Special Issue "Applied Sciences to the Study of Technical Historical Heritage and/or Industrial Heritage"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. José Ignacio Rojas Sola
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Graphics, Design and Projects, University of Jaen, Campus de las Lagunillas, s/n, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: engineering graphics; industrial heritage; industrial archaeology; history of technology and industrial revolution; historical inventions; mechanical engineering; computer-aided design; computer-aided engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of cultural heritage, in particular of the technical historical heritage and/or industrial heritage, is becoming increasingly important. In general, cultural heritage follows a value chain consisting of seven clearly differentiated milestones: identification, registration and research; protection; training; conservation and restoration; value and dissemination; heritage management; and the application of new technologies. However, this Special Issue focuses only on the valorization and diffusion, as well as the use of new technologies, concentrating on research from three main aspects: location, documentation and dissemination.

The scope for case studies is very broad and can cover different disciplines of engineering, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, automation and robotic engineering or telecommunications engineering, among others, as well as industrial architecture. In particular, we especially welcome research on historical inventions related to these fields of engineering and architecture, as well as studies of the work (historical inventions) of world-renowned engineers and architects.

This Special Issue invites researchers to submit original research papers and review articles related to any discipline in which the theoretical or practical issues of technical historical heritage and/or industrial heritage are considered. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  •     historical technical heritage
  •     industrial heritage
  •     industrial archaeology
  •     industrial architecture
  •     ancient artifacts (historical inventions
  •     computer-aided design
  •     computer-aided engineering;
  •     geometric modeling
  •     computer animation
  •     virtual reality
  •     augmented reality
  •     engineering graphics
  •     multimedia
  •     and 3D printing

Contributions in other domains are welcome, although we ask that you please contact the Guest Editor.

Prof. Dr. José Ignacio Rojas Sola
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Technical Historical Heritage
  • Industrial Heritage
  • Industrial Archaeology
  • Industrial Architecture
  • Ancient Artifacts
  • Historical Inventions
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer-Aided Engineering
  • Geometric Modeling
  • Computer Animation
  • Virtual Reality
  • Augmented Reality
  • Engineering Graphics
  • Multimedia
  • 3D printing

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Applied Sciences to the Study of Technical Historical Heritage and/or Industrial Heritage
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3648; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10103648 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Technical historical heritage and/or industrial heritage are manifestations of heritage that acquire greater relevance every day, since their study and analysis provide a global vision of their impact on the development of the societies and, also, because they favor the understanding of the [...] Read more.
Technical historical heritage and/or industrial heritage are manifestations of heritage that acquire greater relevance every day, since their study and analysis provide a global vision of their impact on the development of the societies and, also, because they favor the understanding of the technological evolution of these societies. The fields of action are very broad, both from the point of view of engineering and its different disciplines as well as from architecture. This Special Issue shows the reader some of the tools currently available to value this heritage and promote its dissemination, such as geometric modeling, computer-aided design, computer-aided engineering, and the study of industrial heritage from a global perspective. Full article

Research

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Article
Object Investigation of Industrial Heritage: The Forging and Metallurgy Shop in Taipei Railway Workshop
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10072408 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
As a special plant for train maintenance in northern Taiwan, the Taipei Railway Workshop was founded in 1885 and moved in 2011, reflecting the changes in Taiwan’s history, transportation, and industrial technology. Now, it is planned to change the maintenance plant into a [...] Read more.
As a special plant for train maintenance in northern Taiwan, the Taipei Railway Workshop was founded in 1885 and moved in 2011, reflecting the changes in Taiwan’s history, transportation, and industrial technology. Now, it is planned to change the maintenance plant into a railway museum in the form of an in situ site. This study briefly introduces the historical background and present situation of the Taipei Railway Workshop and takes its forging workshop as the object for investigation and exhibition planning. According to the preservation and maintenance methods of the cultural heritage of the museum, the investigation process proposed includes four steps: Site exploration, object registration, object research, and exhibition planning. The work area in the plant is divided into shaping and forging areas, as based on the categories of the machines on the site of the forging workshop. In this study, a total of 85 industrial relics in the forging workshop are registered for systematic research. The working conditions, including machine parts for train maintenance, manufacturing processes of parts, and the relationship between in-line on-site machines and tools, of the forging workshop before closing are restored, as based on the principles of machine manufacturing, literature, and retired workers’ oral histories. Finally, an in situ exhibition plan of the forging workshop is put forward based on the results of the object research. Full article
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Article
Agustín de Betancourt’s Optical Telegraph: Geometric Modeling and Virtual Reconstruction
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051857 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
This article shows the geometric modeling and virtual reconstruction of the optical telegraph by Agustín de Betancourt and Abraham Louis Breguet developed at the end of the 18th century. Autodesk Inventor Professional software has been used to obtain the three-dimensional (3D) model of [...] Read more.
This article shows the geometric modeling and virtual reconstruction of the optical telegraph by Agustín de Betancourt and Abraham Louis Breguet developed at the end of the 18th century. Autodesk Inventor Professional software has been used to obtain the three-dimensional (3D) model of this historical invention and its geometric documentation. The material for the research is available on the website of the Betancourt Project of the Canary Orotava Foundation for the History of Science. Thanks to the three-dimensional modeling performed, it has been possible to explain in detail both its operation and the assembly system of this invention in a coherent way. After carrying out its 3D modeling and functional analysis, it was discovered that the transmissions in the telegraph were not performed by hemp ropes but rather by metal chains with flat links, considerably reducing possible error. Similarly, it has also been found that the use of the gimbal joint facilitated the adaptability of the invention to geographical areas where there was a physical impediment to the alignment of telegraph stations. In addition, it was not now necessary for the telescope frames to be located parallel to the mast frame (frame of the indicator arrow) and therefore they could work in different planes. Full article
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Article
Computer-Aided Design and Kinematic Simulation of Huygens’s Pendulum Clock
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10020538 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
This article presents both the three-dimensional modelling of the isochronous pendulum clock and the simulation of its movement, as designed by the Dutch physicist, mathematician, and astronomer Christiaan Huygens, and published in 1673. This invention was chosen for this research not only due [...] Read more.
This article presents both the three-dimensional modelling of the isochronous pendulum clock and the simulation of its movement, as designed by the Dutch physicist, mathematician, and astronomer Christiaan Huygens, and published in 1673. This invention was chosen for this research not only due to the major technological advance that it represented as the first reliable meter of time, but also for its historical interest, since this timepiece embodied the theory of pendular movement enunciated by Huygens, which remains in force today. This 3D modelling is based on the information provided in the only plan of assembly found as an illustration in the book Horologium Oscillatorium, whereby each of its pieces has been sized and modelled, its final assembly has been carried out, and its operation has been correctly verified by means of CATIA V5 software. Likewise, the kinematic simulation of the pendulum has been carried out, following the approximation of the string by a simple chain of seven links as a composite pendulum. The results have demonstrated the exactitude of the clock. Full article
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Article
The Contribution of the Segovia Mint Factory to the History of Manufacturing as an Example of Mass Production in the 16th Century
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9245349 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
A new means of minting currency was first used at the Hall Mint in Tyrol in 1567. This new minting process employed a roller instead of a hammer and used hydropower to fuel the laminating and coining mills, as well as ancillary equipment, [...] Read more.
A new means of minting currency was first used at the Hall Mint in Tyrol in 1567. This new minting process employed a roller instead of a hammer and used hydropower to fuel the laminating and coining mills, as well as ancillary equipment, such as the forge or the lathe. In 1577, Philip II of Spain expressed his interest in the new technology and, after a successful technology transfer negotiation with the County of Tyrol, Juan de Herrera was commissioned to design a factory to accommodate this new minting process. The resulting design seamlessly integrated this new technology. The architectural layout of the factory was derived from the integration of different trades related to the manufacturing workflow, and their effective distribution within a more effective workplace allowed for better use of the hydraulic resources available, and, thus, improvements in the productivity and reliability of the manufacturing process, as well as in the quality of the finished product. Juan de Herrera’s design led to the creation of a ground-breaking manufacturing process, unparalleled in the mint industry in Europe at the time. Segovia Royal Mint Factory (SRMF), as one of the first examples of mass production in the proto-industrial stage, represents a historic landmark in its own right. The objective of this article is to analyse the design of the SRMF to highlight its main innovations. For this purpose, the abundant literature on this project will be reviewed. Full article
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Article
Application of Digital Techniques in Industrial Heritage Areas and Building Efficient Management Models: Some Case Studies in Spain
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9204420 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
This research represents a novel contribution regarding the application of digital technology to the management and cultural promotion of industrial heritage. The study answers questions about the level of digital transformation of certain preselected buildings and areas of great historical and technical interest. [...] Read more.
This research represents a novel contribution regarding the application of digital technology to the management and cultural promotion of industrial heritage. The study answers questions about the level of digital transformation of certain preselected buildings and areas of great historical and technical interest. It includes an extensive bibliographic review and analyzes different variables linked to webpages, which are the main source of information for visitors, and studies the level of digitization using a survey of the technical managers. The results are valuable because they offer an original profile of selected industrial heritage sites, characterized by an important connection between visitors, visited spaces, and available resources; the interaction of these three elements with the surrounding territory, fostering a new competitive capacity; the projection of each place in a modern and attractive way; and the commitment to an efficient and sustainable local management model. The results provide a fresh look at the technological changes embodied by new uses in old industrialization sites. In addition, the performed analysis could easily be applied and operationally compared in other different heritage environments. Full article
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Article
Academic Proposal for Heritage Intervention in a BIM Environment for a 19th Century Flour Factory
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9194134 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
The implementation of building information modeling (BIM) has become a reality worldwide, not only because of the advantages it offers, but also because of the obligatory nature of its use in construction and civil engineering projects in various countries around the world. An [...] Read more.
The implementation of building information modeling (BIM) has become a reality worldwide, not only because of the advantages it offers, but also because of the obligatory nature of its use in construction and civil engineering projects in various countries around the world. An intervention project on an industrial heritage property requires a methodology that considers the condition of the building over time and its value for new use. The advantages of working with a precise 3D model that integrates engineering data in a collaborative work environment makes BIM and heritage BIM (HBIM) very useful tools in a project whose objective is the recovery of an industrial heritage real estate property. This work is part of the academic implementation of BIM in university technical education centers and aims to establish a methodology for shared and collaborative group work in a BIM environment through a Spanish industrial heritage case study of a flour factory dating to 1865. A rigorous historical study and the elaboration of a central BIM model loaded with real content on the industrial complex have allowed the immersion of the students into the BIM methodology, as well as the generation of a value proposition for the exploitation of the factory. Full article
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Article
Three-Dimensional (3D) Modeling of Cultural Heritage Site Using UAV Imagery: A Case Study of the Pagodas in Wat Maha That, Thailand
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3640; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9183640 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
As a novel innovative technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in archaeological studies owing to their cost-effective, simple photogrammetric tool that can produce high-resolution scaled models. This study focuses on the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pagoda at Wat Maha [...] Read more.
As a novel innovative technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in archaeological studies owing to their cost-effective, simple photogrammetric tool that can produce high-resolution scaled models. This study focuses on the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pagoda at Wat Maha That, an archaeological site in the Ayutthaya province of Thailand, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site of notable cultural and historical significance in 1991. This paper presents the application of UAV imagery to generate an accurate 3D model using two pagodas at Wat Maha That as case studies: Chedi and Prang. The methodology described in the paper provides an effective, economical manner of semi-automatic mapping and contributes to the high-quality modeling of cultural heritage sites. The unmanned aerial vehicle structure-from-motion (UAV-SfM) method was used to generate a 3D Wat Mahathat pagoda model. Its accuracy was compared with a model obtained using terrestrial laser scanning and check points. The findings indicated that the 3D UAV-SfM pagoda model was sufficiently accurate to support pagoda conservation management in Thailand. Full article
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Article
The Hay Inclined Plane in Coalbrookdale (Shropshire, England): Analysis through Computer-Aided Engineering
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9163385 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
This article analyzes the ‘Hay inclined plane’ designed by the English engineer and entrepreneur William Reynolds and put into operation in 1792 to facilitate the transport of vessels between channels at different levels using an inclined plane. To this end, a [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the ‘Hay inclined plane’ designed by the English engineer and entrepreneur William Reynolds and put into operation in 1792 to facilitate the transport of vessels between channels at different levels using an inclined plane. To this end, a study of computer-aided engineering (CAE) was carried out using the parametric software Autodesk Inventor Professional, consisting of a static analysis using the finite-element method (FEM) of the 3D model of the invention under real operating conditions. The results obtained after subjecting the mechanism to the two most unfavorable situations (blockage situation of the inertia flywheel and emergency braking situation) indicate that, with the exception of the braking bar, the rest of the assembly is perfectly designed and dimensioned. In particular, for the blockage situation, the point with the greatest stress is at the junction between the inertia flywheel and the axle to which it is attached, the maximum value of von Mises stress being at that point (186.9 MPa) lower than the elastic limit of the cast iron. Also, at this point the deformation is very low (0.13% of its length), as well as the maximum displacement that takes place in the inertia flywheel itself (22.98 mm), and the lowest safety factor has a value of 3.51 (located on the wooden shaft support), which indicates that the mechanism is clearly oversized. On the other hand, the emergency braking situation, which is technically impossible with a manual operation, indicates that the braking bar supports a maximum von Mises stress of 1025 MPa, above the elastic limit of the material, so it would break. However, other than that element, the rest of the elements have lower stresses, with a maximum value of 390.7 MPa, and with safety factors higher than 1.7, which indicates that the mechanism was well dimensioned. Full article
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Article
Computer Aided Design to Produce High-Detail Models through Low Cost Digital Fabrication for the Conservation of Aerospace Heritage
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9112338 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Aerospace heritage requires tools that allow its transfer and conservation beyond photographs and texts. The complexity of these engineering projects can be collected through digital graphic representation. Nevertheless, physical scale models provide additional information of high value when they involve full detailed information, [...] Read more.
Aerospace heritage requires tools that allow its transfer and conservation beyond photographs and texts. The complexity of these engineering projects can be collected through digital graphic representation. Nevertheless, physical scale models provide additional information of high value when they involve full detailed information, for which the model in engineering was normally one more product of the manufacturing process, which entails a high cost. However, the standardization of digital fabrication allows the manufacture of high-detail models at low cost. For this reason, in this paper a case study of the graphic reengineering and planning stages for digital fabrication of a full-scale high-detail model (HDM) of the spatial instrument of the European Space Agency, named the Solar Orbiter mission Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI), is presented. After the analysis of this experience, seven stages of planning and graphic reengineering are proposed through collaborative work for the low cost digital manufacture of HDMs. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Criteria Cataloging of the Immovable Items of Industrial Heritage of Andalusia
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app9020275 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Any research in any field needs an initial background, and in the same way, any decision should be supported by previous knowledge and study of the problem and its context. In the case of the industrial heritage, both the study of the typology [...] Read more.
Any research in any field needs an initial background, and in the same way, any decision should be supported by previous knowledge and study of the problem and its context. In the case of the industrial heritage, both the study of the typology and the decision making about the actions of conservation and reutilization of its assets must be based on a deep knowledge of the set of elements that the typology includes. All of that refers to the corresponding territory being analyzed, since the intensity and productive tradition will be different between each territory, region, or country. In that context, this paper represents the continuation of the main research line of the authors, and exposes their efforts to develop a useful tool for the study, management, and cultural promotion of the assets related to industrial heritage in Spain through the development of a multi-criteria catalogue of assets. Thus, based on the initial catalogue developed by some of the authors, this paper significantly increases the number of assets considered. In addition, it includes new classification criteria, reviews the observed trends, and establishes the future lines of work and suitable strategies for these kinds of initiatives. Full article
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Article
Agustín de Betancourt’s Double-Acting Steam Engine: Analysis through Computer-Aided Engineering
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app8112309 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
This article analyses the double-acting steam engine designed by Agustín de Betancourt in 1789 and based on the steam engine of James Watt. Its novelty and scientific interest lies in the fact that from the point of view of industrial archaeology and the [...] Read more.
This article analyses the double-acting steam engine designed by Agustín de Betancourt in 1789 and based on the steam engine of James Watt. Its novelty and scientific interest lies in the fact that from the point of view of industrial archaeology and the study of technical historical heritage there is no worldwide study on this invention, which marked a historic milestone in the design of the steam engines of the Industrial Revolution (1760–1840). This underscores the utility and originality of this research. To this end, a study of computer-aided engineering (CAE) was carried out using the parametric software Autodesk Inventor Professional, consisting of a static analysis using the finite-element method of the 3D CAD model of the invention under real operating conditions. The results have shown that the double-acting steam engine was correctly designed considering that the values of the maximum von Mises stress (188.4 MPa) obtained were taken away from the elastic limit of the material it was made of (cast iron), as well as to the maximum deformations (0.14% with respect to its length) obtained in the same element that presents the maximum stress (opening axle of the high pressure steam valve). Similarly, the maximum displacements (18.74 mm) are located in the mobile counterweights that transmit certain inertia to facilitate the opening and closing of the valves. Finally, if we look at the results of the safety coefficient, whose lowest value was 4.02, we could say that the invention was oversized, following constructive criteria of the time, as there were no resistance tests on materials that would help in the optimization of the design of the invention. Full article
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