Topical Collection "Ultrasound in Extraction Processing"

A topical collection in Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This collection belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
grade E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Université d´Avignon et des Pays du Vaucluse, 84029 Avignon, France
Interests: green extraction; alternative solvents; innovative technologies; original procedures; microwave; ultrasound; intensification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Muthupandian Ashokkumar
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
School of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: sonochemistry; ultrasonics

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a hot research topic which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. Ultrasound is a key-technology in achieving the objective of the "sustainable" and "green extraction" of natural products. Using ultrasound, full extractions can now be completed in minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the consumption of solvent, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water, and consuming only a fraction of the fossil energy normally needed for conventional extraction methods. This collection will present a complete picture of the current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and bioenergy applications.

The present Special Issue, "Ultrasound in Extraction Processing", aims to collect and publish recent advances in this interdisciplinary area in the form of reviews and research articles dealing with extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms, applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. Experts are welcome to give their opinion about how Ultrasound Extraction contributed/contributes/will contribute to the natural products area, possible trends, and perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Farid Chemat
Prof. Dr. Muthupandian Ashokkumar
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Green extraction, separation, and purification

  • Intensification

  • Mechanisms

  • Combination with green and biobased solvents

  • Combination with innovative and hybrid techniques

Published Papers (11 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017

Article
Sea Bass Side Streams Valorization Assisted by Ultrasound. LC-MS/MS-IT Determination of Mycotoxins and Evaluation of Protein Yield, Molecular Size Distribution and Antioxidant Recovery
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11052160 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Sea bass side streams obtained from the fish industry can be a good source of nutrients such as high-quality protein, lipids, and antioxidants. In this context, it is interesting to develop innovative approaches to extract the added-value compounds from fish side streams. In [...] Read more.
Sea bass side streams obtained from the fish industry can be a good source of nutrients such as high-quality protein, lipids, and antioxidants. In this context, it is interesting to develop innovative approaches to extract the added-value compounds from fish side streams. In this study, a strategy to obtain valuable compounds and to minimize the presence of toxins from fish side streams assisted by ultrasound technology is presented. For this purpose, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions have been optimized based on a response surface methodology (RSM) with the dependent variables: time (0.5–30 min), pH (5.5–8.5), and temperature (20–50 °C). After the treatment, protein extraction and antioxidant activity were evaluated in the extracts obtained from sea bass side streams using some spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods. Furthermore, mycotoxin presence was evaluated by LC-MS/MS-QTRAP. The results obtained revealed a high recovery percentage of proteins and antioxidant activity in the UAE extracts, especially those obtained from viscera, when the time and temperature increased to 30 min and 50 °C. Furthermore, none of the analyzed mycotoxins were detected in the sea bass side streams extracts under the studied variables. The experimental values obtained were close to the expected values, confirming the validity of the model employed to establish the optimal UAE conditions. Full article
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Article
Ultrasound Extraction Mediated Recovery of Nutrients and Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds from Phaeodactylum tricornutum Microalgae
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11041701 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
In recent years, a growing interest has been shown in the use of microalgae due to their interesting nutritional and bioactive profiles. Green innovative processing technologies such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) avoid the use of toxic solvents and high temperatures, being a sustainable [...] Read more.
In recent years, a growing interest has been shown in the use of microalgae due to their interesting nutritional and bioactive profiles. Green innovative processing technologies such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) avoid the use of toxic solvents and high temperatures, being a sustainable alternative in comparison with traditional extraction methods. The present study aims to evaluate the recovery of high added-value compounds from Phaedoactylum tricornutum assisted by ultrasound. To optimize the UAE of proteins, carbohydrates, pigments and antioxidant compounds, a response surface methodology was used. Carbohydrate extraction was positively affected by the temperature. However, for the extraction of carotenoids, the most influential factor was the extraction time. The total polyphenols were only significantly affected by the extraction time. Finally, the antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), was strongly modulated by the extraction time, while for the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay, the most important parameter was the temperature, followed by the extraction time. The optimal conditions for the maximum extraction of nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were 30 min, 50 ºC and a pH of 8.5. Finally, it has been seen that with these conditions, the extraction of fucoxanthin is allowed, although no differences were found between an ultrasound-assisted extraction and a shaking extraction (control). Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019, 2018, 2017

Article
Modification of Olive Leaves’ Surface by Ultrasound Cavitation. Correlation with Polyphenol Extraction Enhancement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11010232 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
We investigated the impact of ultrasound at 20 kHz on olive leaves to understand how acoustic cavitation could increase polyphenol extraction. Application of ultrasound to whole leaf from 5 to 60 min enabled us to increase extraction from 6.96 to 48.75 µg eq. [...] Read more.
We investigated the impact of ultrasound at 20 kHz on olive leaves to understand how acoustic cavitation could increase polyphenol extraction. Application of ultrasound to whole leaf from 5 to 60 min enabled us to increase extraction from 6.96 to 48.75 µg eq. oleuropein/mL of extract. These results were correlated with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, allowing for leaf surface observation and optical microscopy of treated leaf cross sections to understand histochemical modifications. Our observations suggest that the effectiveness of ultrasound applied to extraction is highly dependent on plant structure and on how this material will react when subjected to acoustic cavitation. Ultrasound seems to impact the leaves by two mechanisms: cuticle erosion, and fragmentation of olive leaf surface protrusions (hairs), which are both polyphenol-rich structures. Full article
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Article
A One-Pot Ultrasound-Assisted Almond Skin Separation/Polyphenols Extraction and its Effects on Structure, Polyphenols, Lipids, and Proteins Quality
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3628; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10103628 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Almond skin is an important by-product in the almond processing industry, rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The objective of this present study is to separate the skin from the almond and extract its polyphenol contents using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) at room temperature. [...] Read more.
Almond skin is an important by-product in the almond processing industry, rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The objective of this present study is to separate the skin from the almond and extract its polyphenol contents using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) at room temperature. Optimization was performed according to a two-variable central composite design (CCD), and the optimum combination of ultrasonic intensity and extraction temperature was obtained through multi-response optimization: ultrasonic intensity (UI), 9.47 W.cm−2; and temperature, 20 °C for an extraction time of 20 min. Under the above-mentioned conditions, total phenolic content was 258% higher with UAE than silent experiment. Mathematic modelling and microscopic investigations were achieved to enable understanding physical and structural effects of ultrasound on almond skins and comprehension of the mechanism behind the enhancement of mass transfer phenomena. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed different acoustic cavitation impacts including fragmentation, sonoporation, and erosion. Extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), identifying a combination of flavanols, flavanones and non-flavonoids. UAE shows no negative effect on almond proteins and lipids when compared to natural almonds (NS). Full article
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Article
High-Intensity Ultrasound Pulses Effect on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Skin Gelatin
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10031004 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
Ultrasonic pulses are considered green technology for the improvement of the functional properties of proteins. In this study, four high-intensity ultrasound pulse treatments (ultrasound-pulsed gelatin (UPG)-42, UPG-52, UPG-71, UPG-84, and non-pulsed control gelatin (CG)) were applied to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic pulses are considered green technology for the improvement of the functional properties of proteins. In this study, four high-intensity ultrasound pulse treatments (ultrasound-pulsed gelatin (UPG)-42, UPG-52, UPG-71, UPG-84, and non-pulsed control gelatin (CG)) were applied to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin in order to study their effect on its physicochemical and antioxidant properties; a non-treated gelatin was used as a control. UPGs showed a significant increase in soluble protein and surface hydrophobicity compared to the control gelatin, and no significant difference was found in the electrophoretic profiles. The effects on the secondary structure were studied by circular dichroism and infrared spectra, and these showed that the random coil conformation was the main component in all treatments and the ultrasonic treatments only affected the α-helix and β-sheet proportion. Finally, the ABTS ((2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric reducing ability) assays demonstrated that ultrasound treatments could improve the antioxidant activity of gelatins as free radical scavengers and electron donors. These results suggest that high-intensity ultrasound pulse technology is useful to improve fish gelatin antioxidant properties, which could be associated with secondary structure disruption. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Capacity and Antigenotoxic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10020560 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) is in high demand worldwide due to its beneficial health properties owing to the polyphenols content, mainly in the flower calyx. The objective of this study was to find the best conditions (time and liquid: solid ratio) to extract polyphenols [...] Read more.
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) is in high demand worldwide due to its beneficial health properties owing to the polyphenols content, mainly in the flower calyx. The objective of this study was to find the best conditions (time and liquid: solid ratio) to extract polyphenols from Roselle using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) (40 kHz, 180 W), with ethanol how solvent; as well as determine the yield of phenols, anthocyanin, flavonoids, tannins, antioxidant activity (DPPH) and antigenotoxic effect (comet assay). A traditional solid-liquid extraction was applied as a reference. Extraction times of 40 and 60 min resulted in the highest polyphenols (13.019 mg GAE/g dry weight (dw)), flavonoids (4.981 CE/g dw), anthocyanins (1.855 mg Cya3GE/g dw), and tannins (0.745 CE/g dw) recoveries and an antioxidant activity (DPPH) of 74.58%. Extracts from white calyces contained similar amounts of phenols and flavonoids, but very little condensed tannins (0.049 CE/g dw) and practically no anthocyanins. Extracts from red and white calyces, showed antigenotoxic activity and repaired capacity of damage caused by mutagens in human lymphocytes. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2018, 2017

Review
Cavitation Technology—The Future of Greener Extraction Method: A Review on the Extraction of Natural Products and Process Intensification Mechanism and Perspectives
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 766; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9040766 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
With growing consumer demand for natural products, greener extraction techniques are found to be potential alternatives especially for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic manufacturing industries. Cavitation-based technology has drawn immense attention as a greener extraction method, following its rapid and effective extraction of numerous [...] Read more.
With growing consumer demand for natural products, greener extraction techniques are found to be potential alternatives especially for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic manufacturing industries. Cavitation-based technology has drawn immense attention as a greener extraction method, following its rapid and effective extraction of numerous natural products compared to conventional techniques. The advantages of cavitation-based extraction (CE) are to eliminate the application of toxic solvents, reduction of extraction time and to achieve better extraction yield, as well as purity. The cavitational phenomena enhance the extraction efficiency via increased mass transfer rate between the substrate and solvent, following the cell wall rupture, due to the intense implosion of bubbles. This review includes a detailed overview of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), negative pressure cavitation (NPC) extraction, hydrodynamic cavitation extraction (HCE) and combined extractions techniques which have been implemented for the extraction of high-value-added compounds. A list of essential parameters necessary for the maximum possible extraction yield has been discussed. The optimization of parameters, such as ultrasonic power density, frequency, inlet pressure of HC, extraction temperature and the reactor configuration denote their significance for better efficiency. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks associated with extraction and future research directions have also been pointed out. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2017

Article
Enhancement of the Neuroprotective Effect of Fermented Spirulina maxima Associated with Antioxidant Activities by Ultrasonic Extraction
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2469; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app8122469 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
This study is the first demonstration of the neuroprotective activity of the marine alga, Spirulina maxima, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HY-08, which was freshly isolated from fermented vegetables. The combined process of the fermentation with ultrasonic extraction at 40 kHz for 4 [...] Read more.
This study is the first demonstration of the neuroprotective activity of the marine alga, Spirulina maxima, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HY-08, which was freshly isolated from fermented vegetables. The combined process of the fermentation with ultrasonic extraction at 40 kHz for 4 hr greatly increased the amounts of β-carotene in the extract up to 1.62 mg/g, along with a high extraction yield of 18.26%, compared to 1.03 mg/g and 12.8% from ultrasonic extraction itself, and even much higher than 0.81 mg/g and 10.6% from conventional water extraction. It was also proved that the neuroprotective activities of the extract were enhanced possibly by higher contents of β-carotene in the extract, compared to those from water extraction or ultrasonic extraction itself. This extract was found to have strong antioxidant properties, with 49.01% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, which resulted in 90.30% neuroprotective activity. Specifically, the fermented extract markedly enhanced the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/p-CREB signaling pathways, which can effectively prevent memory impairment in mice caused by oxidative stress. β-Carotene also increased the expression of p-CREB and BDNF, and a mechanism of their upregulation by β-carotene is first proposed in this study. It can be concluded that the strong neuroprotective effect of the extract was markedly influenced by the antioxidant activities, due to the synergistic effects of high amounts of β-carotene and other biologically active substances in the extract that can be obtained by lactic acid fermentation, combined with ultrasonic processing. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Harnessing of the Graviola Bioactive Components Using a Neoteric Sonication Cum Microwave Coadjuvant Extraction Protocol
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app8020232 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology [...] Read more.
Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology gains paramount importance. In case of Graviola, no sophistication in terms of extraction methods is reported. A neoteric sonication cum microwave combined extraction technology was introduced that maximized the extraction process and minimized (7 min) the extraction time. The extraction efficiency was validated based on the significant enrichment of bioactive ingredients in Graviola extracts following the sonication cum microwave combined protocol. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Enhancement of Chlorophyll a Production from Marine Spirulina maxima by an Optimized Ultrasonic Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app8010026 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction [...] Read more.
Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction and even higher than other data from Spirulina. This yield was close to the predicted value of 18.21 mg/g from the second-order polynomial model with a regression coefficient of 0.969. This model showed the greatest significance with the ultrasonic frequency and process time and the least significance with the temperature. The extracts also showed high α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities as 69.38%, compared to 58.25% for the extracts from the 70% ethanol extraction. It was first shown that the optimal extraction was effective at enhancing the neuroprotective activities possibly due to the synergistic effects of higher amounts of chlorophyll a and other bioactive substances in the extract, revealing a 90% protection of the growth of mouse neuronal cells and a great reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. Full article
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Article
Enhancement of Skin Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Eclipta prostrata L. from the Ultrasonic Extraction Process
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app7121227 - 28 Nov 2017
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
This work first showed that the skin anti-inflammatory activities of Eclipta prostrata L. (E. prostrata L.)n be increased through an ultrasonic extraction process at a frequency of 120 kHz with 70% ethanol at 40 °C for 6 h. The extract from the [...] Read more.
This work first showed that the skin anti-inflammatory activities of Eclipta prostrata L. (E. prostrata L.)n be increased through an ultrasonic extraction process at a frequency of 120 kHz with 70% ethanol at 40 °C for 6 h. The extract from the ultrasound extraction (UE) contained 378.6 mg/100 g of wedelolactone (a major bioactive substance in E. prostrata L.), compared with the 172.9 mg/100 g from a conventional extraction process with 70% ethanol at 80 °C for 12 h (EE). The UE showed less than 10% of low cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast cells, and also exhibited much higher antioxidant activities than that from the EE when treating with 0.3 mg/mL of the extracts. It was proved that the high antioxidant activities of the UE were closely correlated with the enhancement of skin anti-inflammatory activities by effectively suppressing the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 from macrophages. The production of prostaglandin E2 from human skin cells was also greatly reduced, compared with the EE for all ranges of the treatments. These results strongly indicate that the various biological activities of E. prostrata L. can be improved by a simple ultrasound extraction process because of the high elution of bioactive substances even at a low temperature. Full article
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