socioeconomic sectors in many European regions. Climate plays a vital role in the terroir of a given wine region, as it strongly controls canopy microclimate, vine growth, vine physiology, yield, and berry composition, which together determine wine attributes [...] Read more.
Viticulture and winemaking are important socioeconomic sectors in many European regions. Climate plays a vital role in the terroir of a given wine region, as it strongly controls canopy microclimate, vine growth, vine physiology, yield, and berry composition, which together determine wine attributes and typicity. New challenges are, however, predicted to arise from climate change, as grapevine cultivation is deeply dependent on weather and climate conditions. Changes in viticultural suitability over the last decades, for viticulture in general or the use of specific varieties, have already been reported for many wine regions. Despite spatially heterogeneous impacts, climate change is anticipated to exacerbate these recent trends on suitability for wine production. These shifts may reshape the geographical distribution of wine regions, while wine typicity may also be threatened in most cases. Changing climates will thereby urge for the implementation of timely, suitable, and cost-effective adaptation strategies, which should also be thoroughly planned and tuned to local conditions for an effective risk reduction. Although the potential of the different adaptation options is not yet fully investigated, deserving further research activities, their adoption will be of utmost relevance to maintain the socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of the highly valued viticulture and winemaking sector in Europe. Full article
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