Special Issue "Analytical Methodologies Applied to the Study of Cultural Heritage Surface II"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2022.
Related Special Issue: Analytical Methodologies Applied to the Study of Cultural Heritage Surface

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paola Fermo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: aerosol particulate matter; atmospheric pollution; organic and elemental carbon; metals; degradation of cultural heritage; black crust formation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of cultural heritage very often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving many scientific disciplines such as chemistry, physics, earth sciences, and conservation science. In this context, scientific methods are applied to study works of art to deepen knowledge of a material’s chemical and physical properties, as well as their processes of conservation and deterioration. For this Special Issue, papers dealing with these aspects are welcome. Topics can range from the study of both organic and inorganic materials (both the study of their properties and of the state of degradation induced by the environment) to the conservation of these through the use of new materials. Papers may focus on the development of new techniques, including sample preparation or the application of non-destructive instrumentation. Papers highlighting a multidisciplinary approach are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Paola Fermo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • analytical chemistry
  • cultural heritage
  • organic materials
  • inorganic materials
  • non-destructive methods

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Investigation of Ancient Wall Painting Fragments Discovered in the Roman Baths from Alburnus Maior by Complementary Non-Destructive Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10049; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110049 - 27 Oct 2021
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Abstract
In this study, several wall painting fragments discovered in the Roman baths from the archeological site Alburnus Maior (Roşia Montană, Romania) were analyzed with the aim to investigate the material composition of both plasters and pictorial layers. Dated from the beginning of the [...] Read more.
In this study, several wall painting fragments discovered in the Roman baths from the archeological site Alburnus Maior (Roşia Montană, Romania) were analyzed with the aim to investigate the material composition of both plasters and pictorial layers. Dated from the beginning of the second century AD, these rare findings stand among the oldest examples of preserved decorative polychrome paintings on plaster excavated thus far in the former territory of the Roman province of Dacia. A non-destructive multi-analytical approach based on complementary techniques was considered: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV fluorescence, and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The obtained results highlight a common Roman color palette mainly based on naturally occurring earth pigments. Red ochre, yellow ochre, manganese-rich ochres/wads, carbon black, and calcite were identified. A traditional two-layer sequence of plasters was found—arriccio (based on lime and siliceous sands), and intonaco (pure lime). The presence of an organic protein binder, identified via FTIR analysis, and sustained by combined imaging documentation, indicates that the pigments were applied a secco. The obtained results are discussed in relation to previous published data, and they can be considered as valuable archeological indicators that contribute to the understanding of the painting techniques and the materials used in the Roman provinces. Full article
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Article
A Combined Non-Destructive and Micro-Destructive Approach to Solving the Forensic Problems in the Field of Cultural Heritage: Two Case Studies
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6951; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11156951 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
The present paper discusses the importance of non-destructive and micro-destructive technology in forensic investigations in the field of cultural heritage. Recent technological developments and the wide availability of modern analytical instrumentation are creating new possibilities for performing scientific measurements and acquiring data directly [...] Read more.
The present paper discusses the importance of non-destructive and micro-destructive technology in forensic investigations in the field of cultural heritage. Recent technological developments and the wide availability of modern analytical instrumentation are creating new possibilities for performing scientific measurements and acquiring data directly on-site—thereby limiting, where possible, sampling activity—as well as learning about the technologies and materials that were employed in the past to create cultural assets. Information on periods, chemical composition, manufacturing techniques, etc., can be gathered more easily. Overall, the benefits of on-site forensic investigations are multiple, including the potential to increase substantially the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when data quality is guaranteed and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. The present paper shows data from the non-destructive and micro-destructive analysis of different artworks and objects provided by the Cosenza Carabinieri Unit for the Protection of Cultural Heritage and Anti-Counterfeiting (Calabria, Italy). In particular, two oil paintings on canvas depicting cherubs (Italian: putti), recovered as fragments of larger religious artworks, and two bronze belt and helmet fragments were investigated. In the first case, the research aimed to define the original pictorial layer, identify any reconstruction pictorial areas or pictorial retouching, assess the state of conservation, reconstruct the previous conservation treatments, and provide indications about the chronology of the artworks. In the second case, analysis was performed both to define the bronze chemical composition and the origin of the soil (earth) found within the objects during their recovery. For these purposes, the analytical approach involved the use of non-destructive and micro-destructive analysis as follows: infrared reflectography (IRR), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), digital optical microscopy (DOM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDX microanalysis (SEM-EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results made it possible to collect valuable diagnostic information and answer questions posed by the institutions for the resolution of various doubts about forensic science and cases concerning the seizure, recovery, or return of archaeological or historical-artistic objects of cultural interest. Full article
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